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GbUCATIOR 


A  Monthly  Magazine 


DKVOTBD    TO 


THE  SCIENCE,  ART,  PHILOSOPHY,  AND 
LITERATURE  OF  EDUCATION, 

WILLIAM  A.  MOWRr 

EDITOR 


VOLUME  IX. 

September,  1888 — June,  1889 


BOSTON 
EASTERN  EDUCATIONAL  BUREAU 

50    BROMFIELD     STREET 
1889 


UBRMRY  OF  THB 

lElAUD  SI  Hi,  imERBnt, 

^^y  17  woe 


CONTENTS. 


Volume  IX.  — 1888 -'89. 


PAOK 


About  English.     Mary  A.  Ripley 537 

Adams  as  a  Schoolmaster,  John.     Elizabeth  Porter  Gould       .  503 
Advantages  of  State  Examinations,  The.     Supt.  W.  P.  Beck- 

with          ..........  693 

Agassiz,  The  Student  Life  of.     F.  Treudley     ....  595 

Algebra  Inductively,  A  Consistent  plan  for  the  Teaching  of. 

George  William  Evans 384 

Algebra  Teaching,   Historical  Basis  for  Certain  Methods  in. 

George  William  Evans 334 

Algebra  to  Beginners,  Teaching.     John  F.  Casey    .         .  172,  247 

Amherst  College,  Preparation  for  Citizenship  at.     Anson  D. 

Morse,  A.  M. 236 

Among  the  Books          67,  141,  207,  284,  360,  428,  49S,  562,  635,  709 
*' Ancipiti."     Prof.  W.  S.  Scarborough,  LL.  D.     .                  .  263 
Arbutus,  On  the  Accent  and  Meaning  of.     Prof.  W.  S.  Scar- 
borough, LL.  D. 396 

Arithmetic,  Economy  of  Memory  in  the  Study  of     Simon  N. 

Patten,  Ph.  D '     .         .         •      6,  79 

Art,  On  the  Teaching  of  the  History  of.     Prof.    Hiram  M. 

Stanley     ..........  407 

Author  and  Library  Work  in  Schools.     Supt.  L.  R.  Halsey     .  390 
Barrell,  James  S.,  A.  M.     Helps  and  Hindrances  in  Teaching 

Morals  in  the  Public  Schools     ......  530 

Bates,  Joshua,  and  his  Times.     Granville  B.  Putnam       .         .  22 
Beckwith,  Supt.  W.  P.     The  Advantages  of  State  Examina- 
tions         ..........  693 

Bibliography  of  Current  Periodical  Literature  upon  Education. 

64,   137,  204,  280,  356,  425,  495,  559,  632,  706 

Biography,  The  Study  of  History  Through.     William  Wallace  346 

Bradbury,  W.  F.-    Homogeneous  Equations    ....  554 

Bradford,  William.     Rev.  F.  H.  Kasson,  A.  M.     .         .         .  644 

Bradley,  John  E.,  Ph.  D.     The  Teacher's  Preparation     .         .  253 

Brown,  George  P.     Educational  Value  of  Manual  Training     .  664 
Bush,  George  Gary,   Ph.  D.      The    Educational  Outlook  in 

Florida 312 


iv  COXTEXTS, 

PAGE. 

Capen,   Samuel  B.     The  Teaching  of  Morals  in  the   Public 

Schools, — What  and  How?     .         .         .         .         .         •         524 
Casey,  John  F.     Teaching  Algebra  to  Beginners  .  172,  247 

Child-Life  on  a  New  England  Farm.  Helen  M.  Winslow  .  466 
Child  Speech,  and  the  Law  of  Mispronunciation.     Edmund 

Noble        . 44,  117,  18S 

Citizenship,  Preparation  for  :  — 

—  At  Amherst  College.     Anson  D.  Morse,  A.  M.  .         .         236 

—  At  Smith  College.     Prof.  J.  B.  Clark  ....         403 

—  At  Williams  College.  Arthur  Latham  Perry  .  .  513 
Civil  Rights  Guaranteed  by  the  State  Constitutions.     Francis 

Newton  Thorpe,  Ph.  D 601,687 

Clark,  C.  Goodwin 550 

Clark,  Prof.  J.  B.     Preparation  for  Citizenship  at  Amherst 

College 403 

Classical  Languages,  The  Teaching  of  the  .  i,  89,  182,  263,  396 
College  Course,  The  Study  of  English  in  the.     Horace  Howard 

Furness,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  L.  H.  D.  .         .        .         .         441 

College  Expenses.     Hon.  William  C.  Todd     .         .         .         .  14 

College  Growth  in  Ohio.  John  Eaton,  LL.  D.  .  .  .  433 
College  of  William  and  Mary,  The.     A  Recent  Grafting  on  an 

Old  Shoot.     Prof.  Hugh  S.  Bird,  A.  M 5S6 

Commissioner  of  Education,  Report  of  the,  for  1886- '87  130,  485 

Consistent  Plan  for  the  Teaching  of  Algebra  Inductively,  A. 

George  William  Evans      .......         384 

Cook,  Prof.  Webster.     Evolution  and  Education      .         .  367,  456 

Crehore,  C.  F.,  M.  D.     School  Records  of  Physical  Conditions        399 

—  Some  Practical  Suggestions  Regarding  Schoolhouses  . 
Davenport,  Eugene.     The  Origin  of  English  . 
Deaf,  The  Horace  Mann  School  for  the.     Elsa  L.  Hobart 
Discipline.     Poem.     Julia  H.  May  .... 
Discipline  the  Price  of  Freedom.     Charles  E.  Lowrey,  Ph.  D 
Does  it  Pay?     Poem.     Elizabeth  Porter  Gould 
Dunton,  Larkin,  LL.  D.     Methods  of  Teaching  Morals  . 
Eaton,  John,  LL.  D.     College  Growth  in  Ohio 
Economy  of  Memory  in  the  Study  of  Arithmetic.     Simon  N 

Patten,  Ph.  D 

Editorial  .         .      53,  123,  195,  269,  340,  411,  475,  541, 

Educated,  How  they  were.     Frank  H.  Kasson,  A.  M. 
Education,  Evolution  and.     Prof.  Webster  Cook 
Education,  Excessive  Helps  in.     William  T.  Harris,  LL.D. 
Educational  Outlook  in  Florida,  The.     Geo.  Gary  Bush,  Ph.  D 


6S3 
608 
322 
410 
103 
194 
521 

433 

61  79 
616,  695 

86 

3671  456 
215 

312 


COXTEXTS.  y 

PAOK. 

Educational  Value  of  Manual  Training.  George  P.  Brown  .  664. 
Emerson,  O.  F.     Onward,  Christian  Soldiers.     Poem     .         .         187 

English,  About.     Mary  A.  Ripley  .....         537 

English  Language  and  Literature,  The  Teaching  of  the    .  73,  178, 

229'  326,  390,  441,  537,  608 
English  Literature,  Methods  of  Study  in.     H.  E.  Shepherd, 

LL.  D 73,  178 

English   Literature,   The   Study  of.      Mrs.  Laura  Sanderson 

Hines,  A.  M.    .         . 229 

English,  The  Origin  of.  Eugene  Davenport  .  .  .  .  608 
Equations,  Homogeneous.  W.  F.  Bradbury  ....  554 
Equations,  Homogeneous.  G.  W.  Evans  ....  701 
Essay  on  English  in  Secondary  Schools,  Fifty  Dollar  Prize  for 

the  Best    ......*...         421 

Evans,  George  William.      The  Historical  Basis  for  Certain 

Methods  in  Algebra  Teaching  ......         334 

—  A  Consistent  Plan  for  the  Teaching  of  Algebra  Inductively,         384 

—  Homogeneous  Equations     .......         7^^ 

Evolution  and  Education.     Prof.  Webster  Cook  .         367,  456 

Examinations,  The  Advantages  of  State.     Supt.  W.  P.  Beck- 

with  ..........         693. 

Excessive  Helps  in  Education.  W.  T.  Harris,  LL.  D.  .  .  215 
Examinations,  Written, — Their  Abuse  and  their  Use.     Agnes 

M.  Lathe 45^ 

Fairchild,  James  H.,  D.  D.     How  the  Fathers  Builded  in  Ohio         152 
Ferguson,  W.  B.     The  Recitation  .         .         .         .         .         .         220 

Fernald,  Frederik  A.      School  Rank  as  Evidence  of  Mental 

Capacity  ..........         622 

Fifty  Dollar  Prize  for  the  Best  Essay  on  English  in  Secondary 

Schools    ..........         421 

First  Year  in  Latin,  The.     Adeline  A.  Knight         .         .         .  89,  182 
Flavel,  Thomas.     Notes  from  New  Zealand    ....  57,  63a 

Florida,  The  Educational  Outlook  in.     Geo.  Gary  Bush,  Ph.  D.         312 
yfJ^oreign  Notes  .         .         .      61,201,276,352,422,491,555,627 

Freedom,  Discipline  the  Price  of.  Charles  E.  Lowrey,  Ph.  D.  103 
Furness,  Horace  Howard,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  L.  H.  D.     The 

Study  of  English  in  the  College  Course     .         .         .         .         441 
•Gardner,  Ida  M.     Outline  Notes  on  the  Renaissance  and  the 

Reformation 35 »  '^9 

Glacier  Stream,  The.     Poem,     Emma  Shaw  .         .         .         122 

Gould,  Elizabeth  Porter.     Does  it  Pay  .»*     Poem       .  .         194 

—  John  Adams  as  a  Schoolmaster    ......         503. 


vl 


COXTEXTS. 


PAGE. 


—  The  Massachusetts  Society  for  Promoting  Good  Citizenship 
Greenwood,  J.  M.     Normal  Institutes     .... 
Halsey,  Supt.  L.  R.     Author  and  Library  Work  in  Schools 
Harris,  W.  T.,  LL.  D.    Philosophy  in  Colleges  and  Universities 

—  Excessive  Helps  in  Education      ..... 

—  The  Psychology  of  Manual  Training    .         .         .         .  571 
Helps  and  Hindrances  in  Teaching  Morals  in  the  Public  Schools. 

James  S.  Barrell,  A.  M.  . 
Hines,  Mrs.  Laura  Sanderson,  A.  M.     The  Study  of  English 

Literature  ........ 

Hints  upon  the  Science  and  Art  of  Teaching,  Some.     John  M. 

Richardson        ........ 

Historical  Basis  for  Certain  Methods  in  Algebra  Teaching,  The. 

George  William  Evans     ....  .         . 

History  of  Art,  On  the   Teaching  of  the.     Prof.  Hiram  M. 

Stanlev      ......... 

History,  The  Teacher's  Independent  Study  of.     W.  A.  Mowry 

Hobart,  Elsa  L.     The  Horace  Mann  School  for  the  Deaf 

Holland,  Primary  and  Secondary  Schools  of.     L.  A.  Stager 

Homogeneous  Equations.     W.  F.  Bradbury    . 

Homogeneous  Equations.     Geo.  W.  Evans 

Horace  Mann  School  for  the  Deaf,  The.     Elsa  L.  Hobart 

How  the  Fathers  Builded  in  Ohio.     James  H.  Fairchild,D.  D. 

How  thev  were  Educated.     Frank  H.  Kasson,  A.  M.     . 

Humphreys,  E.  R.,  LL.  D.     The  Teaching  of  Latin 

In  Memoriam.     Mrs.  J.  M.  Lord     ..... 

Independent  Study  of  History,  The  Teacher's.     W.  A.  Mowry, 
Influence  of  Manual  Training  uix)n  the  Pupils,  The 
Institutes,  Normal.     J.  M.  Greenwood    .... 

John  Adams  as  a  Schoolmaster.     Elizabeth  Porter  Gould 
Johnson,  G.  T.     Not  Always  Thus.     Poem    . 
Johonnot,  James      ........ 

Joshua  Bates  and  his  Times.     Granville  B.  Putnam 
Kasson,  Rev.  Frank  H.,  A.  M.     How  they  were  Educated 

—  William  Bradford         ....... 

Knight,  Adeline  A.     The  First  Year  in  Latin         .         .  89, 

Lathe,  Agnes  M.     Written  Examinations — their  Abuse  and 

their  Use  ........ 


Latin,  The  First  Year  in.     Adeline  A.  Knight 
Latin,  The  Teaching  of.     E.  R.  Humphreys,  LL.  D.     . 
Lectures  for  Young  People,  Old  South    .... 
*' Libraries  as  Related  to  the  Educational  Work  of  the  State" 


S9, 


552 

305 

390 

97 

215 
656 

530 
229 

375 

334 

407 
134 

160 

554 
701 

322 

152 

86 


700 


134 
698 

305 

503 

474 

34 
22 

86 

644 

182 

453 
182 

I 

273 
274 


CONTEXTS.  vll 

PAGE* 

Library  Work  in  Schools,  Author  and.  Supt.  L.  R.  Halsey  .  390 
Locy,  William  A.  On  Teaching  Zoology  to  College  Classes  .  673 
Longfellow,  and  What   he   Taught  Us,  A  Year  with.     May 

Mackintosh        .........         326 

Lowrey,  Charles  E.,  Ph.  D.  Discipline  the  Price  of  Freedom  103 
Macdonald,  R.  Cyrene.       The  Relative   Mental   Capacity  of 

the  Sexes  .........         446 

Mackintosh,  May.     A  Year  with  Longfellow  and  What  he 

Taught  Us         ........         .         326 

Magazines  Received  .  .  72,  2*14,  294,  366,  432,  501,  569,  641 
Manual  Training,  Educational  Value  of.  George  P.  Brown  .  664 
Manual  Training,  The  Psychology  of.  W.  T.  Harris,  LL.  D.  571,  656 
Manual  Training  upon  the  Pupils,  The  Influence  of  .  .  698 
Marble,  A  P.  N.  E.  Association  1889,  Nashville,  Tenn.  349,  489,  625 
Massachusetts  Society  for  Promoting  Good  Citizenship,  The. 

Elizabeth  Porter  Gould     . 552 

Mathematics,  The  Teaching  of  .  .6,  79,  172,  247,  334,  384 
May,  Julia  H.     The  Silent  Prayer.     Poem     ....  43 

—  Discipline.     Poem       ........         410 

Mental  Capacity,  School  Rank  as  Evidence  of.     Frederik  A. 

Fernald     ..........         622 

Meritorious  Discoveries  and  Inventions,  Rewards  for  .  .  419 
Methods  of  Study  in  English  Literature.     H.   E.   Shepherd, 

LL.  D. 735  178 

Methods  of  Teaching  Morals.     Larkin  Dunton,  LL.  D.  .         .         521 

Miscellany 57,   126,349,490 

Mispronunciation,  Child  Speech  and  the  Law  of.      Edmund 

Noble 44,  117,  188 

Morals  in  the  Public  Schools  :  — 

—  Methods  of  Teaching  Morals.     Larkin  Dunton,  LL.  D.        .         521 

—  The  Teaching  of  Morals  in  the  Public  Schools,  —  What  and 

How?     Samuel  B.  Capen  .         .         .         .         .         524 

—  Helps  and  Hindrances  in  Teaching  Morals  in  the  Public 

Schools.     James  S.  Barrell,  A.  M 530 

Morgan,  General  T.  J.     Training  the  Sensibilities  .  295 
Morse,  Anson  D.,  A.  M.     Preparation  for  Citizenship  at  Am- 
herst College     .........  236 

Mowry,  W.  A.      The  Teacher's  Independent  Study  of  History  134 

—  The  Promotion  of  Patriotism 197 

Museum  at  Washington,  The  National.     A   Tolman  Smith     .  277 

Nashville  Campaign,  N.  E.  A.,  1889,  The.  A.  P.  Marble  .  625 
National  Educational  Association  1889.     A.  P.  Marble     .         349,  489 


viii  COyTENTS. 

PAGE. 

National  Museum  at  Washington,  The.     A.  Tolman  Smith  277 
New  England  Farm,  Child-Life  on  a.     Helen  M.  Winslow     .  466 
New  Zealand,  Notes  from.     Thomas  Flavel     ....  57,  630 
Noble,  Edmund.     Child  Speech,  and  the  Law  of  Mispronun- 
ciation        44,  117,  18S 

Normal  Institutes.     J.  M.  Greenwood 305 

Not  Always  Thus.     Poem.     G.  T.  Johnson    ....  474 

Notes  from  New  Zealand.     Thomas  Flavel     ....  57,  630 

Notes  on  the  Report  of  Commissioner  of  Education  for  1886  -'87,  485 

Ohio,  College  Growth  in.     John  Eaton,  LL.  D.      .         .         .  433 

Ohio,  How  the  Fathers  Builded  in.     James  H.  Fairchild,  D.  D.  152 

Old  South  Lectures  for  Young  People 273 

On  Teaching  Zoology  to  College  Classes.     William  A.  Locy.  673 
On  the  Accent  and  Meaning  of  Arbutus.     Prof.  W.  S.  Scar- 
borough, LL.  D. 396 

On  the  Teaching  of  the  History  of  Art.      Prof.    Hiram  M. 

Stanley     ..........  407 

Onward,  Christian  Soldiers.     Poem,     O.  F.  Emerson     .         .  1S7 

Origin  of  English,  The.     Eugene  Davenport  ....  60S 

Outline  Notes  on  the  Renaissance  and  the  Reformation.     Ida 

M.  Gardner 35,  109 

Pamphlets  Received         ....  294,  359,  432,  570,  642 

Patriotism,  The  Promotion  of.  William  A.  Mo  wry  .  .  197 
Patten,  Simon  N.  Ph.  D.     Economy  of  Memory  in  the  Study 

of  Arithmetic    .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .  6,  79 

Payne,  William  H.,  LL.  D.     W.  H.  M 483 

Perry,  Arthur  Latham.     Preparation  for  Citizenship  at  Will- 
iams College     ...  513 

Philosophy  in   Colleges  and    Universities.      W.    T.   Harris, 

LL.D 96 

Physical  Conditions,  School  Records  of.  C.  F.  Crehore,  M.  D.  399 
Practical  Suggestions  Regarding  Schoolhouses,  Some.     C.  F. 

Crehore,  M.  D 683 

Prayer,  The  Silent.  Poem,  Julia  H.  May  ....  43 
Preparation  for  Citizenship  :  — 

—  At  Amherst  College.     Anson  D.  Morse,  A.  M.         .         .  236 

—  At  Smith  College.  Prof.  J.  B.  Clark  ....  403 
-^  At  Williams  College.  Arthur  Latham  Perry.  .  .  .  513 
Preparation,  The  Teacher's.  John  E.  Bradley,  Ph.  D.  .  .  253 
Primary  and  Secondary  Schools  of  Holland.  L.  A.  Stager  .  160 
Promotion  of  Patriotism,  The.  W.  A.  Mo  wry  .  .  .  197 
Promotion  of  Pupils,  The.     E.  E.  White,  LL.  D.    .         .         .  415 


CONTENTS.  ix 

PAGE. 

Psychology  of  Manual  Training,  The.     W.  T.  Harris,  LL.D.  571,  656 

Pupils  Read,  What  do  the 615 

Putnam,  Granville  B.     Joshua  Bates  and  his  Times         .         .  22 

Quick,  R.  H.  Renascence  Tendencies  .  .  .  ,  .  583 
Recent  Grafting  on  an  Old  Shoot,  A.     The  College  of  William 

and  Mar>'.     Prof.  Hugh  S.  Bird,  A.  M 586 

Recitation,  The.  W.  B.  Ferguson  .  .  .  .  .  220 
Relative  Mental  Capacity  of  the  Sexes,  The.     R.  Cyrene  Mac- 

donald      ..........  4^6 

Renaissance  and  the  Reformation,  Outline  Notes  on  the.     Ida 

M.  Gardner      ........  35,  109 

Renascence  Tendencies.     R.  H.  Quick    .....  583 

Report  of  Commissioner  of  Education  for  1886 -'87.  Notes  on  485 

Report  of  the  U.  S.  Commissioner  of  Education  for  1886 -'87  130 

Rewards  for  Meritorious  Discoveries  and  Inventions         .         .  419 

Ripley,  Mary  A.     About  English  ......  537 

Scarborough,  Prof.  W.  S.,  LL.  D.     "  Ancipiti."             .         .  263 

—  On  the  Accent  and  Meaning  of  Arbutus       ....  396 

School  Records  of  Physical  Conditions.  C.  F.  Crehore,  M.D.  399 
Schoolhouses,  Some  Practical  Suggestions  Regarding.     C.  F. 

Crehore,  M.  D.         .......         .  683 

Schoolmaster,  John  Adams  as  a.  Elizabeth  Porter  Gould  .  503 
School  Rank  as  Evidence  of  Mental  Capacity.     Frederik  A. 

Femald    ..........  622 

School  Reports  Received         .......  502 

Science,  The  Teaching  of        ......         .  673 

Science  in  the  Schools     ........  547 

Sensibilities,  Training  the.  Gen.  Thomas  J.  Morgan  .  .  295 
Sexes,  The  Relative  Mental  Capacity  of  the.     R.  Cyrene  Mac- 

donald      ..........  446 

Shaw,  Emma.  The  Glacier  Stream.  Poem,  .  .  .  122 
Shepherd,  H.  E.  LL.  D.  Methods  of  Study  in  English  Litera- 
ture            73»  178 

Silent  Prayer,  The.     Poem    Julia  H.  May     ....  43 

Smith,  A.  Tolman.     The  National  Museum  at  Washington     .  277 

Smith  College,  Preparation  for  Citizenship  at.  J.  B.  Clark  .  403 
Some  Hints  upon  the  Science  and  Art  of  Teaching.     John  M. 

Richardson 375 

Some  Practical  Suggestions  Regarding  Schoolhouses.     C.  F. 

Crehore,  M.  D 683 

Stager,  L.  A.,  Primary  and  Secondary  Schools  of  Holland  .  160 
Stanley,  Prof.  Hiram  M.     On  the  Teaching  of  the  History  of 

Art 407 


X  coNTEyrs. 

PAGE. 

State  Examinations,  The  Advantages  of.     Supt.  W.  P.  Beck- 

with          ..........  693 

Student  Life  of  Agassiz,  The.     F.  Treudley     ....  595 

Study  of  English  in  the  College  Course,  The.     Horace  How- 
ard Furness,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  L.  H.  D.    .         .         .         .  441 

Study  of  English   Literature,    The.     Mrs.    Laura   Sanderson 

Hines,  A.  M.    .........  229 

Study  of  History  through  Biography,  The.     William  Wallace  346 

Teacher's  Independent  Study  of  History,  The.     W.  A.  Mowry  134 

Teacher's  Preparation,  The.     John  E.  Bradley,  Ph.  D.            .  253 
Teaching  Algebra  to  Beginners.     John  F.  Casey     .         .          172,  247 

Teaching  of  Latin,  The.     E.  R.  Humphreys,  LL.  D.     .         .  i 
Teaching  of  Mathematics,  The.         .         .         6,  79,  172,  247,  334,  384 
Teaching  of  Morals  in  the  Public  Schools,  —  What  and  How  ? 

The.     Samuel  B.  Capen  .         .         .         .         .         .         .  524 

Teaching  of  Science,  The         .         .         .         .         .         .         .  673 

Teaching  of  the  Classical  Languages,  The        .         i,  89,  182,  263,  396 

Teaching  of  the  English  Language  and  Literature,  The.     73,  178,  229, 

326,  390,441,  537,  608 
Teaching,  Some  Hints  upon  the  Science  and  Art  of.     John  M. 

Richardson        . 375 

Thorpe,  Francis  Newton,  Ph.  D.     Civil  Rights  Guaranteed  by 

the  State  Constitutions       ......         601 ,  SS*/ 

Todd,  Hon.  William  C.     College  Expenses     ....  14 

Training  the  Sensibilities.     Gen.  Thomas  J.  Morgan        .         .  295 

Treudley,  F.     The  Student  Life  of  Agassiz     ....  595 

Wallace,  William.     The  Study  of  History  through  Biography,  346 

What  do  the  Pupils  Read  ? 615 

White,  E.  E.,  LL.  D.     The  Promotion  of  Pupils     .         .         .  415 

William  H.  Payne,  LL.  D.     W.  H.  M 483 

William's   College,    Preparation  for   Citizenship   at.      Arthur 

Latham  Perry  .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .  513 

Winslow,  Helen  M.     Child-Life  on  a  New  England  Farm       .  466 
Written  Examinations — Their  Abuse  and  their  Use.     Agnes 

M.  Lathe 452 

Year  with  Longfellow,  and   What  he   Taught  us,  A.     May 

Mackintosh       .........  326 

Zoology  to  College  Classes,  On  Teaching.     William  A.  Locy  673 


QDUeTATIOR 


DEVOTED  TO  THE    SCIENCE,  ART,  PHILOSOPHY,  AND 

LITERATURE  OF  EDUCATION. 


Vol.   IX.  SEPTEMBER,    1888.  No.    i. 

THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  LANGUAGES.^ 

I. 

THE    TEACHIXG    OF    LATIN.^ 
BY  E.   R.  HUMPHREYS,  LL.  D.,   BOSTON. 

THE  excitement  which  prevailed  so  widely  in  the  educational 
world  a  few  years  ago  in  discussing  the  relative  merits  and 
claims  of  the  ''old"  theory  of  basing  the  higher  education  of 
schools  and  colleges  mainly  upon  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages, 
and  the  ''  new  "  utilitarian  proposal  of  substituting  for  these  the 
readier  and  more  "'  practical "  Ixisis  of  first, —  natural  and  applied 
science,  second, —  a  longer  and  fuller  training  in  pure,  or  theoreti- 
cal science,  and,  third, —  more  thorough  instruction  in  the  English 
Language  and  Literature,  subsided  some  time  ago,  and  has  now 
practically  ceased.  Peace  has  been  concluded  between  the  bellig- 
erents upon  what  most  thoughtfid  educators  will  admit  to  be 
rational  and  fair  terms  of  compromise,  out  of  which  will  ultimately 
Ix?  developed,  it  is  hoped,  a  sound  and  healthy  system  of  secondary 
education,  in  which  all  that  was  wise  and  good  in  the  old,  shall 
be  loyally  preserved,  the  obsolete  or  useless  eliminated,  and  the 
altered  needs  of  the  present  generation  met  and  supplied  in 
accordance  with  sound  philosophic  and  pedagogic  princix)les,  strict 

^  Copyright,  1888,  Eastern  Educational  Bureau. 

«  Thk  Teaching  op  Latin  by  M.  M.  Fisher,  Professor  of  Latin  in  the  University  of  Mis- 
soari. 


2  ED  UCA  TION.  [September, 

care  being  taken  to  distinguish  justly  and  firmly  between  real 
needs,  and  imaginary  cravings  or  fancies,  from  which  the  cause  of 
Education,  no  less  than  that  of  Freedom,  has  oft^jn  suffered  serious 
injuries. 

In  the  higher  School  and  College  system  of  England  three 
quarters  of  a  century  ago,  and  in  the  colleges  and  academies 
organized  in  this  country  on  the  same  plan  and  model,  undue 
prominence  was  certainly  given,  for  reasons,  however,  deemed  of 
great  weight  then,  to  the  t^jaching  of  Greek  and  Latin  ;  and  our 
own  language  and  literature,  except  in  elementary  training,  were 
proportionately  slighted.  During  the  last  thirty  or  forty  yeai^s  the 
efforts  of  the  modern  reformer  have  l)een  so  intently  and  zeal- 
ously directed  to  the  overthrow  of  the  old  Classical  foundation, 
that,  as  is  now  generally  felt,  injustice  in  that  direction  was  to  a 
considerable  ext^jnt  aggravated  by  the  failure  to  supply  adecjuately 
a  widely  and  intensely  felt  want  in  another.  To  go  to  the  extreme 
of  excluding  the  (Jreek  and  Latin  languages  entirely,  or  even 
largely,  from  the  foundation  of  our  scholastic  training  would,  it  is 
now  fully  acknowledged,  be  a  violation  of  the  soundest  and  wisest 
principles  of  philosophic  and  enlightened  education.  On  the 
other  hand,  while,  during  this  period  of  transition  and  discussion, 
measures  have  been  slowly  adopted  in  college  courses  to  remedy 
or  rectify  to  some  extent  the  injustice  thus  done  to  the  most  impor- 
tant part  of  Education  —  our  own  language  and  literature  —  the 
amoiuit  has  been  small  compared  with  the  difficulty  and  injury 
experienced  by  two  generations  of  students,  and  still  largely  felt 
by  a  third.  Very  much  remains  still  to  be  accomplished  before  the 
scale  of  higher  education  shall  be  justly  graduated.  This  will  only 
be  done  when  that  which  was  for  a  long  period  "  last "  shall  have 
been  advanced  to  its  right  and  lawful  place  of  "  first "  in  the  edu- 
cation of  all  the  youth  of  New  and  Old  England.  The  English 
language  is  today  second  to  none  in  world-wide  diffusion  and 
practical  utility,  and  its  literature,  the  common  property  of 
America  and  England,  taken  as  a  whole,  will  compare,  at  least, 
very  favorably  with  that  of  any  modern  nation.  This  is  a  heri- 
tage tliat  should  be  gratefully  prized  and  carefully  guarded  and 
cherished  even  on  patriotic  grounds  alone ;  while  the  highest  and 
soundest  scholars  and  teachers  are  now  generally  agreed  upon  its 
being  the  most  natural,  just,  and  solid  base  of  all  our  intellectual 
training,  even  on  purely  educational  principles.     While  here  and 


1888.]  CLASSICAL  LAXGUAQES.  3 

there  may  still  l)e  found  some  ardent  champion  of  one  or  the  other 
of  the  special,  antagonistic  schools,  striving  to  rekindle  the  embers 
of  their  former  fires,  the  great  majority  of  thoughtful,  cultivated 
people,  vividly  remembering  the  great  labor  by  which  they  liad 
individually  to  supplement  for  themselves  this  deficiency  in  their 
college  training,  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that  a  judicious, 
sound,  progressive  course  of  instruction,  graduated  on  a  steadily 
ascending  scale,  from  the  elementary  teaching  of  the  Grammar 
School,  up  to  the  very  close  of  the  college  courae,  ought  to  form  the 
strong  and  solid  Ixise  of  our  whole  educational  system.  ^Moreover 
that  both  in  the  "'  Art^  "  and  the  scientific  ''  Schools  "  of  Colleges, 
and  in  Technological  and  Professional  Schools,  the  course  of 
"  English  Language  and  Literature ''  studies  should,  within  cer- 
tain reasonable  limits,  be  "  prescribed,"  not  optional ;  and  should, 
as  has  now  for  several  years  been  the  case  in  the  English  Uni- 
vei*sities,  offer  rewards  and  Honors  at  the  final  examination,  on  a 
par  at  least  with  classics,  mathematics,  and  modern  languages,  to 
superior  proficiency. 

This  we  hold  to  be  the  safest  and  surest  means  at  once  of  effect- 
ing the  rightful  and  natural  graduation  and  connection  between 
the  schools  and  colleges  of  America,  and  of  remedying  the  diffi- 
culties and  deficiencies  from  which  school  and  college  are  now , 
constantly  and  painfully  suffering.  Impressed,  as  we  know  many 
able  presidents  and  professors  of  colleges,  and  other  educators 
of  proved  judgment  and  ability  to  be,  with  the  need  and  justice  of 
thus  developing,  raising,  and  completing  this  English  base  and  solid 
framework  of  National  Education,  we  feel  convinced  a  few  more 
years  will  see  it  accomplished.  This  once  firmly  established,  many 
of  the  experimental  steps  already  taken,  perhaps  in  some  cases 
with  unwise  haste,  will  either  be  retraced  or  modified  and  adjusted 
in  such  a  way  as  to  enforce  upon  all  college  graduates  the  acquire- 
ment of  a  certain  amount  of  advanced  and  systematically  devel- 
oped linguistic,  scientific,  and  philosophic  knowledge,  harmonized 
and  solidified  by  prescribed  courses  in  each,  and  varied  and  liberal- 
ized by  optiayial  courses. 

All  the  circumstances  and  needs  of  the  present  age  inculcate  the 
advantage  of  due  attention  to  the  natural  and  applied  sciences, 
and  these  must  have  as  their  base  a  sound,  elementary  training  in 
pure  science,  arithmetic,  algebra,  and  geometr}^  Nor  will  any 
sound  educator  dispute  the  wisdom  of  demanding  from  every  col- 


4  EDUCATIOX.  [September, 

lege  graduate  a  practical  and  available  knowledge  of  two  modern 
languages  in  addition  to  English.  Whether  this  can  l^e  always 
secured  under  the  system  pursued  at  most  American  Colleges,  can 
be  l)est  and  most  impartially  decided  by  the  tstiHifnta^  on  whose 
voluntary  diligence  in  study  so  much  reliance  Ls  generously  placed. 
But,  however  these  and  many  other  imporUint  points  may  be 
decided,  it  is  a  settled  fact  that  Latin  and  Greek  shall  still  form 
important  fundamental  parts  of  the  Higher  Education.  The 
writer  does  not  hesitate  to  express  his  hope  and  l)elief  that  even 
Harvard  Univei'sity,  after  testing  its  new  experiment  in  permit- 
ting, after  entrance,  so  extensive  an  option  of  other  subjects  in  the 
coui-ses  of  actual  college  studies  as  renders  it  possible  for  its 
undergraduates  to  terminate  the  study  of  Latin  and  Greek  at 
their  entrance  examination, —  which  in  equivalent  to  having  lost  all 
knowledge  of  them  at  the  time  of  graduation  —  will  see  cause  to 
reconsider  that  part  of  its  reformed  curriculum,  and  to  decide  that 
a  fair  amount  at  least  of  classical  scholai*ship  shall  be  possessed 
by  every  graduate  in  ^-Arts. "  That  a  strong  conviction  of  the 
value  of  the  two  chissical  languages  was  felt  even  by  the  majority 
whose  vote  carried  the  adoption  of  the  new  system  at  Harvard 
University  is  proved  by  their  only  permitting  either  Greek  or  Latin 
to  be  omitted  from  the  entmnce  electives  on  the  condition  of  sul>- 
stituting  therefor  a  very  heavy  amount  of  advanced  mathematics. 
If  the  ancient  languages  are  assigned  so  high  a  value  at  entrance, 
it  is  hard  to  see  why  they  should  so  greatly  and  suddenly  depreciate 
as  not  to  l)e  securely  retained  to  some  extent  in  the  undergraduate 
courses.  There  is  at  all  eventi*  good  reason  to  believe  that  in  the 
majority  of  American,  as  well  as  of  European  Colleges,  Latin  cand 
Greek  will  continue  to  l)e  important  parts  of  the  four  years'  cur- 
riculum. 

flverything,  therefore,  which  tends  to  facilitate  and  improve  the 
methods  of  acquiring  a  knowledge  of  the  languages  and  literature 
of  Greece  and  of  Rome,  deserves  to  he  welcomed  as  a  valuable  aid 
by  teachers  and  learners ;  and  nothing  is  l)etter  calculated  to  do 
tliis  than  a  plain,  unadorned  account  of  the  plan  pursued  with 
remarkable  success  by  an  accomplished  and  sound  scholar  in  a  long 
series  of  years  with  large  chisses  of  pu[)ils.  Such,  in  regard  to 
Latin,  is  precisely  the  nature  of  this  brochure  by  Professor  ^I.  ^L 
FLsher,  the  title  of  which  is  prefixed  U)  this  paper,  and  which 
originally  appeared  in   this  magazine.     Professor  Fisher's   w^U- 


1888.]  CLASSICAL   LANGUAGES.  6 

known  reputation  as  a  Latin  scholar  and  teacher  is  as  familiar  to 
New  England  as  to  liis  own  University.  His  work  on  the  ''  Three 
Pronunciations  of  Latin "  attracted  much  attention  at  its  tu'st 
appearance  some  ten  or  twelve  yeai-s  ago,  and  the  sale  of  the  third 
edition,  published  by  Appletons  of  New  York  and  Boston  in  1885, 
has  been  such  as  to  prove  its  undiminished  interest.  Candor 
obliges  the  writer  to  state  that,  while  not  himself  in  favor  of  the 
English  pronunciation  of  the  voiveh  in  which  he  had  been  trained, 
and  which,  so  far  from  being  a  part  of  the  "  old  "  English  pronun- 
ciation of  Latin,  dates  back  no  farther  than  the  latter  part  of  the 
sixteenth  century  —  he  was  strongly  impressed  with  the  force  of 
Professor  Fisher  s  arguments  introducing  the  so<*alled  '-  Roman  " 
system,  as  now  established  in  the  University  of  Harvard.  En- 
gaged as  he  was,  and  is,  as  a  tutor  for  that  Univei*sity  he  felt  it  to 
be  his  duty,  after  putting  forth  a  stiitement  of  hLs  reasons  for  dis- 
sent, to  submit  in  his  teacliing  to  the  authority  of  the  University. 
But  every  year  convinces  him  more  and  more  that  his  anticipation 
of  a  very  evil  effect  upon  our  Mother  Tongue  and  its  literature 
was  too  well  founded.  As  a  critical  time  has  come,  wlien  duty 
demands  a  fuller  statement  and  discussion  of  this  subject  than 
would  be  appropriate  to  this  pa[)er,  he  will  content  himself  with 
emphasizing  a  part  of  a  letter  received  by  him  in  1876,  from  tliat 
eminent  scholar  and  schoolmaster,  who  recentlv  retired  from  liis 
successful  mastership  of  Rugby,  and  is  now  the  respected  Presi- 
dent of  the  College  of  Preceptors  of  England,  Dr.  T.  Jex-Blake. 
** '  Reformed  Latin  pronunciation '  is  mere  waste  of  time,  and,  if 
done  on  a  fictitious,  professor-made  plan,  absurd.  The  only  rea- 
sonable reform  would  be  to  take  the  existing  Italian  pronunciation, 
where  you  have  a  living^  natural  guide.  Leave  pronunciation  as 
it  is,  would  be  my  advice,  and  spend  your  time  in  clearer  teaching 
of  the  idioms  and  syntax  of  the  flexible,  terse  old  language,  and  in 
a  higher  treatment  of  its  literary  wealth."  (This  letter  is  cited  in 
Fisher's  Three  Pronunciations  of  Latin,  page  126.) 

As  notice  has  just  appeared  of  a  soon-forthcoming  edition  of 
Professor  Fisher's  present  work,  "  The  Teaching  of  Latin,"  it 
becomes  unnecessary  to  enter  here  into  a  detailed  account  of  its 
purport  and  contents.  They  are  practical,  judicious,  combining 
the  natural  and  lively  method  of  conversation,  so  advantageously 
used  by  the  Latin  teachei*s  of  old  England  in  the  last  century  and 
before,  with  the  solidity  and  accuiacy  essential  to  sound  scholar- 


6  EDUCATION.  [September, 

ship.  The  writer  does  not  fear  any  charge  of  presumption  or 
egotism,  after  teaching  Latin  and  Greek  so  long  in  Boston,  when 
he  states  that  by  a  most  remarkable  coincidence,  most  of  Professor 
Fisher's  methods  have  been  mutaiis  mutandis^  —  with  varieties  of 
application,  —  similar  to  those  pursued  by  himself  for  nearly  thirty 
years. 


THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS.^ 

I. 

THE   ECONOMY  OF   MEMORY   IN   THE   STUDY   OF   ARITHMETIC. 

BY  SIMON  N.  PATTEN,   PH.D., 

Professor  in  the  University  of  Pennsylvania, 

IF  we  examine  the  method  of  teaching  primaiy  numbers  now  in 
use,  it  will  be  perceived  that  great  progress  has  been  made 
towards  making  the  perception  of  the  relations  of  numbers  easy  to 
children.  The  use  of  objects  and  the  presentation  of  the  smaller 
numbers  first  have  removed  many  of  the  old  difficulties  of  teach- 
ing arithmetic.  Little  or  no  progress,  however,  has  been  made 
towards  a  presentation  of  the  subject  so  that  the  memorj"  may  be 
relieved  of  the  enormous  burden  which  is  required  by  even  the 
best  of  the  present  methods  of  teaching.  In  fact  the  possibility 
of  such  a  relief  is  seldom  considered.  When  the  teacher  has 
acquired  a  method  of  j)resenting  the  subject  easy  for  the  child  to 
comprehend,  she  considers  that  she  has  done  all  that  is  possible  to 
relieve  the  child.  She  then  proceeds  by  drills  and  frequent  repe- 
titions to  fasten  in  the  child's  mind  the  ideas  which  have  been 
presented. 

It  is  the  result  of  teaching  in  tliis  way  that  so  many  disconnected 
facts  are  presented  as  to  burden  the  memory  and  render  the  study 
of  arithmetic  tedious  to  most  children.  Fii-st^  the  relations  of  two 
are  learned,  then  of  three,  and  so  on.  As  the  numbers  increase  in 
size  the  numl^er  of  their  relations  also  rapidlv  increase.  Bv  the 
time  the  child  has  learned  the  first  ten  numbers,  he  has  such  a 
multitude  of  relations  to  remember  that  he  becomes  confused  and 
progress  is  delayed  and  often  stopped.     A  child  liaving  blocks 

^  Copyright,  1888,  Eastern  Educational  Bureau. 


1888.]  MATHEMATICS,  7 

before  him  may  be  able  to  pick  out  all  the  parts  into  which  the 
number  ten  can  be  divided,  and  yet  when  he  is  required  to  think 
independently,  he  gets  the  many  relations  of  ten  confused  with 
one  another,  with  those  of  nine  and  of  the  other  smaller  numbers 
w^liich  have  been  crowded  into  his  mind  by  his  teacher.  A  small 
number  of  objects  can  be  more  easily  perceived  and  their  relations 
determined  than  a  larger  number.  From  tliis,  however,  we  can- 
not justly  infer  that  the  relations  of  a  small  number  can  l)e  more 
easily  recollected  than  those  of  a  larger  number.  The  mind  must 
have  the  different  things  to  be  rememl)ered  so  arranged  that  one 
thought  will  bring  up  another  similar  to  it  according  to  the  well- 
known  laws  of  association. 

We  will  not  have  to  search  far  to  find  why  the  present  methods 
of  studying  numbers  cause  such  a  multitude  of  disconnected  facts 
to  be  remembered  by  the  pupil.  It  arises  from  the  system  of  nota- 
tion now  in  use.  The  unit  of  our  system  is  ten  and  the  amount 
of  memorizing  needed  by  us  arises  from  the  use  of  so  large  a 
number  as  the  unit  of  our  system.  The  larger  the  unit  of  the 
system  in  use  the  greater  is  the  amount  of  memorizing  needed  for 
a  ready  use  of  the  system.  This  may  seem  strange  to  any  one  who 
has  not  thought  of  this  point,  but  by  a  brief  presentation  it  can  be 
made  clear.  The  addition  of  numbers  above  the  unit  of  any  sys- 
tem is  but  a  repetition  of  the  processes  used  in  combining  the 
numbers  below  the  unit  and  they  contain  nothing  new.  Suppose 
we  desire  to  add  32  to  26.  We  first  add  the  units  2  and  6,  and 
then  the  tens  3  and  2  and  get  the  result,  58.  Now  what  facts  have 
we  in  memory  to  readily  perform  this  operation  ?  Only  that  6  and 
2  are  8,  and  3  and  2  are  5.  That  is  merely  those  combinations 
w^hich  are  less  than  the  unit  of  our  system,  10.  Any  other  exam- 
ple in  addition  will  show  the  same  fact.  If  we  wish  to  add  280  to 
327,  4976  to  7280,  or  any  other  two  or  more  numbers,  it  can  be 
readily  performed  if  we  have  well  in  mind  all  the  combinations  of 
the  numbers  below  the  unit  of  our  decimal  system. 

Suppose  that  use  be  made  of  a  higher  number  than  ten,  say 
sixteen,  for  a  unit  of  a  system.  Then  all  the  combinations  of 
numbers  below  sixteen  must  be  learned  with  that  thoroughness 
with  which  we  now  learn  the  combinations  of  numbers  below  ten. 
To  know  the  sum  of  12  and  14,  or  13  and  15,  would  be  as  necessary 
to  any  one  using  tliis  system  as  it  now  is  to  know  the  sum  of  0  and 
8  or  7  and  9.     On  the  other  hand,  if  a  smaller  number  than  ten  be 


8  ED  UCA  TION.  [September, 

used  as  the  unit  of  our  svstem,  sav  six,  then  combinations  of  num- 
hem  hirger  than  six  need  not  be  learned.  Their  sum  could  Ije 
inferred.  Seven  and  nine  could  be  added  in  the  same  way  that 
we  now  add  12  and  13.  Seven  would  become  1  six  -|-  1,  nine 
would  l)e  1  six  -|-  3,  and  their  sum  would  be  2  sixes  -|-  4. 

If  a  yet  smaller  unit  Ixi  used,  say  four,  the  numlxir  of  combina- 
tions which  must  Ix;  memorized  would  Ixj  still  further  reduced. 
For  example,  6  would  l)ecome  1  four  -\-  2,  and  9  would  be  2  fours 
+  1,  and  their  sum  would  be  3  fours  -[-  3,  a  result  that  could  Ije 
readily  obtained  by  any  child  who  was  familiar  with  all  the  com- 
binations of  the  number's  smaller  than  four.  The  smallest  unit 
possible  is  two,  and  by  its  use  the  amount  of  necessary  memorizing 
would  be  reduced  to  a  minimum.  If  this  syst<;m  were  in  vogue 
instead  of  the  cumbrous  decimal  system  the  terrors  of  arithmetic 
would  disapi>ear.  Two  and  it«  combinations  would  \)e  all  that 
would  ]>e  needed  by  the  child,  and  as  all  higher  numlwi-s  would  be 
represented  in  t^rms  of  two,  their  combinations  could  l>e  inferred 
without  memorizing,  just  as  the  numl)ers.  greater  than  ten  can  l>e 
when  the  decimal  system  is  in  use.  Were  we  in  a  position  to 
choose  a  system  of  notation  it  is  not  prol>able  that  any  thoughtful 
person  would  favor  so  large  a  unit  as  ten,  and  a  binary  system,  being 
the  simplest  of  all,  has  had  many  advocates,  among  whom  was  the 
illustrious  Leibnitz,  Xewtcm's  only  equal  in  mathematics.  While 
it  is  not  possible  at  the  })resent  time  to  introduce  into  general  use 
any  other  system  than  the  decimal  one,  there  is  no  good  reason 
why  children  should  not  be  taught  to  think  in  a  more  simple  sys- 
tem of  notation  l>efore  they  have  reached  that  maturity  wliich  is 
necessaiy  to  think  by  tens.  To  the  child,  ten  is  as  difficult  to 
comprehend  as  is  a  thousand  to  a  fully  developed  mind,  and  the 
same  stei)s  should  be  taken  to  teach  a  child  ten  that  men  use  to 
comprehend  a  thousand.  No  man  thinks  of  a  thousand  as  that 
numl)er  of  disconnected  units,  but  as  ten  hundreds,  and  each  hun- 
dred is  thought  of  as  ten  tens.  We  think  of  a  thousand  then  in 
terms  of  tens,  and  if  we  would  be  successful  in  makhig  a  child 
comprehend  ten,  it  can  l)e  done  only  by  teaching  the  child  to  think 
by  twos.  By  this,  however,  I  mean  something  different  from  what 
is  understood  by  it  in  the  methods  of  presenting  numlx^rs  now  in 
use.  We  miLst  not  only  use  two  as  a  measure  of  other  numlxjrs, 
but  they  must  Ije  thought  of  in  terms  of  two  and  not  as  a  mere 
collection  of  units.     Three  should  be  thought  of  as  1  two  -\-  1  and 


1888.]  »    MATHEMATICS.  9 

not  as  three  unite;  four  as  2  twos,  and  five  as  2  twos  +  1.  A 
child  who  comprehends  what  1  two  is  can  also  comprehend  what 
2  twos  are,  or  what  two  and  one  or  2  twos  and  1  are.  There  are 
no  more  elemente  required  to  think  of  five  as  2  twos  -|-  1  than 
there  are  to  think  of  two  alone,  since  five  is  thought  of  in  terms  of 
two  and  one  and  both  of  these  are  required  to  think  of  two. 
When  the  child  can  think  of  these  numbers  readily  in  terms  of 
two,  then  the  next  higher  numl)ers  can  be  comprehended  with  their 
aid.  Six  becomes  three  twos,  seven  is  3  twos  -\-  1,  eight  is  4  twos, 
while  nine  is  4  twos  +  1^  ^^^  ten  is  5  twos.  If  the  fii*st  ten  num- 
bers are  thought  of  in  this  way,  all  their  combinations  become  as 
easy  to  work  out  without  memorizing  as  is  now  the  case  with 
numbers  larger  than  ten,  the  unit  of  our  system  of  notation. 
Without  knowing  the  sum  of  3  -|-  5,  it  can  be  worked  out ;  3  =  1 
two  +  1  and  5  =  2  twos  +  1, 1  two  and  2  twos  are  3  twos  and  1 
-|-  1  are  two,  3  twos  and  2  are  4  twos,  and  4  twos  are  8.  Take  4 
-|-  5  as  another  example :  4  =  2  twos,  5  =  2  twos  and  1,  2  twos 
and  2  twos  -|- 1  are  4  twos  -|- 1,  and  4  twos  +  1  are  9.  If  then,  a 
child  knows  how  to  express  the  n umbel's  up  to  ten  in  a  system  of 
twos,  it  can  solve  any  problem  which  involves  no  numl)er  greater 
than  ten  without  that  burden  on  ite  memory  which  the  present 
methods  of  teaching  numbers  necessitates. 

We  hear  it  often  said  a  child  should  be  taught  to  reason  ;  but  so 
long  as  the  subject  is  merely  talked  about  in  a  general  way  and  no 
analysis  is  made  of  what  really  constitutes  reasoning,  no  real  im- 
provement will  be  made.  Reasoning  is  a  process  of  substituting 
one  equal  for  another.  If  A  is  equal  to  B,  and  B  to  C,  we  can 
substitute  A  the  equal  of  B  in  the  proposition  B  is  equal  to  C, 
and  then  we  can  affirm  that  A  is  equal  to  C.  Again,  as  two  twos 
are  four  and  three  and  one  are  four,  we  can  in  the  first  equation 
suljstitute  three  plus  one  for  four  and  conclude  that  two  twos  are 
equal  to  three  plus  one.  The  study  of  numbers  furnishes  an 
abundance  of  examples  where  the  doctrine  of  substitution  may  l)e 
taught  the  child,  if  the  subject  be  so  presented  that  in  the  differ- 
ent groups  of  objecte  the  idea  of  equality  can  be  clearly  perceived 
by  the  child.  The  ease  with  which  the  equality  of  different  groups 
of  objecte  can  be  inferred  depends  upon  the  plan  of  arrangement. 
If  we  arrange  the  oljjecte  by  twos  or  fours,  we  can  perceive  their 
equality  more  readily  than  if  there  l>e  no  arrangement  and  they 
be  thought  of  only  as  simple  unite.     So  too,  the  manner  of  giving 


10  EDUCATIOS.  [September, 

names  to  the  different  numbers  is  of  the  greatest  importance.  The 
name  given  to  a  number  of  object**  in  a  group  may  be  either  an 
absolute  name  or  a  relative  name.  Four  is  an  absolute  name  for 
a  given  number  of  objects ;  two  twos  is  a  relative  name  for  the 
same  group.  Tlie  first  twelve  numbers  have  absolute  names,  the 
others  (thirteen,  etc.)  have  relative  names ;  that  is,  their  names 
indicate  their  relation  to  ten.  To  sav  that  there  are  two  twos  in 
a  given  place  tells  more  than  to  say  there  are  four  objects  there. 
Four  tells  merely  the  number,  two  twos  tells  both  the  number  of 
objects  and  also  their  arrangement. 

If  a  child  were  taught  numbers  by  some  system  using  relative 
names  he  could  think  out  the  different  combinations  and  thus  be 
freed  from  the  drudgery  which  memorizing  involves.  Nor  is  a 
system  of  counting,  using  absolute  names,  natural  to  a  child.  Its 
use  is  forced  on  him  by  the  example  of  his  elders.  Any  child  will 
say  that  he  hiis  two  apples  and  one  more  before  he  will  use  the 
t^rm  three.  If  childi-en  were  allowed  to  develop  naturally  they 
woidd  use  two  as  a  measure  of  larger  objects  and  thus  make  use 
of  relative  instead  of  absolute  names  for  numbers. 

The  use  of  a  system  of  relative  names  require  that  some  num- 
ber Ix;  used  as  a  unit  for  measiuing  other  numbers  and  that  they 
be  so  named  as  to  express  the  result  of  the  measurement.  If  two 
be  used  as  the  unit  of  measurement,  to  call  five  two  twos  and  one 
would  correspond  to  the  current  expression  of  twenty-one  by 
which  we  name  a  group  of  twenty-<me  objects  by  the  number  of 
tens  it  contains.  The  use  of  the  terms  twenty,  thirty,  thirteen 
instead  of  the  full  form  two  tens,  three  tens,  one  ten  and  three, 
etc.,  somewhat  conceals  the  fact  that  these  t^rms  are  only  relative 
names ;  yet  a  moment's  thought  will  reveal  their  origin  and  the 
analogy  of  these  t^rms  to  that  of  two  twos  and  one  as  a  name  of  a 
group  of  five  units.  The  use  of  two  as  a  unit  of  measurement 
would  allow  the  greatest  use  of  relative  terms  and  with  it  as  a  unit 
we  would  count  as  follows :  one,  two,  one  two  and  one,  two  twos^ 
two  twos  and  one,  three  twos,  three  twos  and  one,  four  twos,  eto. 
No  system  can  be  devoid  of  absolute  terms  even  for  numbei's 
higher  than  the  unit  of  measurement.  For  ten  t^ns  we  sul>stitut^ 
the  al^olute  name  himdred,  and  ten  hundreik  likewise  receives  the 
name  thousand.  We  always  think  of  hundred  and  thoiLsand  in 
terms  of  ten  and  so  also  should  we,  when  iLsing  two  as  a  unit  of 
measurement,  tliink  of  tliree,  four  and  other  absolute  names  in 


1888.]  MATHEMATICS.  11 

terms  of  two  and  not  use  them  until  the  relative  name  is  so  famil- 
iar that  the  absolute  name  will  immediately  suggest  the  relative 
name.  If  the  term  five  does  not  suggest  two  twos  and  one  and 
the  term  four  two  twos,  that  their  difference  is  one  and  their  sum 
is  nine  cannot  be  thought  out  by  the  child.  If  he  knows  these 
facts  it  will  not  be  from  any  use  of  reasoning,  but  because  he  has 
been  drilled  by  his  teacher  until  his  memory  calls  up  nine  in  con- 
nection with  four  plus  five  and  one  when  he  thinks  of  their  differ- 
ence. By  teaching  a  child  te  use  the  relative  t^rms  before  he  uses 
the  absolute  ones,  this  drill  is  avoided.  In  this  way  each  term 
suggests  its  relation  te  every  other  term  and  thus  affords  a  clue 
by  which  the  solution  of  any  problem  may  be  thought  out. 

With  absolute  numerical  names  we  cannot  reason  directly ;  with 
relative  names  we  can  reason.  The  names  of  six  and  eight  give 
us  no  clue  of  what  their  sum  or  difference  is,  while  from  twenty 
and  thirty  we  can  readily  infer  that  their  sum  is  fifty  (five  tens), 
and  their  difference  is  ten.  If  we  know  the  sum  or  difference  of 
two  numbers  which  have  absolute  names,  it  is  due  solely  te  the 
use  of  memory,  and  the  great  amount  of  memorizing  needed  by 
the  present  methods  of  teaching  numbers  arises  from  the  use  of 
absolute  names  for  the  first  twelve  numbers. 

If  this  method  be  compared  with  the  Griibe  method  they  will 
be  seen  to  differ  in  two  important  ways.  Griibe  has  each  number 
thought  of  as  so  many  units  first,  and  then  it  is  measured  by  each 
smaller  number.  Each  number  is  thought  of  as  a  whole  first,  and 
then  as  composed  of  parts.  I  would  have  each  number  thought 
of  in  terms  of  the  smaller  numbers.  Eight  and  ten  should  be  first 
known  to  the  child  as  4  twos  and  5  twos,  and  only  after  the  child 
becomes  thoroughly  familiar  with  a  number  in  terms  of  two  should 
it  be  represented  te  the  child  as  so  many  units  and  its  name 
taught. 

At  first  sight  it  may  seem  difficult  te  teach  a  child  how  to  meas- 
ure a  number  containing  more  units  than  he  can  count,  but  this 
difficulty  will  disappear  when  the  method  of  procedure  becomes 
apparent.  Suppose  a  child  can  count  te  four  and  can  measui'e  by 
two.  If  seven  objects  are  given  him  by  arranging  them  by  twos 
he  can  see  that  he  has  tliree  twos  and  one.  If  nine  objects  are 
given  him  he  can  discover  that  he  has  four  twos  and  one.  All  the 
numbers  under  ten  can  be  arranged  in  twos  and  then  he  can  com- 
prehend how  many  objects  he  has,  even  if  he  cannot  count  them. 


12  ED  UCA  TIOX.  [September, 

Suppose  further,  that  an  unknown  numl)er  of  objects,  for  example 
buttons,  be  phiced  at  his  right  hand.  Tell  him  to  take  three  twos 
and  one  of  the  buttons  and  place  them  at  his  left  hand.  Can  he 
not  both  perform  and  undei^stand  this  operation  even  if  he  cannot 
count  the  buttons  at  his  right  hand  ?  Now  tell  him  to  take  four 
twos  of  the  buttons  from  his  right  and  place  them  on  his  left. 
Then  have  him  take  tlu-ee  twos  from  his  left  and  place  them  on 
his  right  and  ask  how  many  are  remaining  on  his  left.  All  of 
these  operations  and  many  more  of  the  same  kind  can  readily  be 
performed  by  any  child  who  can  count  four  and  measure  by  two, 
even  though  all  the  numbers  are  larger  than  he  can  count.  It  is 
not  necessary  for  intelligent  work  that  the  gross  sum  of  the  num- 
bere  handled  should  1^  known  if  each  operation  is  within  the  limit 
of  the  cliild's  knowledge  and  no  question  is  asked  which  involves 
a  greater  number  than  the  child  can  measure.  There  is  a  great 
advantage  in  using  larger  numbers  than  the  child  can  count.  In 
this  case  the  child  must  use  its  intelligence  in  so  arranging  the 
numbei's  that  he  can  measure  them,  while  if  he  can  count  he  is  apt 
to  resort  to  counting  as  a  means  of  solving  the  problem  and  thus 
drag  along  without  really  undei'standing  the  im[)ort  of  measuring, 
the  most  important  part  of  all  arithmetical  operations. 

The  order  in  which  the  different  combinations  should  be  tuught 
should  not  be  determined  solely  by  the  size  of  the  numbers,  the 
smallest  first  and  then  each  of  the  others  in  their  numerical  order. 
The  simplicity  of  the  relation  between  one  number  and  another  in 
a  combination  is  of  even  more  importance  than  is  the  size  of  the 
numbers.  The  relation  of  four  or  six  to  twelve  is  more  simple 
than  is  the  relation  of  either  of  these  numbers  to  eleven.  Yards 
stand  in  a  less  simple  relation  to  rods  than  do  inches  to  feet,  or 
quarts  to  gallons.  Although  twelve  is  larger  than  five  and  a  half, 
yet  it  requires  a  much  greater  maturity  of  mind  to  change  yards 
into  rods  than  it  does  to  change  inches  into  feet.  The  relation  of 
two  to  four  is  more  simple  than  that  of  two  to  three,  and  for  tliis 
reason,  after  a  child  has  l>een  taught  to  think  by  twos,  a  scale  of 
fours  is  more  simple  than  a  scale  of  threes.  Two  twos  make  a 
four,  one  and  a  half  twos  make  a  three.  The  fraction  can  l)e 
avoided  by  teacliing  four  first  and  postponing  the  study  of  three 
until  a  later  period,  except  in  terms  of  two  and  four,  as  one  two 
and  one,  and  one  four  less  one.  Three  and  seven  are  really  the 
most  difficult  of  the  digits  to  comprehend  fully  and  their  study 


1888.]  MATHEMATICS.  13 

should  be  delayed  until  the  more  easy  numl)er8  are  taught. 
The  second  way  in  which  the  Griilx?  method  differs  •  from  the 
one  here  presented  is  in  the  manner  in  wliich  each  numl)er  is 
measured.  Griibe  measures  each  number  directly  with  each 
smaller  number  and  no  one  measure  is  taken  in  terms  of  which  all 
comparisons  of  the  various  numlxji's  are  to  be  expressed.  That 
this  method  of  procedure  is  confusing  can  be  eiisily  illiLstmted. 
To  measure  one  numlDer  by  another  is  the  same  as  to  express  the 
first  number  in  a  system  of  notation  of  which  the  second  numlxir 
is  the  unit.  To  measure  ten  by  nine  is  to  express  ten  in  a  system 
of  which  nine  is  the  unit ;  to  measure  it  by  eight  is  to  express  it 
in  a  system  of  eights  and  the  same  is  true  of  each  smaller  number. 
To  make  a  child  measure  ten  directly  by  each  smaller  number  and 
to  remember  the  result  of  each  measurement  is  in  reality  com- 
pelling  it  to  use  all  the  systems  of  notation  from  two  Xk)  ten.  To 
see  how  difficult  this  must  be  for  a  child,  we  have  only  to  test 
ourselves  by  the  same  process  on  numl)ers  but  a  little  larger  than 
ten.  Suppose  we  take  ninety,  wliich  certainly  ought  to  be  as  easy 
for  a  mature  mind  to  comprehend  as  ten  is  for  a  child.  How 
many  of  us  can  measure  90  directly  by  13,  17,  23,  or  any  other 
chosen  number  with  ease,  and  who  would  think  it  a  great  accom- 
plishment to  burden  the  memory  with  so  many  disconnected  facts  ? 
However  good  a  memory  any  one  may  have,  somewhere  its  limits 
will  l>e  reached  and  higher  numbers  must  be  thought  of  in  terms 
of  the  lower  by  means  of  some  system  of  notation.  What  must 
be  finally  done  should  be  done  at  the  very  sturt  and  all  unneces- 
sary burdening  of  the  memory  should  l)e  avoided  and  this  most 
useful  faculty  be  reserved  for  other  and  Ixjtter  purposes.  We 
know  enough  of  ninety  when  we  can  think  of  it  readily  as  nine 
tens,  and  a  child  knows  ten  sufficiently  for  all  its  present  uses  when 
it  can  think  of  it  readily  as  five  twos. 


We  too  often  forget  that  the  raison  d  \*fre  of  the  school  master 
is  the  instruction,  not  of  the  minority  who  will  and  can  teach 
themselves,  but  of  the  majority  who  can  but  will  not.  Our 
teaching  force  should  regulate  the  movements  rather  of  the 
ordinary  planets  than  of  the  comets  of  the  system. 

Joseph  Payne. 


14  EDUCATIOy.  [September, 


COLLEGE  EXPENSES, 

BY  HON.  WM.  C.  TODD,   ATKINSON,   N.  H. 

HOW  to  obtain  a  collegiate  education  is  now  a  serious  question 
with  many  poor  young  men,  conscious  of  ability,  and  anx- 
ious to  cultivate  it.  In  notliing  lias  the  great  increase  in  expenses 
within  the  last  fifty  years  been  more  marked  than  in  the  cost  of  a 
college  course.  A  catalogue  of  Dartmouth  College  in  1840  gives 
the  following  table  of  expenses  for  the  college  year :  — 

Tuition,  $27  00 

Ordinary  incidentals,  3  24 
Library,  according  to  use, 

Boom  rent,  average,  8  50 

Board,  from  $1  to  $2,  average  for  38  weeks,  57  00 

Wood,  lights,  washing,  9  00 

Lectures  on  Anatomy,  1  00 

Total,  $105  74 

In  the  Dartmouth  catalogue  for  1885,  the  expenses  are  estimated 

as  follows :  — 

Tuition, 

Library  and  reading-room  tax, 

Room-rent, 

Board,  from  $3  to  $4.50,  37  weeks. 

Fuel  and  lights, 

ToUl,  $232  00    to  $312  00 

In  1840,  the  expenses  at  Amherst  College  were  estimated  as 

follows :  — 

Tuition, 

Room-rent, 

Recitation  rooms  and  ordinary  incidentals, 

Board,  from  $1.25  to  $2.00,  for  40  weeks, 

Fuel  and  lights. 

Washing, 

Total,  $118  00    to  $152  00 

The  following  is  the  present  estimate  :  — 

General  term  bill,  including  tuition,  library,  gymnasium, 

and  all  other  ordinary  incidentals,  $100  00         $100  00 

Room-rent  in  College,  18  00    to       45  00 


$90  00 

$90  00 

6  00 

6  00 

10  00 

to   25  00 

111  00 

to  166  00 

15  00 

to   25  00 

$38  00 

$38  00 

9  00 

9  00 

6  00 

6  00 

50  00 

to 

80  00 

9  00 

to 

11  00 

6  00 

to 

8  00 

1888.]                                     COLLEGE  EXPENSES.  15 

Room-rent  In  private  houses,  $40  00  to  $60  00 

Board  from  $3  to  85,  for  38  weeks,  114  00  to  190  00 

Total,  with  rooms  in  College,  244  00  to  353  00 

Total,  with  rooms  in  private  houses,  266  00  to  368  00 

At  Williams  College  the  expenses  were  thus  estimated  in  1840 : 

Tuition  810  per  term,  $30  00  $30  00 

Room-rent,  library  and  incidentals,  9  00  9  00 

Board,  from  $1.12^  to  $2.12i&  per  week,  48  75    to  83  00 

Washing,  5  00    to  10  00 

Fuel,  5  00    to  10  00 


Total,  $95  75  to  $142  00 

The  expenses  are  now  thus  estimated :  — 

• 

Tuition,  $30  per  term,  $90  00  $90  00 

Library  charge,  4  00  4  00 

Gymnasium,  3  00  3  00 

Room-rent,  $5  to  $10  per  term,  15  00  to      30  00 

Care  of  recitation-rooms,  repairs,  etc.,  15  00  15  00 

Treasurer's  bill,  $127  00  to  $142  00 

GENERAL  EXPENSES. 

Board,  from  $2.50  to  $5,  for  38  weeks,  $95  00  to  $190  00 

Washing,  15  00  to       20  00 

Fuel  and  lights,  8  00  to       12  00 


Total  expenses,  $245  00  to  $364  00 

Dartmouth,  Amherst,  and  Williams  Colleges  are  all  similarly- 
situated  in  country  villages.  Yale  and  Harvard,  the  two  leading 
colleges  of  New  England,  are  located  in  or  near  great  cities,  where 
the  expenses  are  naturally  larger,  and  are  patronized,  as  a  rule,  by 
the  wealthier  classes,  more  inclined,  and  better  able,  to  spend 
money.     In  1840,  the  expenses  at  Yale  were  estimated  as  follows : 

Instruction,  three  terms, 
Room-rent,  average. 
Repairs  and  contingencies. 
General  damages. 
Expenses  of  recitation-rooms. 

Treasurer's  bill, 

OTHER  EXPENSES. 

Board  in  commons,  40  weeks. 

Fuel  and  lights. 

Use  of  books  and  stationery. 

Use  of  furniture,  bed,  and  bedding. 

Washing, 

Taxes  in  the  classes, 

ToUl,  $140  00     to  $210  00 


$33  00 

12  00 

2  40 

3  60 

3  00 

$54  00 

$60  00 

to 

$90  00 

6  00 

to 

15  00 

5  00 

to 

15  00 

5  00 

to 

15  00 

5  00 

to 

15  00 

5  00 

to 

6  00 

16  ED  UCA  TlOy.  LSeptember, 

A  late  catalogue  gives  the  expenses  as  follows :  — 

Treasurer's  bill,  according  to  location  of  room,  8160  00  to  $220  00 

Board,  37  weeks,  110  00  to     260  00 

Fuel,  lights,  and  washing,  30  00  to      60  00 

Use  of  textbooks  and  furniture,  30  00  to      60  00 

8330  00  to  8600  00 

According  to  an  educational  journal,  the  actual  expenses  of  a 
class  that  recently  graduated,  as  nearly  as  could  l^e  ascertained  by 
careful  inquiry,  were  for  eacli  student,  on  an  average,  for  the  four 
successive  years,  *933,  -^959,  *952,  5^981 ;  a  total  of  *3,824  for  the 
coui*se,  or  more  than  fifty  per  cent,  above  the  highest  college  esti- 
mate. 

The  Harvard  University  catalogue  of  1841-2  estimates  the 
expenses  as  follows:  — 

Instruction,  library  and  lecture-rooms,  875  00 

Rent  and  care  of  room,  15  00 

Board,  40  weeks,  82.25  per  week,  90  00 

Textbooks,  12  00 

Special  repairs,  about  3  00 

8105  00 
These   are   the   necessary  expenses   included  in  college  bills. 

Other  expenses  vary  with  the  student.     Washing,  from  '^3  to  $5  a 

term.     Wood,  '$7.50  a  cord ;  coal,  $8. 

Tlie  expenses  at  Harvard  are  thus  stated  in  the  catalogue  for 

1884-5. 

The  following  table  exhibits  four  scales  of  annual  expenditure,  the  expenses 
of  the  long  vacation  not  being  included :  — 


Econom- 

Moder- 

Very- 

Least. 

ical. 

ate. 

Liberal. 

Tuition, 

8150  00 

8150  00 

8150  00 

8150  00 

Books  and  stationery. 

28  00 

35  00 

45  00 

61  00 

Clothing, 

70  00 

120  00 

150  00 

300  00 

Room, 

22  00 

30  00 

100  00 

175  00 

Furniture  (annual  average). 

10  00 

15  00 

25  00 

50  00 

Board, 

133  00 

152  00 

152  00 

304  00 

Fuel  and  lights. 

11  00 

15  00 

30  00 

45  00 

Washing, 

15  00 

20  00 

40  00 

50  00 

Societies  and  sports  (annual  average). 

35  00 

50  00 

Servant, 

25  00 

Sundries, 

45  00 

55  00 

85  00 

150  00 

Total,  8484  00     8502  00     8812  00  81,360  00 

President  Eliot  discussed  in  a  recent  report  the  present  cost 
of  an  education  at  Harvard,  after  liaving  addressed  letters  of  in- 


1888.]  COLLEGE  EXPENSES.  17 

quiiy  to  parents  and  guardians.  He  found  the  smallest  sum  for 
the  nine  montlis  of  college  year  to  be  -WTl,  in  the  ease  of  the  son 
of  a  poor  meclmnic,  who  supported  himself  in  the  three  montlis 
of  vacation  by  working  at  his  trade.  The  largest  sum  reported 
was  the  case  of  a  rich  man's  son,  who  spent  55«2500  in  the  same 
time.  Few  spent  less  than  .$500  or  more  than  ?i«loOO.  No  allow- 
ance was  made  for  secret  societies  or  sports.  To  bring  the  ex- 
penses witliin  'f500,  he  said,  ''  requires  an  extreme  economy  at 
every  point,  and  that  faculty  of  making  a  little  go  a  great  way, 
which  not  many  possess." 

The  causes  that  have  produced  this  great  increase  in  college 
expenses,  as  shown  in  the  above  tables,  are  well  undei*stood.  The 
changes  of  centuries  of  old  life  have  been  compressed  into  the 
existence  of  this  generation.  The  discovery  of  California  gold  and 
its  results,  the  immense  material  development  of  the  age,  with  the 
introduction  of  new  luxuries,  the  late  war,  etc.,  etc.,  have  had  an 
inflj^ence  that  need  not  be  dwelt  upon. 

College  life  was  very  simple  forty-five  yeara  ago,  as  all  old  grad- 
uates can  testify.  Of  one  of  the  first  named  colleges,  the  writer 
can  speak  from  personal  knowledge.  There  were  many  more 
students  and  fewer  professors  than  now.  The  professors  heard 
two  and  three  recitations  daily  and  were  in  excellent  health,  and 
several  retired  professors  lived  near  the  college,  advanced  in  years 
but  fresh  and  youthful  in  body  and  spirit,  leaving  the  impression 
that  a  college  professorship  was  the  sure  path  to  a  green  old  age. 

Whatever  might  be  the  wealth  of  the  student,  custom  dictated 
no  extravagancies.  Not  half  a  dozen  rooms  in  the  college  had  car- 
pets, and  the  ordinary  furniture  consisted  simply  of  a  bed,  table, 
and  a  few  chairs,  all  costing  from  $10  to  i20.  These,  as  well  as 
the  textbooks,  were  usually  bought  second-hand,  descending 
through  generations  of  students,  each  year  falling  a  little  in  price, 
till,  their  service  ended,  they  were  consigned  to  the  flames.  Every 
student  took  care  of  Ins  own  room,  built  his  own  fire,  brought  his 
own  water  from  the  college  pump,  and  swept  and  dusted  his  own 
room  once  a  day,  or  once  a  month,  as  his  tastes  and  habits  of  neat- 
ness prompted.  His  laundress  came  once  a  week  for  his  bundle 
of  soiled  linen,  her  charge  being  twenty-five  cents,  without  count- 
ing the  pieces.  Students  had  boats  in  which  they  rowed  on  the 
river  flowing  near,  and  foot-ball  and  base-ball  were  earnestly 
played,  but  they  were  attended  with  no  expense,  and  no  rivalries 


18  EDUCATlOy.  [September, 

and  jealousies.  Secret  societies  (it  is  not  the  place  here  to  discuss 
whether  they  are  a  curse  or  blessing  to  college  life),  which  now 
directly  and  indirectly  tax  the  funds  of  the  student  so  heayfly,  had 
not  been  organized. 

Many  of  the  students  had  limited  means  and  were  obliged  to 
calculate  closely  their  college  expenses-  Tliey  were  largely  from 
the  country,  farmers'  sons,  determined  to  have  an  education,  at 
whatever  sacrifice,  and  having  only  their  ovni  strong  arms  and 
brave  hearts  to  depend  upon.  It  was  the  custom  for  these  to  teach 
a  district  school  in  winter  and  in  that  way  to  earn  a  large  part  of 
the  sum  required  for  their  college  expenses,  and  as  the  district 
schools  of  New  England  were  then  always  taught  in  winter  by 
males,  there  was  no  difficulty  in  securing  a  situation  with  good  pay. 
So  necessaiy  was  this  to  the  student,  that  the  college  vacations 
were  made  longest  in  winter,  and  if  sometimes  the  student's  school 
encroached  on  term  time,  he  could  study  harder  on  his  return  to 
make  up  for  his  al)sence.  The  poor  student,  too,  thought  it  no 
disgrace  in  haying  time  to  liire  himself  to  a  farmer,  for  mo^ving 
macliines,  etc.,  etc.,  had  not  tlien  l>een  invented  to  take  the  place 
of  hand  lal)or  on  the  farm  in  its  busiest  season.  And  so  many,  very 
many,  worked  their  way  through  college  unaided,  and  came  out 
stronger  and  better  for  the  struggle — stronger,  because  they  had 
met  and  conquered  difficulties  —  better,  because  their  poverty  had 
kept  them  from  the  temptation  and  dissipation  so  dangerous  to 
college  life. 

It  appears  from  the  tables  that  in  every  college  the  lowest  esti- 
mated expenses  now  are  more  than  double  those  of  1840.  Unfor- 
tunately, however,  it  is  not  alone  the  increase  in  the  ordinary 
college  bilLs  that  l)ears  so  hea\dly  now  on  the  poor  student.  Col- 
lege life  has  lost  its  old  simplicity,  and  luxurious  habits  and  many 
expensive  associations  of  students  for  various  purposes  have  been 
introduced.  The  rooms  of  many  American  students  are  more  ex- 
pensively furnished  than  those  of  Oxford  students,  as  the  Ameri- 
can father,  with  his  newly  acquired  wealth,  can  afford  to  spend 
more  than  the  father  of  many  a  young  lord  tracing  his  pedigree 
back  to  the  time  of  William  the  Conqueror.  Boating  clubs,  base- 
ball clubs,  and  clubs  and  secret  societies  for  many  objects,  with 
their  regular  and  irregular  assessments  and  entertainments,  make 
large  drafts  on  the  purse,  and  though  all  are  optional,  it  is  hard  for 
the  student  of  limited  means  to  resist  the  popular  current  and  keep 


1888.]  COLLEGE  EXPENSES.  '    19 

aloof.  If  ever  *'  pride  and  poverty  go  together/'  it  is  in  the  breast 
of  a  poor  young  student,  struggling  for  an  education,  and  feeling 
keenly  the  assumptions  of  his  rich  fellow  students  and  the  respect 
paid  to  the  wealth  of  his  inferiors  in  all  but  worldly  position. 
How  much  is  spent  in  these  ways,  unknown  to  students  years  ago, 
it  is  not  easy  to  estimate,  as  it  varies  with  the  college  and  circum- 
stances. President  Eliot  estimates  it  for  Harvard  at  from  $35  to 
$50,  as  the  annual  average.  The  ambition  and  rivalry  of  diflferent 
societies  have  caused  the  erection  of  many  costly  edifices  for  their 
meetings,  their  members  not  content  with  a  hired  hall.  Of  course, 
most  of  the  contributions  for  such  purposes  are  voluntarj%  but  it  is 
hard  for  a  student  to  confess  his  poverty  by  withholding  his  gift. 
The  writer  well  remembere  the  arrogance  with  which  a  wealthy 
member  of  his  class  attempted  to  humiliate  a  poor  student  who 
objected  to  a  measure  from  its  expense  by  offering  to  pay  his  pro- 
portion. 

As  an  illustration  of  the  great  increase  in  college  expenses,  it 
may  be  stated  that  a  young  man  recently  applied  for  aid  to  a  gen- 
tleman, and  named  as  the  lowest  sum  for  which  he  could  pay  a 
year's  college  bills  an  amount  greater  than  the  gentleman  had 
expended  in  his  whole  course. 

While  the  expenses  have  so  much  increased,  the  means  of  earn- 
ing open  to  a  student  have  been  diminished.  Winter  ternLs  of 
district  schools,  the  old  unfailing  resource,  are  all  taught  by  ladies ; 
the  farmer  finds  machinery  cheaper  than  men  in  the  haying  sea- 
son ;  and  the  poor  student  seeks  in  vain  for  temporary  work  to 
add  to  his  limited  means. 

It  will  be  observed,  that  while  the  increase  has  been  large  in 
expenses  for  board  and  other  charges,  to  a  large  extent  indepen- 
dent of  college  control,  the  regular  college  bills  have  increased  in 
a  still  higher  ratio.  For  example,  while  the  price  of  board  at 
Dartmouth  has  doubled,  the  price  of  tuition  has  trebled.  And  the 
tendency  is  nowhere  to  a  reduction.  A  recent  circular  to  the 
Alumni  of  an  old  New  England  college  appealing  for  funds  says, 
that  the  college  expenses  cannot  be  reduced,  but  must  be  increased. 
Yet  this  college  and  the  other  leading  New  England  colleges  have 
received  hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars  in  the  unexampled  lib- 
erality of  the  last  few  years.  The  educational  l)enefactions  for 
the  year  ending  June  30,  1885,  alone  were  ii9,314,081,  of  wliich 
more  than  half  was  to  colleges  and  universities.     In  1873  the  total 


20  ED  UCA  TION,  [Sep  tern  ber, 

was  Jifll,226,977.  New  and  expensive  buildings  are  erected,  in 
striking  contrast  to  those  of  mast  European  universities,  which, 
if  needed  at  all,  should  be  of  the  plainest  nature ;  new  pro- 
fessorships are  created,  and  special  courses  multiplied,  giving 
the  student  hom<i»opathic  doses  of  many  studies  on  the  princi- 
ple that  the  smaller  tlie  dose  the  greater  the  effect  —  all,  it  is 
said,  to  keep  tlie  college  up  to  the  spirit  of  the  age,  and  show 
that  it  is  progressive.  A  college  president  in  a  recent  appeal  for 
funds  begged  that  gifts  might  not  l>e  restricted,  but  left  to  the  dis- 
cretion of  the  college  authorities.  From  tlie  way  much  given  to 
colleges  has  Ijeen  expended  in  the  past,  there  seems  occjision  for 
the  remark,  tliat  practical  men  who  earn  money  are  often  wiser  in 
its  application  than  men  whose  wisdom  is  mainly  in  books. 

The  reply  to  tliose  who  complain  of  the  growing  expense  of  a 
college  education  is,  that  poor  young  men  can  be  aided  by  schol- 
arships and  funds  devoted  to  that  object.  Yet  nearly  all  this  aid 
is  restricted  to  students  preparing  for  the  ministry,  or  to  superior 
scholarship.  It  scarcely  need  1x3  remarked  how  little  can  often- 
times Ixj  judged  of  the  future  success  and  usefulness  of  a  young 
man  from  his  college  career.  The  highest  abilities  may  be  dor- 
mant in  college  to  l>e  called  forth  by  the  exigencies  of  after  life. 
Certainly,  to  mention  no  other  example.  General  (rrant  would 
have  received  no  assistance  from  college  funds  for  proficiency  in 
any  department.  No  other  country  spends  so  much  as  we  for  edu- 
cation, and  in  none  is  so  much  wasted.  England  has  two  great 
universities,  and  at  Oxford  a  student  can  bring  his  expenses  within 
$500.  We  have  in  the  United  States  365  colleges,  so  called,  with 
4,836  instructor  and  65,728  students,  an  income  from  productive 
fluids  of  $3,018,624,  and  from  tuition  of  *2,105,565.  Ohio  alone 
has  33  colleges  and  327  instructors,  with  2,601  students,  less  than 
half  the  numljer  in  some  German  universities.  Put  all  these  Ohio 
students  into  one  college,  and  with  their  present  funds  there  could 
be  free  instruction,  abler  professors,  and  l)etter  results. 

The  object  of  this  article  is  to  call  attention  to  the  need  of 
reducing  the  cost  of  a  higher  education,  that  a  remedy  may  be 
applied.  Many  of  oiu-  greatest  and  best  men  have  l)een  poor  in 
early  life,  gaining  their  education  by  severe  struggles.  A  poor 
young  man  cannot  now  pay  his  college  expenses,  as  he  could  have 
done  forty  years  ago.  The  number  of  college  graduates  has  largely 
fallen  off  in  proportion  to  our  population.     In  Paris,  at  the  Col- 


1888.]  COLLEGE  EXPENSES.  21 

lege  of  France,  established  by  Francis  I.  in  1530,  men  of  world- 
wide reputation  give  instruction  free  to  all,  in  every  branch  of 
knowledge,  and  it  is  easier  for  a  poor  young  man  to  get  his  edu- 
cation in  Europe  than  here.  Our  common  schools  are  free,  but 
our  colleges  are  dear.  It  should  he  the  aim  not  so  much  to 
enlarge  the  advantages  of  our  colleges  as  to  make  the  present 
facilities  accessible  to  a  larger  number.  Let  rich  men  in  their 
donations  provide  for  free  instruction.  Harvard  has  just  received 
a  million  or  more,  and  the  President  of  Yale  asks  for  two  millions 
of  dollars  to  enlarge  the  library,  establish  new  professorships,  etc., 
etc.,  yet  no  one  proposes  a  reduction  of  college  charges. 

If  the  general  government  is  to  appropriate  large  sums  for  edu- 
cation, as  is  proposed  by  the  Blair  bill,  why  not  establish  a'  great 
national  university,  worthy  of  our  nation,  with  the  ablest  profes- 
sors and  free  tuition  ?  Eighty  years  ago  Jefferson  said  such  an  in- 
stitution was  a  necessity,  and  should  at  once  be  created,  and  such 
was  the  opinion  of  Washington,  Adams,  and  Madison.  Shall  not 
the  idea  in  the  minds  of  these  wise  men  be  revived,  and  Congress 
be  turned  from  the  lower  objects  engrossing  it  to  the  creation  of  a 
university  equal  to  any  other  of  which  the  world  can  now  boast  ? 
No  other  nation  has  made  such  material  progress,  but  it  is  far 
nobler  to  seek  intellectual  and  moral  advancement,  so  necessary  to 
the  perpetuity  of  our  free  institutions. 


BOOKS  give  to  all  who  will  faithfully  use  them,  the  society 
and  the  presence  of  the  best  and  greatest  of  our  race.  No 
matter  how  poor  I  am ;  no  matter  though  the  prosperous  of  my 
own  time  will  not  enter  my  obscure  dwelling,  if  learned  men  and 
poets  will  enter  and  take  up  their  abode  under  my  roof, —  if  Milton 
will  cross  my  threshold  and  sing  to  me  of  Paradise ;  and  Shake- 
speare open  to  me  the  world  of  imagination  and  the  workings  of 
the  human  heart ;  and  Franklin  enrich  me  with  his  practical  wis- 
dom,—  I  shall  not  pine  for  want  of  intellectual  companionship,  and 
I  may  become  a  cultivated  man,  though  excluded  from  what  is 
called  the  best  society  in  the  place  where  I  live.  Nothing  can  sup- 
ply the  place  of  books.  Channing. 


22  ED  UCA  TIOX.  [September, 


JOSHUA  BATES  AND  HIS  TIMES. 

BY  GRANVILLE  B.   PUTNAM,   FRANKLIN  SCHOOL,   BOSTON. 

THE  centurj^  of  the  centuries  is  nearly  ended.  Its  record  will 
soon  be  closed.  Its  history  will  soon  be  written.  The  unri- 
valled i)rogress  of  which  we  hear  so  much  is  not  an  idle  boast. 
The  world  is  a  witness  to  it. 

In  New  England  were  early  planted  seeds  of  influence  which  in 
their  "development  must  stimulate  thought  and  incite  to  noble 
deeds.  While  the  soil  of  imperial  states  was  yet  untrodden,  wliile 
a  host  of  cities,  of  which  the  nation,  today,  is  justly  proud,  were 
not  yet  dreamed  of,  the  cliurch  and  the  school  were  here  exerting 
a  mighty  power  over  her  sons,  many  of  whom  were  subsequently 
to  go  forth  to  found  these  later  commonwealtlLS  and  l)uild  these 
cities.  To  those  who  planted  these  seeds,  especially  to  those  who 
filled  her  pulpits  and  taught  her  schools,  should  willing  honor  be 
I)aid.  Tlie  product  of  her  institutiims  is  seen  in  every  depaitment 
of  her  own  life,  and  is  felt  wlierever  her  sons  have  made  their 
homes. 

Law  boasts  its  Evarts,  medicine  its  Bowditch,  the  pulpit  its 
Brooks,  art  its  Greenough,  statesmansliip  its  Sumner,  eloquence 
its  Phillips,  the  speaker's  desk  its  Wintln-op,  and  the  governor's 
chair  its  Everett,  all  Boston  school-lx)ys,  illustrious  sons  of  a 
mother  worthy  of  the  honor  which  their  names  confer.  Hundreds 
more,  well  known  to  fame,  might  be  adduced,  but  these  will  serve 
to  indicate  the  results  of  the  teacliing  and  tmining,  the  conditions 
and  circumstances  by  which  her  lx)ys  were  reared. 

For  nearly  half  of  this  century,  so  potent  in  its  influence,  Joshua 
Bates  was  faitlifully  instructing  the  minds,  and  moulding  the  char- 
actei*s  of  children  living  within  the  present  limits  of  this  city.  It 
is  fitting  then,  now  that  his  lal)oi*s  are  ended,  that  we  should  recall 
the  story  of  his  life,  and  something  of  the  times  in  which  his  work 
was  accomplished. 

There  was  a  period  during  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  and 
the  fiiTst  of  the  present  centuiy,  in  which  educational  interests 
sadly  declined  throughout  the  country.     During  the   Revolution 


1888.]  JOSHUA  BATES,  2? 

the  public  schools,  even  in  Boston,  had  been  suspended,  and  the 
effects  of  this  struggle  for  independence  were  felt  for  many  years. 
Before  its  baneful  influence  was  overcome  the  war  of  1812  oc- 
curred, and  it,  too,  had  ite  attendant  evils,  serving  as  an  incubus 
upon  the  schools  during  the  years  that  followed.  Tlie  interest  of 
the  public,  so  marked  at  the  first,  when  many  of  the  settlers  were 
men  of  letters  who  had  brought  w^ith  them  their  love  of  learning, 
h^d  waned.  Teachers  were  largely  incompetent  and  were  poorly- 
paid.  Schoolhouses  were  neglected  and  were  provided  with  none 
of  the  equipments  now  considered  essential.  One  large  room,  with 
perhaps  two  hundred  pupils,  the  master  at  one  end  and  the  usher 
at  the  other,  two  recitations  in  progress  at  the  same  time,  a  large 
stove  near  the  door,  with  pipe  extending  the  length  of  the  room, 
desks  sloping  towards  a  central  aisle,  no  globe,  nor  wall-map,  nor 
blackboard ;  this  is  the  picture  of  the  schoolroom  as  presented  in 
1830.  There  was  no  vocal  music,  no  drawing,  no  object  lesson,  no 
geography  worthy  the  name,  no  vocal  training,  no  i)liysical  exer- 
cises, no  physiology  or  hygiene,  and  no  instruction  in  the  elements 
of  science.  A  great  part  of  the  time  was  given  to  reading  and 
writing  and  to  arithmetic,  without  any  attention  to  principles. 

It  w411  thus  be  seen  that  the  unique  educational  progress  of  the 
nineteenth  century  did  not  commence  until  the  finst  third  of  it 
was  nearly  ended. 

It  \nll  be  my  purpose  to  show  the  origin  of  some  of  the  impor- 
tant movements  inaugurated  during  the  second  third,  and  the  part 
which  Mr.  Bates  had  in  their  inception  and  progress.  But  be- 
fore doing  this,  it  were  well  to  present  a  brief  account  of  his 
early  life. 

Mr.  Bat^s  was  born  in  Dedham,  Mass.,  where  his  father  was 
pastor  of  the  Congregational  church,  on  the  17th  of  March,  1810. 
In  1818  the  latter  was  elected  president  of  the  college  at  Middle- 
burj',  Vt.,  to  which  town  he  then  removed.  That  Joshua  might 
the  better  complete  his  preparation  for  college,  he  was  sent  to 
Phillips  Academy  at  Andover,  where  he  remained  till  1828,  when 
he  entered  the  freshman  class  of  the  institution  over  which  his 
father  presided.  He  graduated  with  honors  in  the  class  of  1832. 
During  his  college  course,  he  taught  two  or  more  wintere  in  dis- 
trict schools,  and  at  its  close  he  wjus  engaged  for  one  year  in  a 
private  school  at  Springfield.  In  the  fall  of  1833,  he  was  elected 
to  the  position  of  a  master  in  the  "'Old  Training  Field  School"  in 


^  EDUCATION.  [September, 

Charlestown,  at  a  salary  of  ♦700.  This  was  aflenvarAs  known  as 
the  Winthrop,  and  is  now  the  Frothingham  School. 

Although  the  English  High  School  of  Boston  had  been  estab- 
lished as  early  as  1821,  most  of  the  towns  in  its  vicinity  were  still 
without  schools  of  this  grade.  In  Charlestown,  Mr.  Bat^s  was 
selected  to  receive  from  all  parts  of  the  town  those  pupils  who 
desired  an  advanced  course,  or  preparation  for  college,  so  that  his 
work  was,  to  some  extent,  that  of  the  High  School  teacher  of  the 
present  day. 

The  firet  movement  towards  an  educational  revival  seems  to 
have  been  made  in  Essex  County,  where  an  association  of  teachers 
was  formed  in  Topsfield  in  1829.  This  is  l)elieved  to  l^e  the  first 
attempt  in  this  countrj'  to  bring  together  the  scattered  teachers 
for  consultation  and  mutual  improvement.  The  late  Gen.  Henry 
K.  Oliver  was  its  first  president. 

On  the  15th  of  March,  1830,  a  few  friends  of  educfition  met  at 
Columbian  Hall,  Boston,  to  consider  what  could  be  done  to 
strengthen  and  advance  the  cause  in  which  they  were  engaged. 
As  a  result  of  this  conference,  another  and  more  general  meeting 
was  held  in  Representatives'  Hall  at  the  Stiite  House,  in  August 
of  the  same  year.  Eleven  states  were  represented.  It  was  the 
wish  of  many  to  form  a  State  Association,  but  the  pleas  of  those 
from  other  states  were  heeded  and  the  American  Institute  of 
Instruction,  which  has  just  held  its  fifty-ninth  annual  meeting  at 
Newport,  was  organized  with  William  B.  Calhoun  of  Springfield, 
as  its  president.  The  object  of  the  Institute  as  then  set  forth  was 
"  to  promote  the  cause  of  popular  education,  to  elevate  the  char- 
acter of  instruction,  to  widen  its  sphere,  to  perfect  its  methods,  as 
well  as  to  compare  opinions  upon  topics  relating  to  it." 

That  the  teachers  of  New  England  were  ready  for  such  an  asso- 
ciation is  evident  from  its  strength  and  vigor  from  the  very  first. 
Twelve  to  seventeen  lectures  were  given  each  year  by  the  ablest 
men  among  them.  Among  the  many,  I  select  a  few :  Warren 
Colburn  lectured  on  Arithmetic ;  Thomas  Sherwin  on  Geometry ; 
George  D.  Tichnor  on  Language ;  William  Kussell  on  Reading ; 
Horace  Mann  on  Spelling ;  Richard  Green  Parker  on  Composition  ; 
Goold  Brown  on  Grammar;  George  S.  Hilliard  on  Histor}%  and 
James  Murdock  on  Elocution.  The  words  of  such  men  upon  topics 
in  which  each  was  an  expert,  could  not  fail  to  arouse  a  lively  inter- 
est.    The  name  of  President  Bates  appears  in  the  list  of  early 


1888.]  JOSHUA  BATES,  26 

officers  and  lecturers,  and  in  1847  Joshua  Bates  of  Boston  was  one 
of  the  vice-presidents  and  was  cliairman  of  the  Committee  on 
Nominations. 

In  August,  1852,  the  Institute  met  at  Troy,  N.  Y.,  and  he  gave 
his  well-remembered  lecture  upon  Thomas  Arnold,  wliich  won  for 
him  great  praise.  It  was  felt,  however,  by  members  of  the  Essex 
County  Association,  and  doubtless  by  othera,  that  the  Institute 
did  not  fully  meet  their  wants,  and  that  there  was  still  need  of  a 
state  association.  A  committee,  of  which  Charles  Northend  was 
chairman,  was  appointed  to  take  measures  to  secure  its  formation. 
In  response  to  a  circular  issued  by  this  committee,  a  convention 
was  held  at  Brinley  Hall  in  Worcester,  on  Monday,  Noveml:)er 
24, 1845. 

The  Massachusetts  Teachers'  Association  was  then  and  there 
formed.  Oliver  Carlton  of  Salem  was  its  fii*st  president,  and 
Joshua  Bates  one  of  its  vice-presidents.  At  its  third  annual 
meeting,  a  committee,  of  which  he  was  chaiiman,  was  appointed  to 
bring  to  the  legislature  the  subject  of  "  Truancy,"  and  in  1850  he 
gave  a  lecture  upon  *'  The  Enactment  of  a  law  to  prevent  Truancy 
and  Irregular  Attendance."  At  the  meeting  in  1845,  at  which  the 
Association  was  formed,  a  committee  was  appointed  to  consider 
the  expediency  of  establishing  a  "  Teachers'  Journal "  to  be  its 
organ.  As  it  would  assume  no  pecuniary  responsibility,  there  was 
some  delay,  and  it  was  not  till  December,  1847,  that  four  gentle- 
men met  in  Mr.  Bates'  room  at  the  United  States  Hotel  to  decide 
upon  the  name  the  magazine  should  bear,  and  to  read  the  first 
proof.  For  several  years  this  room  and  the  study  of  Mr.  Philbrick 
at  his  own  home  were  the  editorial  rooms  of  the  Massachusetts 
Teacher. 

We  can  form  but  little  idea  of  the  pecuniary  sacrifice,  the  time 
and  effort  freely  given  by  these  gentlemen  that  it  might  be  estab- 
lished upon  a  firm  basis.  The  first  year  there  were  but  250  paying 
subscribers,  and  ten  years  elapsed  before  the  list  was  increased  to 
2,000.  Educational  magazines  had  before  existed  as  private  enter- 
prises. The  first  in  the  country^  was  published  from  1826  to  1830. 
It  was  edited  by  William  Russell,  and  called  The  Journal  of  Edu- 
cation.    This  was  succeeded  by  the  Annals  of  Education  which 

*'*  The  Academioian,"  a  semi-mnntbly  majirazine,  "containinK  the  elements  of  scholas- 
tic science  and  the  oatlines  of  Philosophic  EOucation.  predicated  on  the  analysis  of  the 
butnan  mind  and  exhibiting  the  improved  methods  of  instruction,"  was  published  in 
Kew  York  from  1818  to  1820,  and  edited  by  Albert  Picket  and  John  W.  Picket.— [Bditor. 


26  EDUCATJOy.  [September* 

continued  from  1831  to  1839,  under  the  editorship  of  William  C. 
Woodbridge. 

In  November,  1838,  Horace  Mann  started  the  Common  School 
Journal,  which  was  published  in  Boston  until  1852,  William  B. 
Fowle  being  its  editor  during  the  last  few  years  of  its  existence. 
While  Mr.  Bates  was  still  in  Charlestown  the  State  Board  of  Edu- 
cation was  organized,  being  created  by  an  Act  of  the  Legislature 
in  April,  1837.  Horace  Mann,  who  had  been  largely  instrumental 
in  securing  it,  was  secretary,  and  Edward  Everett  president. 
Mr.  Mann  used  the  Common  School  Journal  as  the  semi-official 
organ  of  the  Board. 

For  ten  years  or  more,  efforts  had  been  made  to  secure  Noimal 
Schools  in  Massachusetts.  The  idea  was  deemed  by  many  men 
of  influence  at  the  State  House,  to  be  both  visionary  and  imprac- 
ticable. The  elocjuence  of  John  Quincy  Adams,  Webster,  Ran- 
toul,  and  Everett  was  enlisted  in  their  behalf,  but  they  were  not 
secured  until  Edmund  Dwight  pledged  810,000  for  their  support^ 
on  condition  that  the  State  provide  an  equal  sum. 

On  the  3d  day  of  July,  1839,  the  doors  of  the  first  Normal 
School  in  America  were  opened.  Rev.  Cyrus  Peirce,  who  had 
said :  '*  I  had  ratlier  die  than  fail,"  was  its  first  principal.  In  an 
hired  building,  an  old  academy  at  Lexington,  on  the  morning  of 
that  day  assembled  three  pupils.  These  girls,  the  first  female 
Normal  School  students  in  the  world,  took  turns  in  sweeping  the 
room  and  Father  Peirce,  as  the  weather  became  cool,  made  the 
fire. 

What  small  l^eginnings,  yet  less  than  fifty  years  have  passed 
and  now  every  State  and  almost  every  large  city  has  its  Normal 
schools.  Let  Julv  3,  1889,  witness  a  worthv  semi-centennial  cele- 
bration.  The  names  of  James  G.  Carter,  Charles  Brooks,  Edmund 
Dwight,  and  Horace  Mann  should  ever  be  held  in  remembrance,  in 
connection  with  these  schools  so  indispensable  to  a  complete  sys- 
tem of  public  instruction. 

In  1852,  wliile  Barnas  Sears  was  secretary  of  the  Board,  the  first 
Teachers'  Institute,  or  "  Flying  Normal  School,"  was  held  in  Bos- 
ton, although  they  had  l)een  held  in  other  cities  before  this.  The 
afternoons  and  evenings  of  four  days  were  given  to  it  and  schools 
were  dismissed  that  teachers  might  attend.  The  meetings  were 
held  in  the  Lowell  Institute,  and  at  the  close,  Mr.  Bates  as  chair- 
man of  a  committee  on  Resolutions,  in  behalf  of  the  teachers  of 


1888.]  JOSHUA  BATES,  27 

the  city,  presented  tlianks  to  the  Legislature  for  the  establishment 
of  the  Institutes. 

Lowell  Mason,  on  his  return  from  Europe  in  1840,  set  himself 
to  secure  the  introduction  of  music  into  the  schools.  This  took 
place  in  Boston  in  1844,  and  drawing  was  introduced  at  about  the 
same  time.  School  supervision  became  also  a  subject  of  discussion, 
and  after  years  of  agitation  the  Boston  School  Committee,  in  1851^ 
decided  to  employ  a  Superintendent  of  Schools,  and  Nathan  Bishop 
was  elected  to  the  position. 

Space  will  not  permit  me  to  give  any  account  of  the  introduc- 
tion of  evening  schools,  changes  in  school  buildings,  grading  of 
pupils,  and  many  other  improvements  aflfecting  the  schools  of  this 
commonwealth,  and,  through  it,  the  schools  of  the  civilized  world. 
It  will  be  observed  that  a  large  part  of  the  educational  agencies 
which  are  still  influential,  had  their  origin  in  the  early  part  of  the 
active  life  of  Mr.  Bates,  and  that  he  had  no  small  share  in  their 
adoption  and  continuance.  When  he  entered  the  Brimmer  School 
as  Master  of  the  Grammar  department  in  1844,  it  had  just  been 
organized  in  Common  Street,  upon  the  site  where  the  Franklin 
School  had  stood  before  its  removal  to  Washington  Street.  There 
were  then  nineteen  schools  in  the  city  of  the  Grammar  grade. 
These  were  the  Eliot,  Hancock,  Endicott,  Mayhew,  Bowdoin, 
Boylston,  AtUims,  Franklin,  Johnson,  Wells,  Hawes,  Mather,  Win- 
throp.  Brimmer,  Otis,  PliillijKS,  Lyman,  New  South,  and  Smith. 
The  latter  was  for  colored  children.  All  of  these,  except  the  last 
three,  were  upon  the  "  double-headed  "  plan,  one  master  at  the  head 
of  the  Reading  and  another  of  the  Writing  department.  This  anom- 
alous plan  was  not  entirely  discontinued  until  1850,  although  the 
present  one  was  introduced  at  the  Quincy  School  in  1848,  under 
the  charge  of  John  D.  Philbrick.  But  nine  of  the  nineteen  schools 
of  forty  years  ago,  still  remain.  The  demands  of  business  occasion 
changes  in  population,  which  result  in  the  depletion  of  some  and 
the  erection  of  many  more  new  ones. 

The  Brimmer  School  had,  in  1845,  513  pupils.  Thirty-six  of 
these  were  in  the  first  class,  and  their  average  age  at  graduation 
was  thirteen  years.  The  agitation  of  Horace  Mann  had  led  the 
Boston  School  Committee  to  fear  that  the  schools  of  the  city  were 
not  in  a  desirable  condition.  In  view  of  this,  a  sub-committee  was^ 
appointed  in  1845  to  examine  them.  The  committee  was  an  able 
one,  consisting  of  Theophilus  Parsons,  S.  G.  Howe,  and  RoUin  H» 


28  ED  UCA  TIOX.  [September, 

Neale.  In  due  time,  they  presented  a  moat  elal>orate  and  detailed 
report  of  every  school,  in  each  branch  of  study,  and  pronounced 
the  results  unsatLsfactorv. 

I  give  a  few  of  these,  as  examples  showing  the  per  cent,  of  cor- 
rect answers  which  were  obtained : 

Highest  K.  Lowest )(. 

Geography,  Winthrop,  46  Otis,         18 

Histor}*,  Adams,  59  Phillips,     8 

Philosophy,  Bowdoin,  36  Johnson,  12 

Grammar,  Adams,  61  Otis,         15 

Definitions,  Eliot,  55  Phillips,     8 

Written  examinations  alone  are  never  a  just  test  of  the  condi- 
tion of  a  school,  especially  if  the  questions  are  prepared  by  out- 
siders and,  if,  as  in  this  case,  the  pupils  are  unaccustomed  to  such 
examinations.  I  must  admit,  however,  that  there  was  some  good 
ground  for  the  decision  of  the  committee.  This  comparison  of 
schools  engendered  strife  and  ill-will  which  twenty  years  did  not 
wholly  remove.     If  it  secured  good,  it  was  not  unalloyed. 

Although  Mr.  Bates  had  l)een  but  a  year  in  the  Brimmer,  wliich 
seems  to  have  been  neither  the  highest  or  the  lowest  in  rank,  in 
any  study,  the  committee  speak  of  its  *-  excellent  master "  and 
say :  "  We  regard  his  methods  and  principles  of  discipline  and 
instruction  entitled  to  pniise  and  of  much  promise." 

The  report  of  1847  says :  "  Of  the  boys'  schools,  we  give  the 
Brimmer  School  the  first  rank.  The  mind  of  the  energetic  teacher 
has  been  brought  in  contact  with  the  mintls  of  his  pui)ils  and  a 
spirit  of  reatling,  of  inquiry,  and  general  activity  has  been  excited." 

It  is  safe  to  say  that  for  more  than  thirty  years  it  continued  to 
rank  among  the  veiy  first.  Of  his  work  in  the  routine  of  the 
schoolroom,  I  can  say  but  little,  except  to  point  to  the  results 
secured.  A  former  sub-master,  Mr.  Boardman,  for  many  years 
master  of  the  Lewis  School,  writes :  "  His  influence  on  his  own 
class  and  upon  the  lx)ys  of  the  entire  school  was  always  of  the 
right  kind.  He  inspired  in  the  lx)ys  a  feeling  of  self-respect,  a 
disposition  to  gentlemanly  bearing,  an  ambition  to  go  to  the  High 
School  and  afterwards  to  seek  eligible  and  honorable  positions  in 
the  work  of  the  world.  The  boys  in  whom  he  encouraged  self- 
respect  have  shown  the  highest  regard  for  him  in  maturer  years. 
He  ever  sought  the  best  teachers  and  with  beginners  was  patient, 
giving  helpful  advice  and  suggestion.     He  was  careful  never,  by 


1888.]  JOSHUA  BATES,  29 

word  or  act,  to  weaken  or  impair  the  influence  of  a  teacher  with 
her  class.  His  devotion  to  the  interests  of  his  school  did  more 
than  any  rules  or  precepts  to  create  a  like  spirit  in  his  assistants. 
If  one  brought  a  divided  interest  she  was  '  not  to  his  mind.'  Dur- 
ing the  fourteen  years  and  more  that  I  was  with  him  my  confidence 
in  and  respect  for  him  was  constantly  increasing,  and  has  contin- 
ued to  do  so,  as  I  have  been  in  a  way  to  know  better  the  nature  of 
the  duties  devolving  upon  him." 

The  teacher  of  a  Primary  class  in  his  district  says :  "  I  always 
found  him  a  gentleman,  just  and  conscientious  in  his  frequent 
visits." 

The  graduates  of  the  Brimmer  School  were  perhaps  the  first  in 
the  city  to  form  an  Alumni  Association.  Two  or  three  years 
since  it  was  my  pleasure  to  be  present  as  an  invited  guest  at  one 
of  their  annual  reunions,  and  it  was  a  delight  to  see  his  former 
pupils,  many  of  whom  were  already  bearing  the  mark  of  advancing 
years,  gather  around  Mr.  Bates  as  children  around  a  loved  father 
at  the  family  Thanksgiving  festival. 

Among  my  many  associates  in  the  ranks  of  the  Boston  Masters, 
I  can  recall  no  one  who  aimed  so  much  as  he  did  to  improve  the 
moral  nature  of  his  pupils.  He  not  only  seized  the  opportunity 
as  the  events  of  the  day  brought  a  subject  to  the  attention  of  the 
school,  but  he  took  occasion  to  give  more  formal  talks  on  morals 
to  his  boys,  who  were  so  soon  to  take  a  place  amid  the  activities 
and  temptations  of  city  life.  It  was  not  so  much  the  curriculum 
of  the  school  as  the  character  of  the  man  and  his  desire  for  their 
moral  well-being,  which  occasioned  this  strong  hold  upon  the  affec- 
tions of  his  graduates,  to  which  Mr.  Boardman  has  referred. 

For  nearly  fifty  years  the  Masters  have  met  once  a  month  at  the 
social  board.  At  first  they  assembled  at  the  residence  of  each  in 
turn,  or  at  some  hotel  as  he  might  elect;  but  for  many  years  the 
meeting  has  been  at  the  School  Committee  rooms  at  4.30  p.  m. 
We  have  there  considered  topics  of  vital  interest  to  the  schools. 
Mr.  Bates  was  an  active  participant  in  our  discussions  and  was 
always  earnest  in  the  advocacy  of  what  he  deemed  the  right. 
The  welfare  of  the  schools  was  dear  to  him  and  to  wound  them 
was  to  wound  him.  His  convictions  were  strong  and  so  often  was 
the  language  he  used  to  express  them.  The  "  hallucinations " 
of  the  "  zamzumons,"  to  use  two  of  his  favorite  words,  were  sure 
to  arouse  his  indignation  and  call  forth  his  vigorous  protests.     His 


30  EDUCATIOX,  [September, 

voice  and  pen  were  often  called  into  requisition  to  condemn  the 
course  of  some  official,  or  to  expose  the  fantastic  tricks  of  some 
educational  humbug.  If  there  were  those  who  doubted  the  jus- 
tice of  his  censure,  there  were  none  who  questioned  his  sincerity 
or  devotion. 

From  these  rooms  we  adjourned  to  a  6  o'clock  dinner  at  Parker's. 
By  common  consent  the  place  of  honor,  the  head  of  the  table,  was 
for  years  assigned  to  him.  He  was  our  Nestor,  without  a  rival. 
His  massive  head,  his  portly  form,  and  genial  face  became  the  place 
and  well  did  he  adorn  it. 

The  last  meeting  at  which  he  presided  was  on  the  first  Tuesday 
of  October,  1874.  In  the  course  of  his  remarks  at  the  table,  he 
said :  "  From  whatever  eLse  you  deprive  me,  cut  me  not  off  from 
these  monthly  gatherings,  and  you  will  not,  while  these  eyes  can 
see  the  way  and  these  feet  can  tread  the  path  to  these  meetings 
and  to  a  seat  at  this  board.  Let  us  cling  to  this  association  as  our 
first  love,  advising  one  another,  helping  one  another  and  so  con- 
secrating our  whole  energies  to  our  noble  callmg,  that  when 
we  shall  be  laid  '  each  in  his  narrow  cell  where  heaves  the  turf 
in  many  a  mouldering  heap,'  this,  the  noblest  of  epitaphs,  shall 
be  engraved  on  our  tombstones :  '  Here  lies  a  faithful,  devoted 
teacher.' " 

At  story-telling,  when  in  a  mood  for  it,  Mr.  Bates  was  an  adept, 
but  when  not  inclined  to  tell  one,  no  amount  of  persuasion  was  of 
any  avail.  The  presentation  of  a  good  one  by  another,  however, 
would  sometimes  remind  him  of  a  better,  which  he  could  not  for- 
bear to  tell.  I  have  seen  the  company  convulsed  with  laughter 
upon  hearing  the  same  story  from  liim  for  the  twentieth  time  and 
of  its  repetition  they  seemed  never  to  tire  if  it  came  from  his  lips. 

On  one  occasion,  many  years  ago,  with  a  party  of  gentlemen,  I 
spent  the  day  in  an  excursion  from  Bethlehem,  N.  H.,  to  the  Pro- 
file and  the  Flume.  The  journey,  both  there  and  back,  was  enliv- 
ened with  song,  and  wit,  and  story.  Chief  among  those  who 
contributed  to  the  pleasure  of  that  memorable  day  was  Mr.  Bates. 
The  pure  mountain  air  and  genial  company  served  to  exhilarate 
both  brain  and  tongue,  and  none  present  will  forget  him  or  the 
occasion. 

Prompted  by  ill  health,  Mr.  Bates  presented  his  resignation  on 
the  26th  of  May,  1876,  to  take  effect  September  1st.  A  leave  of 
absence  was  immediately  granted  and  a  committee  appointed  to 


1888.]  JOSHUA  BATES.  31 

present  suitable  resolutions  at  the  next  meeting,  which  was  held 
June  27th.  At  that  time,  Godfrey  Morse,  Esq.,  offered  the  fol- 
lowing, which  was  unanimously  adopted :  — 

"  Besolved^  that  the  School  Committee  of  the  city  of  Boston,  recognizing  the 
faithful  and  successful  labors  of  Joshua  Bates,  who  for  thirty-two  years  was 
principal  of  the  Brimmer  School,  desire  to  place  on  record  their  approbation 
of  the  fidelity  with  which  he  performed  his  duties,  and  attest  to  the  success 
which  has  crowned  his  persevering  labors.  The  Committee  regret  the  loss  to 
the  city  of  so  valued  an  instructor  and  hope  that  relaxation  from  active  service 
will  restore  him  to  the  enjoyment  of  his  health,  while  the  best  wishes  of  the 
Committee  for  his  well-earned  rest  and  happiness  accompany  him  to  his  retire- 
ment." 

It  is  evident  that  he  was  not  content  to  be  idle,  for  writing  from 
Florida  the  following  March,  he  said :  ''  My  health  is,  I  think, 
somewhat  improved  of  late.  At  times,  I  feel  quite  uneasy  and 
long  for  the  profession  of  my  choice,  in  which  I  have  spent  so 
many  happy  years,  but  I  will  not  repine,  for  I  feel  most  grateful 
that  I  have  had  so  many  years  granted  me  to  work  in  one  of  the 
noblest  fields  of  usefulness." 

I  have  often  heard  him  say  that  if  he  was  to  live  his  life  over 
again  he  would  select  the  same  occupation,  the  profession  he  so 
nobly  adorned.  He  often  said,  too,  that  he  was  thankful  that  his 
life-work  was  done  when  it  was ;  for  he  saw  ominous  clouds  already 
above  the  horizon. 

There  have  been  teachers,  I  fear,  even  in  Boston,  who  seemed 
to  feel  that  wisdom  was  so  embodied  in  themselves,  that  little 
could  be  gained  from  without  and  consequently  have  kept  aloof 
from  familiar  contact  with  their  associates.  Not  so  Mr.  Bates. 
Whenever  we  assembled  for  consultation  or  to  listen  to  words  of 
counsel  from  our  Superintendent,  he  was  habitually  present. 
After  he  had,  by  his  resignation,  severed  his  official  connection 
with  the  schools,  and  even  after  he  had  come  to  feel  deeply  the 
effect  of  physical  infirmities,  again  and  again  have  I  seen  him 
toiling  up  the  two  long  flights  of  stairs  at  Mason  Street,  that  he 
might  enjoy  the  reading  of  some  paper  or  listen  to  a  discussion 
upon  some  subject  in  which  he  continued  to  take  a  profound 
interest. 

No  one,  who  has  left  our  ranks  and  was  not  in  some  capacity 
still  connected  with  the  schools,  retained  to  such  a  degree  as  did 
he,  his  hearifelt  interest  in  them.  In  1865,  when  less  than  thirty 
years  of  age,  I  was  elected  Master  of  the  Franklin  School,  and  I 


32  EDUCATIOX,  [September, 

desire  to  bear  witness  here  to  the  cordiality  with  which  I  was 
received  by  this  veteran  in  the  service,  who  was  my  next  neighbor. 
This  spirit  was  continued  to  the  end,  and  I  recall  with  satisfaction 
his  many  kindly  words.  I  am  sure  that  others,  could  they  testify, 
would  speak  of  like  treatment  at  his  hands. 

Upon  the  return  of  Mr.  Philbrick  from  Europe,  in  October, 
1873,  Mr.  Bat^s  was  selected  by  the  Mjist^rs  to  offer  liim  in  their 
behalf  an  address  of  welcome.  Usually,  upon  the  death  of  one  of 
our  numl^er,  Mr.  Bates  was  appointed  chairman  of  a  committee  on 
resolutions.  For  this  position,  he  was  eminently  adapted,  in  view 
of  his  large-hearted  sympathy,  his  just  appreciation  of  men,  as 
well  {IS  his  power  of  felicitous  expression. 

In  1877  a  portrait  of  Mr.  Bates  was  presented  publicly  to  the 
Brimmer  School.  He  Wiis  deeply  moved  by  this  act  and  by  the 
words  si)oken  upon  the  occasion.  I  quote  from  a  letter  bearing 
date  of  March  24,  1877  :  — 

^^  The  many  kind  thini^s  said  of  ine  there  by  past  pupils  and  friends  have 
touched  nie.  I  feel  that  I  liave  not  merited  all  the  liindness  and  warm  expres- 
sions of  regard  so  generously  lavished  on  me  in  my  old  age.  After  so  many 
years  of  service  in  the  Boston  schools,  I  can  but  continue  still  to  feel  the  liveli- 
est intere<;t  in  their  welfare  and  in  all  that  pertains  to  their  success  and  pros- 
perity. [  am  often  living  over  the  many  happy  days  I  have  spent  in  the  school- 
room and  in  the  monthly  meetings  of  the  Masters  for  educational  improvement 
and  social  interchange,  where  so  many  good  suggestions  were  made  and  where 
those  teachers  most  interested  in  their  work  caught  a  new  enthusiasm  and 
entered  again  on  their  labors  with  fresh  motives  for  action  and  new  ideas  in 
plans  and  methods  of  instruction. '' 

In  1880,  the  degree  LL.  D.  was  given  liim  by  his  Alma  Mater» 
and  of  this  he  writes :  — 

'*  This  honor  conferred  upon  me  was  doubly  gratifying,  not  only  because  it 
is  the  first  instance  in  which  such  a  degree  has  been  conferred  upon  a  Boston 
Grammar  Master,  but  also  because  it  is  one  more  evidence  that  Teaching  is  fast 
becoming  more  properly  recognized  as  among  the  learned  and  honorable  pro- 
fessions, where  it  certainly  deserves  to  be  ranked.'^ 

Mr.  Bates  continued  to  the  last  a  firm  and  devoted  friend  of  Mr. 
Philbrick,  and  he  could  hardly  find  words  to  express  his  detesta- 
tion of  the  acts  of  those  who  were  instrumental  in  his  removal 
from  office.     In  writing  him  on  one  occasion  he  said :  — 

*^  It  would  seem  amusing,  if  the  subject  were  not  too  serious  for  Jesting,  that 
men,  most  of  whom  are  babes  in  educational  matters,  should  pretend  to  know 
more  about  the  management  of  schools  than  yourself,  who  for  twenty  years 
have  made  it  the  study  of  your  useful  and  laborious  life.  My  indignation  has 
been  roused  that  some  men  in  Boston,  and  even  some  on  the  School  Committee, 


1888.]  JOSHUA    BATES,  33 

should  ignore  your  plans  and  methods.  In  a  short  tirae  they  will  sink  into 
ignoble  and  forgotten  graves,  while  your  name  will  continue  to  live  on,  as  one 
who  has  done  more  for  the  success  and  prosperity  of  the  Boston  schools  than 
any  other  man.  Continue  firm,  my  dear  friend,  in  the  views  you  have  expressed 
and  stand  unmoved  on  the  ground  you  have  taken,  and  I  know  the  better  sense 
of  all  true  and  practical  friends  of  education  will  sustain  you.'* 

These  were  prophetic  words  and  Mr.  Bates  lived  to  see  them 
fulfilled,  for  nearly  everything  for  which  Mr.  Philbrick  contended 
has  since  been  adopted,  while  that  which  he  opposed  has  been  dis- 
carded. Upon  learning  that  the  Memorial  Volume  of  Mr.  Phil- 
brick  was  to  be  issued,  he  wrote  to  Mrs.  Philbrick :  — 

^^  If  any  man  deserves  posthumous  reputation,  that  man  is  Dr.  Philbrick ;  so 
distinguished  an  educator  and  so  noble  a  man.'* 

After  an  examination  of  the  book  he  wrote  again :  — 

'^  Now,  that  I  have  finished  reading  the  various  tributes  to  his  memory,  I 
have  been  most  deeply  impressed  with  the  nobleness  of  his  character  and  life. 
I  have  always  esteemed  and  honored  your  beloved  husband,  but  never  have 
I  been  so  impressed  with  his  greatness  as  I  have  since  reading  the  tributes  to 
his  character  from  distinguished  educators.  His  influence  will  live  on  in  future 
years  as  one  of  the  greatest  benefactors  of  his  race.'' 

At  the  early  age  of  fifteen,  Mr.  Bates  became  connected  with 
the  Congregational  Church  at  Middlebury,  but  in  later  life  was  a 
regular  attendant  at  the  service  of  the  Episcopal  Church.  He  was 
conservative  in  his  religious  views,  and  as  I  learned  from  his  own 
lips,  in  words  spoken  with  strong  emotion,  he  had  a  firm  convic- 
tion of  the  truths  of  evangelical  religion  and  the  highest  esteem 
for  those,  who,  trusting  to  atoning  blood  for  their  own  salvation, 
sought  in  daily  life  to  exemplify  the  spirit  of  the  Master. 

He  married,  somewhat  late  in  life,  a  daughter  of  Hall  J.  How, 
of  Boston,  who,  with  Frank  C,  his  only  child,  survives  him.  For 
twelve  years  after  his  resignation  he  lived,  honored  and  beloved 
by  former  pupils,  associates,  and  friends. 

On  Monday,  June  25,  1888,  at  the  age  of  seventy-eight,  he  died 
at  Beverly,  where  for  many  years  he  had  made  his  summer  home. 
In  the  absence  of  his  own  pastor,  the  rector  of  Emmanuel  Church, 
Boston,  Rev.  EUery  C.  Butler,  of  Beverly,  a  warm,  personal 
friend,  oflBciated  at  the  funeral.  The  service  was  short  and  sim- 
ple. As  it  was  understood  to  be  private,  many  who  would  gladly 
have  been  present  to  pay  respect  to  his  memory  were  denied  the 
privilege.  His  body  rests,  where  lie  so  many  of  Boston's  great 
and  good,  at  Mount  Auburn. 


i 


34  EDUCATION,  [September, 

His  dignified  bearing  and  commanding  presence  will  be  seen  no 
more,  but  he  is  not  dead.  Influence  is  immortal.  The  infant 
dying,  still  lives  in  the  l>etter  thought  and  life  of  those  who  loved 
it  here. 

The  herald  of  the  cross,  in  foreign  lands  although  called  to  die, 
ere  yet  he  has  learned  to  utter  one  intelligible  word  in  the  ear  of 
those  he  would  save,  yet  speaks  to  them  by  the  consecration  which 
led  him  to  their  shores. 

What  shall  we  say,  then,  of  the  undying  influence  of  him,  who 
for  almost  half  a  century  labored  and  taught,  that  he  might  train, 
inspire,  and  elevate  thousands  of  boys,  who  vnW  ever  revere  the 
precious  memory  of  **  Master  Bates." 


JAMES  JOHONNOT,  who,  for  many  years,  lias  been  prominent 
in  educational  work,  and  is  the  author  of  a  number  of  popu- 
lar schoolbooks,  died,  June  18th,  at  Tarpon  Springs,  Florida. 

He  early  advocated  many  reforms  in  school  methods  and  school 
economy,  which  he  lived  to  see,  in  a  great  measure,  accomplished. 
Though  somewhat  radical  in  Ids  views,  because  in  advance  of  cur- 
rent opinions  upon  many  subjects,  his  chief  aim  was  to  place  the 
common  schools  upon  a  scientific  and  philosophic  basis,  arousing 
the  mental  powers,  and  making  practical  morals  the  educational 
means  for  the  cultivation  of  sound  character.  The  latter  years  of 
his  life  were  given  mainly  to  literary  work,  and  at  the  present  time 
there  have  been  published  the  following  books,  written  and  edited 
by  him :  "  Principles  and  Practice  of  Teaching,"  *'  Geograpliical 
Reader,"  "  Natural  History  Series  of  Instructive  Reading-Books," 
consisting  of  "Book  of  Cats  and  Dogs,"  '" Friends  in  Feathers  and 
Fur,"  "  Neighbors  with  Wings  and  Fins,"  "  Neighbors  with  Claws 
and  Hoofs,"  "Some  Curious  Flyers,  Creepers,  and  Swimmers," 
and  "The  Animate  World,"  "How  we  Live,"  an  elementary 
physiology,  "Historical  Series  of  Instructive  Reading-Books," 
seven  volumes,  and  "  The  Sentence  and  Word-Book." 

Two  different  editions  of  "  Principles  and  Practice  of  Teach- 
ing "  have  been  published  in  Japan,  in  the  Japanese  language,  for 
the  use  of  the  native  teachers  of  that  country.  His  death  will  be 
mourned  widely  and  sincerely,  as  the  loss  of  one  of  the  foremost 
educators  of  America. 


1888.]  OUTLINE  NOTES.  35 


OUTLINE    NOTES    ON    THE   RENAISSANCE    AND 

THE  REFORMATION.^ 

BY  IDA  M.  GARDNEB. 

[These  outlines  are  based  upon  notes  on  leotures  delivered  before  the  Rhode  Island 
State  Normal  School  by  the  late  Prof.  J.  Lewis  Dlman,  D.  D.,  of  Brown  University.  No 
attempt  has  been  made  to  develop  them  into  anything  more  than  a  connected  whole. 
Such  as  they  are,  they  embody  the  permanent  impression  made  by  the  lectures  upon  a 
comparatively  immature  mind;  and  may  therefore  serve  to  illustrate  Professor  Diman's 
clear  presentation  of  a  subject,  and  its  careftil  analysis.  It  is  believed  that  the  notes 
will  be  helptal  to  teachers,  not  only  in  the  lines  of  study  suggested,  but  in  presenting  to 
classes  a  short,  concise  statement  of  this  interesting  period  of  modem  history.] 

I.  —  THE   REFORMATION. 

THE  year  1517,  when  Luther  nailed  the  ninety-five  theses  on 
the  church  door  at  Wittenberg,  may  be  taken  as  the  approx- 
imate date  of  the  Reformation ;  but  in  reality,  the  Reformation 
began  in  the  twelfth  century,  when  Arnold  of  Brescia,  accepting 
all  the  doctrines  of  the  Church,  denied  its  political  supremacy  as 
claimed  by  the  MedisBval  Popes. 

In  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth  century,  another  grand  move- 
ment occurred.  This  was  the  Rise  of  the  Mendicant  Orders. 
Ever  since  the  sixth  century,  the  ruling  monastic  orders  had  been 
founded  on  the  Benedictine  system.  The  rule  of  St.  Benedict  had 
done  an  immense  amount  of  good  in  Europe.  When  civilization 
went  to  the  lowest  point  in  the  Dark  Ages,  the  Benedictines  kept 
knowledge  alive.  This  system  began  with  vows  of  poverty,  that 
is,  for  individuals,  but  the  Order  might  hold  property.  The  life 
was  a  pleasant  one.  The  leaders  became  powerful  men.  Abbots 
and  Archbishops  often  sat  in  the  House  of  Lords.  Young  men 
became  eager  to  secure  such  positions,  and  went  into  the  monas- 
tery from  worldly  motives.  The  Order  became  in  time  very 
wealthy.  Benedict  lived  at  a  time  when  a  man  could  hardly  help 
being  wicked ;  he  must  seclude  himself  to  be  pure.  He  thought 
of  his  own  salvation,  and  was  separated  from  sympathy  with  the 
world.  But  now  men  began  to  feel  that  religion  had  something 
more  to  do ;  that  man  had  relations  and  duties  to  other  men. 

*■  Copsrright,  1888,  by  Ida  M.  Gardner. 


36  EDUCATION.  [September, 

I.  St.  Francis  of  Assissi  was  the  most  remarkable  character  of 
Mediaeval  times.  He  was  a  gay,  pleasant^  fashionable,  loving  Ital- 
ian. A  religious  experience  through  which  he  passed,  produced  a 
conviction  that  religion  ought  to  be  a  spiritual  life.  He  became 
the  founder  of  the  Franciscans,  or  White  Friars.  They  diflFered 
from  the  Benedictines  in  requiring  absolute  poverty  for  the  Order, 
as  well  as  for  the  individual.  They  took  the  triple  vow  of  "  chasti- 
ty, obedience,  and  poverty."  Their  whole  aim  was  to  imitate 
Christ.  The  Order  did  not  oppose  the  Church,  but  introduced  the 
new  idea  of  spirituality.  It  was  a  mystical  theology  —  "a  sort  of 
modem  Quakerism."  The  Order  became  very  popular.  Feudal- 
ism prevailed,  and  nine-tenths  of  the  people  were  in  servitude. 
The  system  of  St.  Francis  was  a  Gospel  to  the  poor.  They  were 
made  to  feel  that  they  too  might  imitate  Christ.  The  rise  of  the 
Franciscans  aided  in  paving  the  way  for  the  Reformation,  in  that 
a  spiritual  religion  would  tend  to  lessen  the  value  of  the  ordinances 
of  the  Church.  St.  Francis  was  a  genial,  loving  mystic.  Not  so 
was 

II.  St.  Dominic  of  Spain.  He  was  a  practical  man.  He  saw 
the  Church  doing  nothing  for  the  people.  "  He  was  the  Moody  of 
the  thirteenth  century."  He  made  preaching  prominent.  The 
Dominicans,  or  Black  Friars,  were  preaching  friars.  They  had 
great  influence  at  Oxford.  (  The  college  gowns  of  to-day  a  relic 
of  Dominican  influence.)  The  Dominicans  gave  plain  preaching 
on  practical  matters.  Dominic  might  be  called  "  the  father  of 
modern  Methodism."  The  Dominicans  preached  in  the  streets  — 
the  beginning  of  itinerant  preaching.  The  Franciscans  urged  to 
spiritual  living ;  the  Dominicans,  to  reform  in  preaching.  The 
results  can  hardly  be  over-estimated.  These  two  gave  back  to 
Rome  great  masses  of  people  who  had  become  indifferent,  and 
gave  to  Latin  Christianity  three  hundred  years  more  of  life.  The 
influence  has  been  felt  even  down  to  the  present  day.  Wherever 
there  has  been  found  any  religious  life  in  Europe,  we  almost  alwaya 
find  that  one  of  these  two  influences  has  been  at  work. 

The  Mystical  movement  occurred  in  Germany.  None  of  the 
Mystics  departed  from  the  Church,  but  their  influence  was  another 
aid  to  the  Reformation.  In  the  fourteenth  century,  all  through 
the  Rhine  towns,  went  men  who  called  themselves  "  Friends  of 
God."  They  formed  no  order  or  association,  though  there  was  a 
very  strong  sympathy  of   opinion  among    them.     Among  their 


1888.]  OUTLINE   NOTES.  37 

preachers  John  Tauler  upheld  the  most  spiritual  idea  —  the  inter- 
nal influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit.  It  was  a  remarkable  movement. 
It  never  took  the  form' of  antagonism  to  the  Church,  but  gradually 
leavened  large  portions  of  Germany.  No  one  took  a  stand  for 
distinct  views,  but  they  prepared  the  way  for  others  to  do  so. 

After  the  fifteenth  century,  the  religious  movement  becomes 
sharper.  Savonarola  was  the  first  of  the  open  reformers.  He 
denounced  doctrines.  He  was  a  man  of  intense  spirit,  but  narrow 
in  intellect.  His  lectures  on  the  Apocalypse  produced  a  profound 
effect.  (  Read  "  Romola.")  As  a  reformer,  Savonarola  presents 
himself  in  three  attitudes,  and  we  find  he  was  not  quite  up  to  the 
standard  of  a  real  reformer. 

1.  As  a  religious  reformer.  He  denounced  the  wickedness  of 
the  clergy;  attended  the  death-bed  of  Lorenzo  di  Medici  and 
denounced  his  sins.  He  did  not  fear  to  face  Alexander  VI.  and 
declare  his  wickedness. 

2.  As  a  moral  reformer.  He  denounced  the  extravagance  of 
the  times  in  living,  dress,  etc.  So  great  was  the  effect  of  his 
preaching  that  the  ladies  of  Florence  gave  up  their  jewels  and 
treasures  to  be  burned  in  the  street. 

3.  In  regard  to  education.  Savonarola  opposed  an  extremely 
classical  education.     Claimed  it  should  be  Christian. 

After  a  career  of  great  successes,  Savonarola  was  put  to  death. 
Why  did  he  fail,  apparently,  to  produce  a  lasting  effect?  His 
training  had  been  defective.  He  looked  on  religion  as  an  external 
thing.  The  belief  of  men  was  untouched.  He  did  not  reach  the 
vital  point. 

II. 

All  great  periods  have  their  representative  men,  from  whom  the 
age  is  named.  Thus  we  speak  of  the  "  Age  of  Pericles,"  the  "  Age 
of  Augustus,"  etc.  The  first  quarter  of  the  sixteenth  century 
may  be  called  the  age  of  Leo  X.  To  understand  the  shipwreck 
of  Latin  Christianity,  we  must  understand  the  characteristics  of 
the  Age  of  Leo  X. 

Leo's  own  name  was  John  di  Medici,  the  second  son  of  Lorenzo 
the  Magnificent.  He  was  bom  in  1475,  when  liis  father  was  at 
the  height  of  his  power  and  splendor.  He  had  every  advantage, 
social  and  intellectual.  In  accordance  with  the  custom  of  the 
times,  John  was  dedicated  to  God,  receiving  the  ecclesiastical  ton- 


88  EDUCATION.  [September, 

sure  at  seven  years  of  age,  and  became  Abbot  of  a  large  monas- 
tery. In  the  Middle  Ages  such  ecclesiastical  preferment  was  very 
common.  At  thirteen  John  became  a  Cardinal,  but  this  was  a  step 
beyond  any  that  had  yet  been  taken.  There  was  some  question 
about  putting  a  boy  into  the  Pope's  Board  of  Advisers,  so  he  was 
not  to  enter  upon  the  duties  of  his  oflBce  until  seventeen.  From 
this  time  he  became  a  candidate  for  the  papacy.  The  fact  illus- 
trates the  condition  of  things,  when  the  highest  and  most  sacred 
offices  were  thrown  open  to  a  child. 

John  became  very  proficient  in  classical  studies.  He  had  all 
the  attributes  and  qualities  for  a  high  literary  career.  Had  he 
been  born  in  other  circumstances,  he  would  have  been  a  famous 
scholar.  He  was  fond  of  art,  and  became  a  munificent  patron 
of  Art. 

The  condition  of  Italy  wliile  John  was  growing  up,  had  its  influ- 
ence upon  him.  The  attempted  reform  under  Savonarola  was  a 
genuine  movement  in  the  Church.  Notwithstanding  the  perfectly 
shameless  life  of  Alexander  VI.  and  his  court,  there  were  signs  of 
a  strong  reaction  in  favor  of  a  high  tone  in  private  and  public 
morals.  Savonarola's  preaching  produced  a  profound  impression ; 
but  after  his  death  came  a  reaction,  and  Florence  was  worse  than 
before.  All  thought  of  reform  seemed  to  have  passed  away. 
Then  the  papacy  fell  into  the  hands  of  a  man  who,  if  he  had  vices, 
had  the  decency  to  cover  them.  This  was  Julius  II.  All  his 
tastes  and  inclinations  led  him  away  from  ecclesiastical  concerns.* 
He  was  never  happy  unless  fighting  on  horseback,  at  the  head  of 
his  army.  His  influence,  though  not  immoral,  was  almost  as  bad 
as  Alexander's  had  been.  It  tended  to  secularize  the  papacy,  and 
make  men  forget  that  the  Pope  was  the  Vicar  of  Clirist. 

Another  downward  tendency  at  this  time,  came  from  the  change 
in  Art.  Julius's  influence  on  Art  was  pernicious.  The  pure  period 
of  Italian  Art  closed  with  Da  Vinci.  His  "  Last  Supper  "  may  be 
taken  as  the  culmination  of  Art  as  religious.  After  that  time  Art 
changed.  Julius  II.  was  not  the  man  to  appreciate  an  artist  like 
Fra  Angelico.  He  had  no  taste  for  the  simple  and  pure.  He 
loved  splendor,  and  looked  on  Art  as  a  means  of  decorating  great 
buildings.  This  was  the  occasion  of  the  frescoes  in  the  Sistine 
Chapel.  Julius  was  a  munificent  patron  of  Art,  but  he  had  a  bad 
influence  on  Michael  Angelo  and  Raphael.  In  the  time  of  Julius 
there  were  already  signs  of  the  decay  in  Art. 


1888.]  OUTLINE   NOTES,  39> 

In  1513  John  di  Medici  became  Pope  under  the  title  of  Leo  X. 
He  made  great  changes  in  the  papacy.  We  study  him  in  three 
aspects :  1.  As  a  politician.  2.  As  patron  of  Art.  3.  In  con- 
nection with  religious  reform. 

As  a  politician,  Leo  was  able.  Julius  gave  a  word  and  a  blow. 
Leo  followed  a  pacific  policy.  To  avoid  trouble  he  balanced  the 
states  of  Italy  one  against  the  other.  He  wished  to  be  the  arbiter 
of  Italy.  This  policy  succeeded  for  a  time,  but  it  always  breeds 
suspicion  and  discontent,  and  generally  alienates  all  parties.  Leo 
escaped  war,  and  kept  the  papacy  from  entanglements  of  any  kind. 
He  kept  Italy  in  equilibrium ;  but  was  obliged  to  play  "  fast  and 
loose,"  now  on  this  side,  now  on  that.  All  the  powers  of  Europe 
came  to  look  upon  the  papacy  with  indifference.  From  watching 
Leo's  course,  they  began  to  act  in  the  same  way,  and  this  period  is 
known  as  the  Era  of  Diplomacy.  It  lasted  till  the  French  Revo- 
lution. Leo  was  adroit,  skilful,  often  successful,  but  had  no  politi- 
cal reputation,  advanced  no  political  idea,  roused  no  enthusiasm, 
inspired  no  devotion.  He  presents  a  great  contrast  to  Gregory 
VII.  A  man  who  has  moral  earnestness  never  fails  to  inspire 
devotion ;  and  has  followers  ready,  if  need  be,  to  die  for  liim. 
Leo  was  polite,  elegant,  and  well-bred;  would  hardly  speak  of 
religion.  He  was  fond  of  hunting,  and  the  stage.  This  was  the 
man  who  stood  at  the  head  of  the  Church,  "  who  opened  heaven  or 
hell  to  men  I "  Leo  had  about  him  pleasant,  refined  men  for  Car- 
dinals. Scholars  were  such  purists  that  they  would  not  speak  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,  except  as  "the  Divine  Afflatus."  The  i)apal 
court  was  elegant,  literary,  polished ;  but  made  no  mark  on  Euro- 
pean society.  The  age  was  one  of  indifference,  and  therefore  a 
weak  age. 

Leo  as  a  patron  of  Art,  was  a  striking  and  magnificent  character. 
He  had  a  genuine  appreciation  of  the  beautiful,  and  a  love  for 
literature  and  art.  He  was  a  great  friend  of  Raphael,  but  cor- 
rupted his  art.  It  is  not  the  richest  patrons  who  aid  Art  most.  It 
must  often  develop  in  struggle.  Inspiration  comes  when  no  patron 
asks  for  it.  Raphael  changed  greatly,  in  his  endeavors  to  please 
his  courtly  patron,  and  lost  the  high  religious  sentiment  that  marks 
his  earlier  works.  Looking  on  Leo  in  contrast  with  other  princes 
of  his  day,  we  find  liim  far  above  all,  and  deserving  to  rank  liigh. 

We  now  study  Leo  as  a  religious  reformer ;  not  in  personal 
religion,  but  in  ecclesiastical  concerns.     Here  his  idea,  as  in  his 


40  ED  UCA  TION,  [September, 

temporal  rule,  was  to  have  tilings  pleasant  and  easy.  Unfortu- 
nately he  came  where  two  seas  met,  and  the  storm  was  beyond  his 
skill.  Leo  was  eager  in  his  plans  for  carrying  on  the  work  on  St, 
Peter's.  He  meant  to  improve  on  the  plans  of  Julius  II.,  but  his 
expenses  were  heavy,  he  lived  handsomely,  and  he  became  short 
of  money.  He  could  get  it  by  remitting  the  sins  of  the  people. 
He  knew  the  conscientious  character  of  the  Germans.  He  chose 
a  coarse,  vulgar,  Dominican  monk,  John  Tetzel,  to  go  to  Ger- 
many and  sell  indulgences.  Tetzel  sold  indulgences  "  as  a  trader 
sells  fish."  The  Germans  did  not  seem  to  like  tliis  idea.  Tetzel 
ran  against  Luther,  and  trouble  followed.  Leo  was  surprised  at 
the  Germans.  He  could  not  understand  what  he  had  never  experi- 
enced. He  had  no  religious  feeling  himself,  to  be  outraged.  He 
regarded  this  disturl>ance  in  Germany  as  a  monkish  quarrel,  and 
poohed  when  asked  to  do  something  about  it.  So  little  did  he 
understand  religious  sentiment.  Yet  this  was  to  divide  Latin 
Christianity  I  It  is  remarkable  as  showing  that  a  sharp,  shrewd 
man  may  at  times  be  the  least  penetrating.  The  builtling  of  St. 
Peter's  precipitated  the  Reformation. 

III. 

Martin  Luther  is  generally  looked  upon  as  the  central  figure  of 
the  Protestant  Reformation.  He  was  a  great  man,  but  Charles  V. 
or  Leo  X.  might  just  as  truthfully  be  given  a  central  position. 
The  fact  is  that  the  Reformation  was  due  to  a  great  variety  of 
causes  acting  together. 

Martin  Luther  was  hon\  at  Eisle]>en,  in  1483.  His  boyhood 
forms  a  striking  c(mtrast  to  that  of  Leo  X.  He  was  the  son  of  a 
I)oor  miner,  but  had  a  good  education  for  that  age.  His  parents 
were  godly  people,  and  brought  uj)  their  boy  to  know  right  from 
wrong ;  but  he  afterward  shuddered  at  the  severity  of  their  disci- 
pline. His  school-training  was  not  dissimilar.  In  his  ''Table 
Talk  "  he  speaks  of  having  l>een  flogged  sixteen  times  over  a  Latin 
verl).  At  last  Martin  was  sent  to  Magdeburg.  Here  he  studied 
hard,  supporting  liimself  by  singing  in  the  streets.  He  was 
intended  for  the  law ;  but  he  very  early  became  subject  to  religious 
impressions,  and  at  last  entered  a  convent.  Here  for  a  time 
Luther's  life  passed  uneventfully  to  the  casual  observer,  but  his 
religious  life  was  one  of  struggle.  The  turning-point  in  his  career 
was  his  visit  to  Rome  in  1510.     His  emotions  on  approaching  the 


1888.]  OUTLINE   NOTES.  41 

Holy  City  were  intense,  but  he  was  doomed  to  bitter  disappoint- 
ment. Religion  was  the  last  thing  to  be  talked  about.  Julius  II. 
was  then  Pope.  The  mysteries  of  the  faith  were  scoffed  at  by 
ecclesiastics.  There  was  the  most  utter  indifference  to  religion. 
The  effect  upon  such  a  nature  as  Luther's  was  incalculable.  He 
returned  to  Germany  and  began  to  think.  The  University  of 
Wittenberg  had  been  founded  in  1502,  for  the  study  of  Greek  and 
Hebrew ;  and  in  1508  Luther  was  called  to  be  a  professor  at  Wit- 
tenberg. Here  he  became  the  centre  of  an  intense  intellectual 
life.  Melancthon  soon  joined  him,  and  they  quietly  pursued  their 
course  for  some  years.  Luther  turned  his  attention  to  the  study 
of  the  Scriptures.  He  read  the  Bible  now  in  the  original  tongue, 
and  lectured  on  it.  The  University  became  famoiLs.  Scholars 
flocked  thither,  drawn  by  his  powerful  eloquence.  Luther  was  a 
good  monk,  but  his  mind  was  working.  He  was  an  independent, 
plain-spoken  man,  known  as  a  ''jolly,  good-hearted  fellow."  He 
entered  into  life  heartily,  which  was  one  secret  of  his  popularity. 

In  1513,  Leo  X.  became  Pope.  Tetzel  came  to  Germany  to  sell 
indulgences,  that  Leo  might  go  on  with  his  work  of  decorating  St. 
Peter's.  Luther  was  revolted  at  Tetzel's  ideas.  After  thinking 
the  matter  over,  he  wrote  out  ninety-five  propositions,  or  theses, 
and  nailed  them  up  on  the  Church  door.  This  was  a  common 
way  of  holding  disputations  on  any  subject.  It  was  only  the  sub- 
ject which  was  unusual  —  '*  The  just  shall  live  by  faith."  This 
was  in  1517,  and  it  made  a  great  stir  in  Wittenberg  and  Germany. 
Tetzel  was  a  coarse  man,  not  at  all  agreeable  to  the  sober  Germans, 
and  their  minds  were  all  ready  for  the  discussion.  Observe  Luther's 
position.  He  did  only  what  a  hundred  others  had  done.  His  step 
was  not  so  far-reaching  as  that  of  Arnold  of  Brescia,  or  of  Savon- 
arola. He  denied  no  doctrine,  sacrament,  or  authority  of  the 
Church.  When  he  found  how  he  was  assailed,  he  wrote  a  letter 
to  the  Pope,  protesting  his  entire  submission  to  the  Holy  See. 
On  the  one  point  only,  he  differed. 

Three  steps  may  be  noted  in  Luther's  career :  I.  As  a  reform- 
er, by  the  theses  of  1517,  when  he  was  not  out  of  the  pale  of  ortho- 
doxy. II.  As  the  antagonist  of  Leo  X.  After  many  discussions 
an  ai)peal  was  finally  made  to  the  Pope.  He  was  not  inclined  to 
interfere.  Thought  it  a  mere  monkish  quarrel  which  would  all 
come  right.  Unfortunately  it  did  not,  and  many  joined  themselves 
to  Luther.     At  last  Leo  was  forced  to  condenm  him.     This  put 


4S  EDUCATION.  [September, 

Luther  in  a  new  position.  "  Leo  could  n't  give  up,  and  Luther 
would  n't."  Opposed  by  the  authority  of  the  Pope,  Luther  was 
now  forced  to  question  it.  This  led  to  the  great  discussion  at 
Leipsic. 

In  1519,  Maximilian  died.  Charles  I.  of  Spain,  and  Francis  I. 
of  France,  were  rivals  for  the  Imperial  crown.  During  the  inter- 
regnum, Frederic  of  Saxony  governed  Germany.  He  protected 
Luther,  who  felt  secure  and  took  another  position.  The  Reforma- 
tion began  to  assume  the  appearance  of  a  struggle  between  Luther 
and  the  Pope.  Leo  did  not  wish  to  excommunicate  Luther,  if 
avoidable  ;  but  it  was  necessary  to  stop  him,  and  at  last  the  Papal 
Bull  was  issued  against  him  in  December  of  1520.  Luther  burned 
the  Pope's  Bull.  There  was  now  no  possibility  of  his  return  to 
the  Church. 

The  Pope  now  did  a  very  foolish  thing,  in  appealing  to  the  Ger- 
man princes  to  aid  him  in  making  Luther  an  outcast.  The  separate 
princes  must  be  gained  to  his  side.  There  were  nearly  four  hun- 
dred princes,  claiming  the  rights  of  sovereign  power.  There  was 
no  one  head  to  appeal  to.  The  matter  dragged  on,  till  at  last 
Charles  I.  of  Spain  was  crowned  emperor  in  1520,  as  Charles  V. 
of  Germany.  Immediately  after  his  election,  the  Diet  of  Worms 
occurred.  Leo  applied  to  the  Diet.  It  was  proposed  that  Luther 
should  come  before  the  Diet  and  tell  his  story.  This  was  the  last 
thing  the  Pope  ought  to  have  done.  It  enabled  Luther  to  take 
the  next  step  in  his  career.  III.  The  appeal  to  the  civil  power. 
Luther's  ^vritings  had  been  well  circulated  through  Germany,  and 
many  of  the  German  nobles  at  the  Diet  were  well  inclined  toward 
him.  On  being  urged  to  retract,  Luther  took  the  position  he  had 
so  often  taken  before  —  "I  will  retract  whatever  I  have  said  that 
is  contrary  to  the  Word  of  God."  His  answers  and  arguments 
produced  a  profound  impression.  Charles  was  perplexed,  the  Diet 
not  unanimous.  It  was  the  crisis  of  Modern  Europe.  Before, 
Luther  had  been  a  private  person.  He  went  from  the  Diet  a 
national  hero.  It  was  no  longer  a  question  for  monks  to  settle, 
but  for  princes.  On  his  way  from  the  Diet,  Luther  was  seized  and 
confined  in  the  Wartburg.  Here  in  a  certain  sense  his  career 
ended.  The  movement  now  ceased  to  be  theological,  and  became 
a  great  political  question.  Luther  was  no  longer  the  leading 
spirit.  He  did  not  like  mixing  religious  reform  with  political 
matters. 


1888.]  OUTLINE   NOTES.  45 

It  is  interesting  to  compare  Luther  and  Savonarola,  and  the 
result  of  their  work.  Both  were  monks  of  the  Mendicant  order. 
Savonarola  was  a  Dominican,  Luther  an  Augustinian.  Both  were 
yearning  for  a  spiritual,  personal  religious  life.  Savonarola  never 
went  beyond  externals ;  did  not  touch  doctrines  nor  the  question 
of  the  soul.  He  was  destitute  of  an  inner  experience  of  spiritual 
truth.  Luther,  too,  was  moved  by  externals,  but  also  by  deepest 
spiritual  convictions.  Great  movements  have  their  roots  in  strug- 
gle. Savonarola  had  none.  Luther  began  early  to  doubt,  and 
from  his  own  personal  experience  he  came  to  believe^  "  The  just 
shall  live  by  faith."  Savonarola  died  without  touching  the  hearts 
of  men.  Luther's  work  is  still  living.  Never  was  there  such  a 
leader  of  common  men,  as  Luther.  He  had  an  intense,  personal 
magnetism.  He  loved  human  things,  domestic  life,  etc.  His 
words  were  half  battles.  He  used  language  in  his  own  way ;  may 
be  said  to  have  created  German  prose.  His  translation  of  the  Bible 
while  at  the  Wartburg  is  the  standard  of  vernacular  and  idio- 
matic German. 


THE   SILENT  PR  A  TER, 

BY   JULIA  H.  MAT. 

MY  little  boy  had  done  a  naughty  deed 
And  then  was  sorry,  but  he  did  not  know 
What  words  to  use  to  tell  his  father  so, 
Nor  how  to  speak  them.     I  could  plainly  read 
His  sorrow  in  his  face,  and  felt  his  need 
Of  speech ;  but  when  I  saw  the  baby  throw 
Himself  before  me,  then,  oh !  then,  although 
He  could  not  speak,  but,  shaking  like  a  reed. 
Clung  to  my  knees, —  I  clasped  him  to  my  heart, 
And  kissed  forgiveness. 

Thus  for  my  weak  prayer 
That  finds  no  fitting  words,  or  unexpressed 
Lies  syllabled  within,  my  God  may  care 
Before  the  trembling  lip  has  half  confessed 
Its  sorrow,  for  the  Father's  eye  can  see 
Repentant  hearts,  though  voices  silent  be. 


44  EDUCATIOy,  [September, 


CHILD  SPEECH,  AND  THE  LA  W  OF  MISPRONUN- 

CIA  TION. 

BY  EDMUND  NOBLE,  BOSTON. 
I. 

DO  children  mispronounce  in  a  haphazard  way,  without  system 
of  any  kind,  or  is  method  manifested  in  their  errors  of  pro- 
nunciation ?  Do  they  lisp  incorrectly  in  all  sorts  of  fashions,  and 
by  all  sorts  of  irregularities,  or  is  their  failure  to  rightly  enunciate 
established  sounds  reducible  in  detail  to  conformity  with  unvary- 
ing rule  and  inexorable  law  ?  The  answei^s  to  these  questions  are 
of  clear  and  direct  interest  to  teachei*s,  but  their  meaning  for 
certain  aspects  of  the  science  of  education  is  great  enough  to  i*aise 
the  whole  subject  into  a  position  of  high  importance.  This,  at  any 
rate,  is  the  conclusion  at  which  the  writer  has  arrived  after  several 
years'  study  in  the  fascinating  realm  of  child-speech,  and  it  is 
because  he  believes  that  we  may  have  here,  in  this  little  known 
realm,  a  new  source  of  help  for  natui^al  methods  of  tuition,  a  new 
treasure-house  of  facts  for  the  science  of  man,  that  he  ventures  to 
offer  some  of  the  results  of  liis  inquiries  to  the  readers  of  Educa- 
tion. 

Let  me  begin  by  stating  the  general  character  of  the  conclusions 
which  studies  of  child-speech  in  such  languages  as  English,  French, 
German,  Russian,  Italian,  Danish,  Swedish,  Magyar,  Calmuck,  New 
Greek,  and  Finnish,  have  seemed  to  afford  abundant  justifica- 
tion. At  an  early  period  of  the  inquiry,  there  were  discovered 
in  the  more  prominent  mistakes  of  child  pronunciation,  tendencies 
to  error  in  certain  common  directions  such  as  clearly  implied  some 
law  as  their  inciting  cause.  I  found,  for  example,  that  the  sounds 
most  imperfectly  pronounced  by  children  are  sounds  the  formation 
of  which  by  the  organs  of  speech  is  obscure  as  a  process  when 
compared  with  the  process  necessary  to  the  formation  of  other 
sounds ;  and  that  the  souniLs  most  accurately  and  soonest  uttered 
by  children  are  sounds  the  formation  of  which  is  clear  and  obvious 
as  a  process  when  compared  with  the  process  followed  by  the  vocal 


1888.]  CHILD    SPEECH.  45 

organs  in  the  creation  of  other  sounds.  That  is  to  say,  when  chil- 
dren make  mistakes  of  pronunciation,  the  tendency  is  to  make 
them  in  the  case  of  sounds  which  are  produced  either  in  the  throat 
or  the  posterior  part  of  the  mouth,  or  by  some  arrangement  of  the 
organs  of  speech  which  is  either  not  visible  as  an  arrangement,  or 
which  leads  to  a  partial  suppression  of  the  sound  within  the  mouth, 
or  which  gives  rise  to  a  sound  of  such  faintness  or  complexity  that 
it  cannot  easily  be  imitated.  On  the  other  hand,  when  children 
are  correct  in  their  pronunciation  at  a  time  when  their  speech  is 
naturally  imperfect,  the  sounds  correctly  pronounced  will  be 
found,  as  a  rule,  to  be  those  sounds  whose  formation  by  the  organs 
of  speech  is  not  obscure  but  obvious  —  sounds,  in  fact,  which  are 
produced  in  the  anterior  part  of  the  mouth,  by  the  lips,  or  in  such 
a  manner  as  to  give  rise  to  a  clear  and  forcible  impression  in  the 
mind  of  the  hearer. 

Before  a  child  can  reproduce  a  sound  once  heard,  two  processes 
are  necessary.  The  brain  of  the  child  must  first  receive  the  im- 
pression, or  the  percept,  of  that  sound.  Then,  the  moment  before 
reproduction  of  the  impression  as  sound,  the  percept  must  be 
reproduced  as  re-percept.  Now,  the  resemblance  between  the 
sound  as  uttered  by  a  teacher  and  the  sound  as  reproduced  by  the 
vocal  organs  of  the  child,  will  depend  —  first,  on  the  vividness  of 
the  percept ;  second,  on  the  faithfulness  of  the  re-percept  to  the 
percept ;  and  third,  on  the  completeness  of  the  response  yielded 
by  the  organs  of  the  voice  to  the  nerve  stimulus  setting  them  in 
motion.  Yet  we  have  here  to  do  simply  with  the  percept.  If  that 
be  vivid,  it  will  assert  its  character  in  the  correctness  of  the  repro- 
duced sound.  But  if  it  is  weak  or  faulty  in  any  respect,  then  its 
defect  will  be  reproduced  in  an  erroneous  pronunciation. 

By  what  circumstances,  then,  or  conditions  is  the  character  of 
the  percept  determined?  It  must  first  be  remembered  that,  for 
purely  human  experiences  like  those  of  speech  and  of  listening  to 
speech,  the  senses  need  organization ;  and  that  in  the  child  their 
progress  to  the  degree  of  acuteness  which  belongs  to  human  beings 
fully  matured  is  definite  and  gradual.  The  period  of  the  acquire- 
ment of  speech  is  also  the  period  in  which  the  sense  of  sight,  and 
particularly  that  of  hearing,  undergo  a  cumulative  improvement 
of  considerable  range.  Hence  it  is  in  this  period  that  such  senses 
are  only  fully  awake  to  the  strongest  and  most  vivid  impressions 
The  circumstances  under  which  a  sound  is  produced  or  an  objec 


46  EDUCATION.  [Septembei, 

is  seen  will  thus  have  a  much  more  important  effect  upon  the  char- 
acter of  the  percept  created  by  the  sonorous  or  visible  object  than 
they  can  possibly  have  at  a  later  period,  when  the  senses  have 
acquired  their  full  acuteness.  Any  obstacle  in  the  way  of  the 
sonorous  wave  will  exert  an  inhibitory  effect  upon  the  percept 
larger  than  that  which  would  be  exerted  in  the  case  of  an  adult, 
and  it  will  therefore  be  of  considerable  importance  to  the  hearing 
of  a  child,  and  to  its  perception  of  a  vocal  sound,  whether  that 
sound  is  uttered  in  the  posterior  part  of  the  mouth,  or  is  produced 
by  the  lips,  or  with  the  cooperation  of  the  tongue  and  teeth.  Nor 
do  very  young  children  depend  alone  for  the  imitation  of  a  sound 
upon  the  sense  of  hearing.  In  the  early  stage  of  their  acquire- 
ment of  speech,  at  any  rate,  they  usually  gaze  at  the  speaker's 
mouth,  with  an  apparent,  and  verj"^  real,  though  only  sub-conscious, 
purpose  of  observing  the  position  of  the  lips  and  tongue,  or  the 
movements  of  both,  in  the  act  of  articulation.  This  attention  to 
the  visible  phenomena  of  speech  —  this  application  of  all  the 
available  means  of  successful  imitation  —  seems  to  pass  away  as 
the  child  gains  the  rudiments  of  articulate  language ;  but  while  it 
continues,  the  testimony  of  vision  is  as  clearly  in  favor  of  the 
acquirement  of  visible  arrangements  of  the  mouth  and  tongue,  as 
is  the  testimony  of  hearing  in  favor  of  the  more  audible  to  the 
disadvantage  of  the  less  audible  sounds.  In  other  words,  the 
sounds  modified  in  the  fore-part  of  the  mouth,  where  there  is  no 
obstacle  in  the  way  of  the  sonorous  vibrations,  and  where  the 
physical  arrangements  of  vocal  utterance  may  be  clearly  seen,  have 
a  tendency  to  be  selected  for  earlier  acquirement  than  the  sounds 
which  are  modified  in  the  posterior  part  of  the  mouth,  where  there 
are  obstacles  in  the  path  of  the  sonorous  vibrations,  and  where  the 
organic  positions  that  produce  those  vibrations  cannot  be  observed. 
Now,  if  there  be  such  a  selection  as  this,  children  must  find  it 
on  the  one  hand  easier  to  pronounce  labials  and  dentals,  on  the 
other,  more  difficult  to  enunciate  medials  and  gutturals  —  easy  or 
difficult,  in  fact,  to  produce  sounds  according  as  they  possess  the 
conditions  of  ease  and  difficulty  as  just  described.  Moreover,  a 
law  like  this  requires,  as  proof  of  its  existence  and  operation,  not 
only  that  certain  sounds  shall  be  easy  to  acquire,  and  certain  other 
sounds  difficult  to  acquire,  but  that  in  the  child  speech  to  which 
the  alleged  law  is  applicable  there  shall  occur  more  of  the  "  easy  " 
than  of  the  difficult  sounds,  and  that  the  blunders  of  children  in 


1888.]  CHILD    SPEECH.  47 

pronunciation  shall  be  mainly  blunders  arising  out  of  the  improper 
rejection  of  the  difficult  sounds  and  the  improper  selection  of  the 
easy  ones. 

The  first  examination  of  child  speech  to  which  I  shall  draw 
attention  was  recorded  in  the  Transactions  of  the  American  Philo- 
logical Association  for  1877.  It  resulted  in  the  preparation  of  a 
tabular  statement  presenting  the  whole  of  the  words  known  by  a 
child  two  years  of  age.  The  list  showed  the  use  of  the  different 
letters  of  the  alphabet  in  the  following  proportion: 


A, 

14 

G, 

15 

M, 

32 

T,  37 

B, 

53 

H, 

29 

N, 

17 

UV,  5 

c, 

51 

I, 

5 

0, 

12 

W,  25 

D, 

22 

J, 

8 

P, 

34 

X,   3 

E,  5        K,      8         Q  R,  21         Y,       3 

F,  16        L,     16        S,      60        Z,       3 

Unfortunately,  proportions  like  these  give  us  no  direct  clue  to 
the  child's  ability  to  utter  certain  sounds  with  greater  ease  than 
certain  other  sounds.  Its  milieu^  the  conversation  of  its  parents, 
a  hundred  accidental  circumstances,  may  have  decided  it  in  the 
choice  of  words  for  imitation.  But  if  we  believe  that  it  would  be 
more  likely  to  acquire  a  word  beginning  with  an  easy  letter  than 
a  word  beginning  with  a  difficult  letter,  then  the  table  may  be 
admitted  to  have  a  certain  significance.  And  if  we  regard  as  easy 
letters  B,  D,  F,  M,  N,  P,  S,  T  —  each  of  which  is  an  obvious  sound 
in  the  sense  already  laid  down  —  then  we  shall  have  271  separate 
utterances  as  compared  with  210  utterances  of  the  more  difficult 
sounds.  The  result  would  stand  in  a  more  explicit  statement 
thus:  — 

Eight  letters  of  the  alphabet,  representing  easy  sounds,  yield 
271  repetitions. 

Eighteen  letters  of  the  alphabet,  representing  difficult  sounds, 
yield  210  repetitions. 

In  a  further  examination  with  a  second  child,  also  at  the  age  of 
two  years,  the  largest  number  of  repetitions  were  of  the  following 
letters :  — 

B,     47        C,     39        S,     45        T,     32 

The  B,  S,  T,  labial,  sibilant,  and  dental  respectively,  are  clearly 
"  obvious,"  markedly  visible  and  audible  sounds.     The  C  is  too 


48  ED  UCA  TION.  [  September, 

obscure  to  lie  taken  account  of,  since  it  may  frequently  form  part 
of  the  combination  *'  ch,"  or  may  occasionally  be  used  as  a  sibil- 
ant —  in  both  of  which  cases  it  would,  like  the  rest,  be  an  obvious 
sound.  Mr.  Holden's  C  words  do  actually  include  **  comer," 
'* chair,"  *••  cellar,"  while  reckoned  as  an  S  word  we  find  "sugar." 
The  third  experiment,  with  a  boy  two  years  old  for  subject^ 
yielded  the  following  results :  — 


B, 

16 

S. 

13 

c, 

18 

M, 

12 

H, 

16 

In  the  year  1879  another  investigator,^  having  noted  all  the 
words  known  by  a  girl  two  years  old,  arranged  them  so  as  to  show 
the  frequency  of  occurrence  of  different  letters  as  initial  letters  of 
the  words.2  The  following  are  the  largest  number  of  repetitions 
recorded :  — 

S,        161  C,        95 

B,         126  P,        97 

It  will  be  seen  that  whatever  limitations  properly  belong  to  the 
experiments  cited,  the  tendency  to  repetition  has  in  every  case 
been  overwhelmingly  in  favor  of  those  sounds  which  peld  vivid 
percepts,  and  which  are  easily  followed  in  their  "  physical "  aspects 
by  the  eye. 

Much  more  suited  to  our  purpose  are  the  observations  of  Preyer, 
a  well-known  German  investigator,  who  has  given  an  exhaustive 
account  of  errors  made  in  pronunciation  by  certain  German  chil- 
dren whose  earliest  experiments  in  speech  he  was  enabled  to  follow 
closely.^  It  may  be  said  at  once  that  the  results  thus  obtained 
give  a  general  confirmation  of  tlie  view  advanced  in  these  pages. 
At  times,  exceptions  may  be  found,  or  a  law  fully  operative  in  the 
early  period  of  a  child's  struggles  with  vocal  sounds  may  seem 
much  less  a  power  in  the  later  period  of  those  struggles ;  yet  gen- 
erally there  will  be  found  a  distinct  preference  by  children  for  the 
sounds  designated  easy  or  obvious,  and  a  distinct  inability  to  pro- 
nounce, or  to  pronounce  well,  those  sounds  which  I  have  called 
difficult.     That  guttural  or  throat  sounds,  for  example,  have  a 

^  Mr.  W.  Humphreys,  in  Transactions  of  tbe  Amerioan  PhUological  Association  for 
1879.    Page  5. 

*  With  a  purpose,  of  course,  quite  distinct  fkt>m  mine. 

>  See  "  Die  Seele  des  Kindes." 


1888.] 


CHILD  SPEECH. 


49 


tendency  to  be  rejected,  is  well  shown  by  the  following  errors,  as 
cited  by  Herr  Preyer :  — 


Word. 

Mispronun- 
ciation. 

Word. 

Mispronnn 
ciation. 

Hin, 

in. 

Karl, 

all. 

Herz, 

atz. 

Grete, 

ete. 

Klatschen, 

atsen. 

Gewesen, 

wesen. 

Garten, 
Gasse, 

atten. 
asse. 

Kopf, 

opf. 

The  "  sh  "  is  also  a  difficult  sound,  pronounced  entirely  within 
the  mouth,  and  by  a  rather  complex  arrangement  of  the  vocal 
organs.  How  children  deal  with  it  is  shown  by  the  fcJllowing 
examples :  — 

Schule,  tule  Schwein,  wein. 

Schaf,  saf.  Tisch,  tiss. 

Schlafen,  lafen,  slafen.  Ding,  din. 

Hirsch,  iss.  Singt,  int. 

Stuhl,  tul. 

R  represents  another  difficult  sound,  which  most  children  fail  to 
pronounce  clearly.  That  the  German  child  does  not  enunciate  it 
readily  is  thus  shown :  — 

Durch,  duch.  Traurig,  taotech. 

Bret,  bot.  Rohe,  ule. 

Unter,  ante. 

The  L  is  frequently  interchanged  in  language  by  R,  probably 
owing  to  the  likeness  existing  between  the  physiological  arrange- 
ments needed  to  produce  the  sounds.  That  they  are  alike  in  diffi- 
culty is  shown  by  such  cases  of  mispronunciation  as :  — 

Licht,  icht.  Blatt,  batn. 

Vogel,  voge.  Mantel,  mante. 

Laterne,  atenne. 

The  following  are  examples  of  complex  rejection :  — 

Rike,  itte.  Gross,  toss. 

Finger,  finne.  Katze,  tatze. 

Klein,  tein.. 

In  the  first  example,  the  difficult  R  is  rejected,  and  the  easy  TT 
put  in  place  of  the  difficult  K.  In  the  second  case,  the  difficult 
NG  is  replaced  by  the  easy  NN.     In  the  third,  the  easy  T  takes 


60  EDUCATJOX.  [September, 

the  place  of  the  two  difficult  sounds  of  KL.  In  the  fourth,  GR, 
each  of  which  letters  represents  a  difficult  sound,  yields  to  the 
easy  sound  of  T.  In  the  fifth  example,  the  easy  T  replaces  the 
difficult  K.     Not  less  significant  are  such  changes  as :  — 

Hase,  ade.  Besen,  l>ebe. 

Wasser,  webbe.  Schwalbe,         baubee. 

Bos,  beb. 

It  will  be  noted  that  in  the  fii^st  of  these  examples,  the  difficult 
H  disappears  altogether,  and  tliat  the  easy  S  (pronounced  as  Z,) 
is  replaced  by  the  still  easier  I).  In  the  second,  the  easy  SS  is 
rejected«in  favor  of  the  easiest  of  all  sounds,  that  of  the  B.  In  the 
third,  B  takes  tiie  place  of  the  less  easy  S  (Z)  ;  in  the  fourth, 
there  is  a  similar  change ;  wliile  in  the  fifth,  the  B  is  made  to  do 
duty  for  the  difficult  SCH  and  the  L. 

The  next  group  of  errora  noted  by  Herr  Preyer  may  be  given 
as  follows :  — 

Morgen, 
Martha, 
Arnold, 

These  supply  us — fii*st,  with  two  rejections  of  the  difficult  R, 
with  the  substitution  of  a  vowel  and  an  easy  T,  then  \\4th  an  easy 
N,  replacing  a  third  R,  a  still  easier  M  taking  the  place  of  a  fouilh 
R,  and  an  interchange  m  the  last  example  of  L  for  R. 

The  same  story  is  told  by  the  following  cases :  — 

Bild,  bind.  Legen,  degen. 

Lampe,  bampc.  Lowe,  wewe. 

Stille,  tinne. 

Here,  easy  N  replaces  difficult  L ;  still  easier  B  takes  the  place  of 
difficult  L ;  easy  T  replaces  difficult  SH ;  easy  D  is  preferred  to 
difficult  L;  and  easy  W  (V  sound)  excludes  difficult  L. 

The  following  are  miscellaneous  illustrations :  — 

Ohr,  oa.  Blatt,  batn. 

Hemd,  hem.  Tuch,  tubs. 

Hand,  hann.  Vater,  fa-ata. 

The  most  noticeable  characteristic  of  these  seven  cases  of  error 
is  the  omission  or  the  replacement  of  the  R  and  L.  The  difficult 
guttural  CH  is  rejected  in  one  of  the  examples.  In  two  cases,  a 
final  D  is  omitted,  probably  out  of  sheer  laziness,  the  potency  of 


moigjen. 

Warum, 

amum. 

matta. 

Werfen, 

welfen. 

annold. 

1888.] 


CHILD  SPEECH. 


61 


which  in  lingual  development,  has  been  abundantly  acknowledged. 
In  such  examples  as  — 


Auge, 

autse. 

Zahne, 

tane. 

Bart, 

baat. 

Schulter, 

alter. 

KinD, 

tenn. 

the  reader  will  recognize  in  every  case  the  rejection  of  a  difficult 
for  an  easy  sound  —  of  S  (Z)  for  N,  of  II  for  A,  of  K  for  T,  of  Z 
(TS)  for  T  —  and  the  complete  dropping  of  SCH. 

The  last  errora  I  shall  add  on  the  authority  of  Ilerr  Preyer,  are : 


Schlittcn, 

Kamm, 

Trommel, 

Korb, 

Schlussel, 

Nichts, 

Klopfen, 

LiifteD, 

Kleben, 

Verbrochen, 

Abscheiden, 


lita.  litta. 

dam,  lamm,  namm. 

tommel. 

torb. 

littl. 

nits. 

topf. 

aflfle. 

leben. 

versprochen. 

abneiden. 

nepf. 

Messer  neiden. 

tain  Milch  da. 

dass-la-okk. 


Knopfc, 

Mit  dem  Messer  schneiden, 
£s  ist  kein  Milch  da, 
Das  ist  der  Schlafrock, 

With  infrequent  exceptions,  easy  sounds  are  sulistituted  for  dif- 
ficult ones  in  all  the  al)ove-cited  cases. 

Some  other  noteworthy  experiments,  errors  of  pronunciation  by 
children  have  lx»en  collected  by  Frau  von  Strumpell,  ^amongst 
them  the  mistakes  made  by  a  child  ten  montlis  old.  They  are 
presented  in  the  following  order :  — 

Fahren, 

Fallen, 

Brot, 

Augen, 

Artig, 

Stirn, 

Wange, 

A  clear  preference  for  easy  sounds  to  the  exclusion  of  sounds 
that  are  difficult  is  shown  by  every  one  of  these  thirt43en  examples. 


paren. 

August, 

aua. 

pallen. 

Trinken, 

tinken. 

hot. 

Gabel, 

dabcl. 

aujcn. 

Schliissel, 

lussel. 

atig. 

Nichts, 

nits. 

tirn. 

Ileiss, 

eiss. 

wanne. 

62  EDUCATION.  [September, 

The  changes,  taken  in  the  order  of  their  occurrence,  may  be 
described  thus :  Substitution  of  easy  P  for  less  easy  F  (twice) ; 
omission  of  difficult  R ;  rejection  of  difficult  G  for  easy  (vowel) 
J ;  omission  of  difficult  R ;  use  of  easy  T  in  place  of  difficult  ST ; 
omission  of  difficult  G  (twice);  omission  of  difficult  R;  substitu- 
tion of  easy  D  for  difficult  G;  omission  of  difficult  SCH;  omission 
of  difficult  (guttural)  CH;  omission  of  difficult  (aspirate)  H. 

Vierordt,  the  German  physiologist,  writing  in  the  Deutsches 
Revue  for  Januaiy,  1879,  gave  the  following  examples  of  mispro- 
nunciation by  a  child  between  two  and  three  years  old:  — 


Bos, 

beb. 

Lowe, 

wewe. 

Besen, 

bebe. 

Blasebalg, 

babaube. 

Wasser, 

webbe. 

Schemel, 

emele. 

That  is  to  say:  use  of  easy  B  for  less  easy  S  (Z);  substitution 
of  Cixsy  BB  for  less  easy  SS ;  employment  of  easy  W  (V)  in  place 
of  difficult  L;  omission  of  difficult  L  and  substitution  of  easy  BE 
for  difficult  LG;  omission  of  difficult  SCII. 

Herr  I.  E.  Lobisch,  another  investigator  in  the  field  of  infant 
speech,^  states  that  the  fii*st  consonants  uttered  by  childi*en  are 
those  which  are  formed  by  the  opening  and  closing  of  the  mouth 
or  lips,  namely,  M,  B,  P.  M.  A.  de  la  Calle  tells  of  a  child  whose 
first  attempt  to  utter  the  word  heau  resulted  in  the  sound  M-BE, 
showing  the  ease  with  which  two  classes  of  labials  may  be  inter- 
changed.2  The  same  child  made  the  following  errors  in  pronun- 
ciation :  — 

Otes-toi,  6t-ta.  Mouchoir,        moussoir. 

Clou,  cou.  La-haut,  la-lo. 

In  the  first  case,  01  is  avoided  as  being  too  difficult ;  in  the  sec- 
ond, the  child  rejects  L;  in  the  third,  the  01  is  at  last  accom- 
plished, but  the  difficult  C/H  has  to  be  replaced  by  the  easy  SS ; 
in  the  fourth  (probably  separated  from  the  first  by  an  interval  of 
time),  the  L  has  been  acquired,  and  is  found  easier  to  pronounce 
than  the  guttural  H.  M.  A.  de  la  Calle  found  it  necessary  to 
employ  the  formula  RGH  in  representation  of  the  sound  of  R, 
wliich  he  says  '4es  enfants  ne  peuvent  prononcer  pendant  long- 
temps." 

1  See  **  Entwickelungsgeschichto  der  Scele  des  Kindes." 

*Iu  New  Greek  the  sound  B  is  expressed  by  the  two  consonants  MP.    The  Romaic 
method  of  spelling  a  well-known  poet's  name  is,  therefore,  not  Byron,  but  Mpyron. 


1888.]  EDITORIAL.  53 


EDITORIAL, 

PRESIDENT  ELIOT,  of  Harvard  College,  is,  just  now,  putting 
forth  some  valuable  papers ;  none  more  worthy  of  attention 
than  his  essay,  in  the  August  number  of  the  Atlantic  Monthly,  on 
the  reaiTangement  of  the  couree  of  study  for  seeondarj'^  and  graded 
schools.  The  President  urges  that  too  much  time  is  given  to 
irrelevant  instruction  in  the  earlier  years  of  schooling ;  and  that 
our  children  are  more  damaged  by  the  confusion  of  our  ambitious 
schemes  of  elementaiy  education  than  they  would  be  by  steady 
work  that  would  present  important  topics,  treated  in  an  attrac- 
tive way. 

He  suggests  that  foreign  languages  may  l^etter  come  in  at  eight 
than  twelve  years  of  age ;  and  that,  because  of  the  postponement 
of  the  preparatory  department,  the  time  of  entering  college  is  so 
delayed  that  the  average  graduate  can  hardly  be  expected  to 
become  self-supporting  till  nearer  thirty  than  twenty  yeai's  of  age. 
He  maintains  that  the  boys  in  the  French  schools  are  so  handled 
that  they  accomplish  a  larger  amount  of  solid  work  and  are  farther 
advanced  in  preparatory  studies,  at  a  given  age,  than  our  own ; 
and,  although  he  deprecates  hasty  changes,  he  urges  a  movement 
in  the  direction  indicated  and  insists  that  this  reform  would  be 
invaluable  to  schools  of  every  sort.  We  believe  a  good  deal  in 
the  President's  theory.  The  expert  instruction  in  the  elementary 
and  grammar  school  work  of  our  cities  has  reached  a  point  of 
elaboration,  diffusion,  and  almost  distraction  that  calls  loudly  for 
WLse  condensation,  the  weeding  out  of  superfluous  matter  and  the 
bringing  forward,  more  rapidly,  of  the  points  of  real  importance. 
We  somewhat  distrust,  however,  the  value  of  such  parallels  as  the 
President  and  a  large  class  of  our  University  men  are  fond  of 
drawing  between  European  and  American  cliildien,  in  this  respect. 
The  European  continental  boy  and  girl  live  in  a  world  so  different 
from  our  own  that  there  is  little,  comparatively,  to  divert  their 
attention  from  steady,  quiet,  and  often  severe  school  work.  Be- 
tween eight  and  fifteen,  the  American  cliild  is  in  contact  with  a 
whole  class  of  ideas,  stimulants,  impressions,  and  aspirations  which 


64  EDUCATION.  [September, 

must  prevent  the  same  kind  of  absorbing  interest  and  steady 
application.  And  this  environment  of  the  American  youth,  though 
often  disparaged  by  the  school-men,  is  really  ^an  indispensable, 
sometimes  the  most  valuable,  portion  of  his  educational  outfit  for 
American  life. 

The  essay,  moreover,  regards  the  educational  question  chiefly 
from  the  University  point  of  view,  which  is  not  that  of  a  grow- 
ing majority  of  the  more  thoughtful  American  people.  There  is, 
certainly,  as  much  need  of  readjustment  and  adaptation  in  the 
College  and  University  as  in  the  reform  suggested  in  the  elemen- 
tary and  secondary  schools.  But  essays  like  tliis  will  certainly 
help  to  bridge  the  chasm,  so  long  maintained  by  the  stubborn 
managers  of  the  higher  education,  and  hasten  the  day  when  there 
shall  be  a  true  national  system  of  instruction,  from  the  Kinder- 
garten to  the  University. 

THE  great  excitement  in  Boston  over  the  case  of  Mr.  Travis  and 
his  teaching  of  history  continues,  and  is  likely  to  enter  as 
an  important  factor  into  the  coming  election  of  the  school  com- 
mittee of  that  city.  The  controversy  is  rather  upon  questions 
of  fact  than  of  theory.  These,  too,  are  of  such  a  natm^e  that 
there  would  seem  to  be  little  difficulty  in  determining  them. 

No  one  should  object  to  the  teaching  in  the  schools  of  the  facts 
of  the  Salem  Witchcraft,  the  banishment  of  Roger  Williams,  or 
the  cruel  punishment  of  the  Quakers  in  the  early  history  of  the 
Massachusetts  Bay  Colony.  In  like  manner  the  ugly  facts  of  the 
fires  of  Smithfield,  the  trial  of  Galileo,  or  the  sale  of  TetzeFs 
indulgences  may  be  taught  as  passages  in  the  history  of  Europe. 
The  human  race  is  advancing,  and  better  principles  are  now  gov- 
erning men  than  in  the  earlier  ages.  Let  us  rejoice  in  that,  and 
while  teaching  the  facts  of  the  past,  let  it  be  done  with  such  can- 
dor and  good  will  to  men  as  not  to  stir  up  the  worst  passions  of 
the  race,  but  in  recognition  of  the  fact  that  God  has  made  of  one 
blood  the  entire  race,  and  that  blood  should  everywhere  prove  to 
be  thicker  than  water.  But  the  tiling  above  all  others  to  be  jeal- 
ously guarded,  preserved  and  fostered  is  our  system  of  free,  pub- 
lic schools,  and  no  portion  of  our  cosmopolitan  community  should 
be  permitted  to  interfere  with  this  essential  American  institution. 


1888.]  EDITOBIAL,  M 

EFFICIENT  arrangements  are  now  making  for  an  appropriate 
celebration  at  Washington  of  the  one  hundredth  anniver- 
sary of  the  adoption  of  the  Federal  Constitution,  and  the  four 
hundredth  anniversary  of  the  discovery  of  this  continent  by 
Columbus.  An  association  called  the  "  Board  of  Promotion,  Per- 
manent Exposition  of  the  Three  Americas,"  with  Mr.  Alex.  D. 
Anderson  as  secretary,  has  been  organized,  and  measures  are  now 
being  taken  to  insure  general  interest  in  the  matter  throughout 
this  country  and  in  Europe.  Spain  has  already  signified  her  inten- 
tion to  participate,  and  the  American  Congress  has  taken  the  pre- 
liminary steps.  The  site  proposed  for  the  permanent  exposition 
and  the  celebration  is  on  the  public  lands  between  the  Washington 
monument  and  the  Potomac,  and  handsome  buildings  are  to  be 
erected  for  the  purpose.  The  Board  of  Promotion  have  published 
a  beautiful  bird's-eye  view  of  Washington,  in  colors,  which  would 
be  a  useful  and  artistic  ornament  to  any  school. 

THE  education  of  the  young  in  sentiments  and  principles  of 
patriotism  should  form  one  of  the  most  importiint  functions 
of  our  public  schools.  Chicago  has  set  a  good  example  in  offering 
prizes  to  the  pupils  in  the  schools  for  essays  on  "  Patriotism." 
The  income  of  $10,000  has  been  given  to  the  school  department 
of  the  city  by  Mr.  V.  F.  Lawson,  the  publisher  of  The  Chicago 
Daily  News,  to  be  expended  in  procuring  suitable  medals  to  be 
awarded  each  year.  Mr.  Lawson  states  the  object  he  has  in  view, 
in  the  following  words :  ''  For  the  purpose  of  stimulating  interest 
in  the  study  of  patriotic  literature  by  the  pupils  of  our  public 
schools  to  the  end  that  familiarity  with  the  causes  which  led  to  the 
founding  of  the  American  Republic,  and  with  the  motives  which 
inspired  the  struggles  and  sacrifices  of  the  fathers  may  develop  a 
higher  standard  of  American  citizenship."  Here  is  an  example 
worthy  to  be  followed  in  other  cities. 

THE  meeting  of  the  National  Educational  Association  at  San 
Francisco  proved  to  be  of  very  high  order.  It  was  well 
planned  and  the  admirable  plan  was  equally  well  carried  out. 
The  people  of  that  great  city  are  deserving  of  all  praise  for  their 
abundant  hospitality  and  generosity.  The  cause  of  education 
upon  the  Pacific  coast  must  inevitably  be  a  great  gainer  for  such 
a  stimulating  meeting.  Now  let  the  next  meeting  be  at  Boston, 
and  let  it  be  worthy  of  that  cultured  city. 


66  EDUCATION,  [September, 

PROFESSIONAL  study  for  teachers  is  constantly  gaining 
ground  in  this  country.  New  facilities  for  such  study  are 
being  furnished  from  tinie  to  time  and  in  various  ways.  It  is  a 
pleasure  to  announce  that  the  University  of  the  City  of  New  York 
has  undertaken  to  give,  for  the  benefit  of  teachers,  courses  of  lec- 
tures upon  pedagogy,  and  has  appointed  Prof.  Jerome  Allen, 
Ph.  D.,  the  editor  of  the  New  York  School  Journal,  to  that  depart- 
ment. The  first  course  was  given  last  year,  and  the  experiment 
proved  a  success.  During  the  coming  scholastic  year,  a  course 
will  be  given  on  Saturdays  at  eleven  o'clock,  beginning  October 
4th.  These  lectures  will  be  the  foundation  for  a  thorough  course 
of  study,  to  cover  three  years.  The  first  course  comprises  the 
"  History  of  Educational  Thouglit "  ;  the  second,  "  The  Science  of 
Education  "  ;  and  the  third,  '*  Methodology."  The  last  named  in- 
cludes '^  the  organization,  supervision,  and  management  of  schools ; 
the  art  of  grading  and  arranging  school  work,  and  the  conduct  of 
Institutes ;  school  law ;  the  art  of  teaching  and  governing ;  the 
philosophy  and  methods  of  instruction  in  the  various  branches ; 
general  school-room  practice ;  school  hygiene,  etc."  This  advance 
movement  will  receive  the  cordial  approval  of  all  friends  of 
American  Education,  and  it  is  hoped  that  it  will  prove  a  decided 
success. 

IT  is  not  sufficiently  understr^od  that,  j)erhaps,  the  gi-eatest  gain 
in  our  new  educational  methods  is  not  found  in  our  improved 
ways  of  instruction,  but  in  the  organization,  spirit  of  discipline, 
moral  and  social  training,  and  general  conduct  of  the  entire  realm 
of  school  life.  Here  the  ultra  advocates  of  the  religious  and 
moral  element  show  their  narrowness,  in  leaving  out  of  account 
the  prodigious  moral  advantage  to  the  cliild  in  the  kind  of  place 
a  good  school  has  now  become.  It  would  have  Ix^en  impossible  to 
work  the  improved  modern  methods  of  instruction  in  the  old-time 
schoolhouse  under  the  narrow  limitations  there  existing.  Outside 
a  superior  family,  there  is  no  position  in  wliich  the  mass  of  our 
children  are  now  surrounded  by  so  many  inducements  to  virtue, 
where  it  is  so  easy  to  grow  up  into  good  morals  and  gentle  man- 
ners, as  in  the  better  class  of  our  graded  schools. 


1888.]  MISCELLANY.  57 


^fISCELLANr. 

THE  following  extract  from  a  letter  from  New  Zealand  will 
be  of  interest  to  our  readers,  giving  as  it  does  particulars 
of  educational  work  and  progress  in  this  distant  and  (comparatively 
unknown  part  of  the  world :  — 

The  underlying  principle  of  our  primary  83'8tcm  of  education  is  ex- 
pressed in  the  three  words — /ree,  secular^  and  compulsory.  The  money 
for  the  maintenance  of  our  primary  schools  is  voted  by  the  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives —  our  House  of  Commons  —  on  the  application  of  the  Min- 
ister of  Education,  who  presents  his  report  to  Parliament,  in  which  report 
the  estimate  for  the  year  is  given  and  asked  for.  Tliis  year,  the  sum 
applied  for  was  £360,624;  the  sum  granted  was  £360,619,  being  less 
by  five  pounds  than  requested.  The  motion  that  the  vote  be  reduced  by 
this  small  amount  was  a  mere  technical  matter  to  atford  the  opposition 
members  an  opportunity  to  discuss  the  whole  question  of  retrenchment. 
The  above  sum  is  supplemented  by  moneys  accruing  from  reserves  set 
apart  for  primary  education  when  New  Zealand  was  divided  into  seven 
self-governing  Provinces.  These  Provinces  were  abolished  twelve  3'ears 
ago,  and  the  whole  Colony  placed  under  a  general  government.  The 
whole  moneys  available  from  direct  vote  out  of  the  consolidated  fund, 
and  from  these  reserves,  amounts  roughl}'  to  over  £400.000.  This 
amount  is  paid  u|>on  the  daily  average  attendance  which  last  year 
amounted  to  83.405,  the  number  on  the  roll  having  been  106,328.  This 
money  is  distributed  by  the  Central  Department  among  the  thirteen 
Boards  of  Education,  who  again  distribute  it  among  the  local  com- 
mittees. 

The  vote  for  Buildings  has  for  several  years  been  paid  out  of  loans ; 
but  this  mode  of  payment  is  now  stopped,  and  there  is  a  battle  going  on 
as  to  whether  the  local  Boards  shall  have  i)ower  to  impose  rates  for  this 
purpose,  or  whether  the  approaching  Parliament  shall  be  asked  to  pay 
both  the  money  for  teaciiing  and  the  mone}'  for  building  out  of  the  con- 
solidated fund.  Before  leaving  this  part  of  the  subject  I  may  state  that, 
in  the  opinion  of  many,  we  are  on  the  eve  of  some  changes  as  to  admin- 
istration. The  opinion  is  growing  that  we  have  too  much  machinery. 
Boards  and  Committees  and  a  Central  DepartmiMit  are  not  all  needed 
to  do  the  educational  work  of  a  colonv  containintc  but  six  hundred  thou- 
sand  people,  and  less  than  one-sixth  of  that  number  of  children.     As 


68  EDUCATION.  [Sept«mber^ 

things  are.  Boards  have  the  appointment  of  teachers,  and  yet  by  the 
terms  of  the  act,  thev  are  to  ''''consult"  the  local  committee  before  an 
appointment  can  be  made.  Some  boards  consult  by  practically  allowing 
the  committees  to  appoint  or  dismiss  the  teacher ;  others  select  a  few 
competent  men,  and  send  their  names  to  the  committee  for  final  dioioe. 
This  question  and  some  others  often  gives  rise  to  serious  friction.  Some- 
times a  complete  dead-lock  occurs,  and  at  present  there  can  be  no  appeal 
to  the  Minister  of  Education  Then  again,  Boards  have  the  appoint- 
ment of  Inspectors  (corresponding,  I  presume,  to  your  Superintendents), 
and  the  payment  of  teachers ;  accordingly,  the  standard  of  inspection 
varies  in  different  districts,  and  the  salaries  of  the  teachers  show  glaring^ 
irregularities.  There  is  reason  for  thinking  that  most  of  these  serious 
defects  will  be  removed  from  the  system  by  special  legislation  in  the 
immediate  future.  I  am  strongly  of  opinion,  that  local  committees  could 
be  swept  away  and  their  places  taken  by  a  visiting  commissioner.  As 
to  Boards,  six  of  them  could  very  well  do  the  work  required.  Both 
Inspectors  and  teachers  should  be  appointed  by  the  Minister  of  Edu- 
cation. 

It  follows  from  the  above  principle,  that  parents  have  no  fees  to  pay. 
In  some  parts  the}*  do  not  even  pay  for  stationer}',  pens,  and  ink  —  these 
being  provided  by  the  local  committee  out  of  what  is  called  the  Fund  for 
Incidental  Expenses,  voted  by  the  Boards.  It  is  really  a  question 
whether  if.  is  the  quintessence  of  wisdom  thus  to  let  the  parent  off  scot- 
free.  People  usually  value  most  what  they  give  something  for.  In  these 
circumstances,  you  would  expect  parents  to  send  their  children  with 
considerable  regularity.  Yet  they  do  not.  Professedly,  compulsory 
powers  are  given  to  committees  to  enforce  one-half  of  possible  attend- 
ance ;  but  this  power  is  rarely  exercised,  mainly  because  of  the  expense 
of  putting  the  legal  raachiner}*  in  action,  aud  the  further  uncertainty  of 
the  magistrate's  decision.  In  two  cities,  however,  a  truant  officer  has 
been  appointed,  and  the  results  have  been  signally  satisfactory  As  the 
Parliamentary  vote  depends  upon  the  strict  average  attendance,  the  ques- 
tion of  regular  attendance  is  thus  seen  to  be  a  very  important  one.  On 
the  question  of  fees  it  is  fair  to  say,  that  before  a  special  commission 
which  recently  sat,  ten  out  of  thirt\'  witnesses  were  in  favor  of  imposing 
fees  on  parents  whose  children  are  in  the  higher  standards.  In  view  of 
the  absolute  need  for  retrenclnnent,  some  such  course  as  this  is  likely  to 
be  adopted  at  no  very  distant  date. 

It  may  be  well  to  complete  the  trilogy  of  words  by  glancing  at  the 
secular  character  of  the  system.  The  IVaraer  of  the  present  education 
act  intended  all  schools  to  open  with  reading  a  portion  of  Holy  Scripture 
and  reciting  the  Lord's  Prayer.  He  was,  however,  overruled.  By  the 
terms  of  the  act,  there  must  be  two  hours'  consecutive  secular  instruc- 


1888.]  MISCELLANY.  69» 

tion  in  the  morning,  and  two  hours*  cx)n8ecutive  secular  instruction  in  the 
afternoon ;  but  the  committee  may  allow  the  schoolroom  to  be  used  by 
any  minister  of  religion  for  the  purpose  of  giving  religious  instruction 
after  or  before  school  hours.  A  very  small  fraction  of  ministers  —  and 
those  Episcopalians  —  really  use  the  opportunity  afforded  them.  When 
the  people  have  been  tested  by  Plebiscite,  they  have  almost  to  a  man 
voted  in  favor  of  securing  religious  instruction  for  their  children  during 
school  hours,  so  that  there  is  some  likelihood  of  a  change  being  made  ia 
that  direction  erelong. 

It  should  be  mentioned  that  the  Boards  of  Education  amongst  them 
provide  for  forty  scholarships  at  £30  each,  to  enable  the  highest  of  the 
primary  scholars  to  pass  into  the  secondary  schools ;  while  there  again,, 
the  University  of  New  Zealand  provides  junior  scholarships  worth  £40 
a  year  to  pass  these  on  to  the  University,  and  while  at  the  University, 
such  scholars  may  win  senior  scholarships  to  completely  carry  them  on  ta 
the  M.  A.  degree.  Thus  a  career  is  open  to  talent.  We  already  —  in 
ten  years  —  have  men  who  began  at  the  lowest,  and  who  have  passed  to- 
the  highest  educational  positions  in  the  land.  t.  f. 

THE  proprietor  of  the  Chicago  Daily  News,  Victor  Lawson,  has  re- 
cently given  ten  thousand  dollars  to  establish  a  Public  School 
Patriotic  Fund.  An  income  of  five  per  cent,  on  this  fund  is  guaranteed, 
which  is  to  be  used  in  providing  medals  to  be  awarded  for  the  best  essays- 
on  American  Patriotism,  prepared  by  the  pupils  of  the  Grammar  and 
High  .schools  of  the  city.  To  each  High  school  are  offered  one  gold 
medal  and  two  bronze  medals,  and  to  each  Grammar  scho(»l,  one  silver 
medal  and  two  bronze  medals.  Nothing  could  be  more  opportune  than 
this  effort  to  impress  upon  the  minds  of  the  school  children  the  impor- 
tance and  nobility  of  patriotism,  and  especially  so  in  a  city  where  two- 
thirds  of  the  people  are  foreign  born,  or  have  foreign  born  parents.  In 
Chicago,  and,  I  think,  in  most  of  our  cities,  the  young  people  study 
American  history  during  the  entire  last  two  years  of  the  Grammar  school 
course.  The  prime  object  of  this  study  is  to  make  patriots,  to  awaken 
an  admiration  and  love  for  our  country  which  shall  be  akin  to  family 
pride  and  affection,  and  which  will  lead  to  the  sacrifice  of  personal  inter- 
ests for  the  national  welfare.  This  effort  to  cultivate  patriotism  is  simi- 
lar to  that  of  the  Old  South  in  Boston. 

The  award  of  a  medal  is  a  simple  record  of  honor,  but  it  will  do  much 
to  stimulate  the  3'oung  people  to  study  the  career  of  our  noblest  men, 
and  it  will  keep  before  them,  with  a  good  deal  of  personal  interest,  dur- 
ing the  whole  two  years,  the  most  important  phases  of  American  history  ; 
and,  what  is  of  almost  equal  value,  it  will  be  a  constant  leading  string  to- 


60  EDUCATION.  [September, 

the  teacher,  steadily  guiding  the  work  through  the  great  movements  and 
important  crises  of  our  country.  The  offer  of  three  medals  to  each 
school,  instead  of  one,  gives  a  wider  range  and  greater  hope  to  the  com- 
petitors, and  the  extension  of  the  offer  to  the  High  schools  encourages 
the  study  of  American  patriotism  after  the  class  work  in  American  his- 
tory is  endeil.  The  pupils  of  sixty  or  seventy  schools  will  compete  for 
these  prizes,  and  nearly  two  hundred  medals  will  be  awarded  among  the 
public  schools  of  Chicago,  for  prize  essays,  on  the  one  subject  which  is 
of  supreme  importance  in  our  public  school  education,  while  several 
times  as  many  pupils  will  have  tested  their  knowledge  and  feeling  in  the 
same  effort. 

This  is  a  large  measure  of  leaven,  which  will  be  sure  to  work  more  or 
less  through  the  whole  lump  of  public  school  life.  Was  ten  thousand 
dollars  ever  more  wisely  invested?  One  boy,  who  took  one  of  the  silver 
medals,  in  June,  by  a  notably  good  essay,  entered  school  one  morning, 
two  years  ago,  with  an  anarchist  flag  in  his  button-hole. 

Mary  £.  Beedt. 

MERRICK  LYON,  LL.  D.  —The  death  of  this  distinguished  edu- 
cator  takes  from  our  sight  another  staunch  friend  of  *'good 
learning."  Few  men  have  presided  over  one  school  for  more  than  forty 
years,  annually  sending  young  men  to  their  college  course  of  study. 
Dr.  Lyon  became  principal  of  the  University  Grammar  School  in  Provi- 
dence, R.  I.,  in  1845,  which  position  he  retained  till  the  day  of  his  death. 
Seldom  has  one  man  fltted  more  bo3's  for  college  than  he,  or  done  the 
work  better,  or  during  a  long  life  shown  himself  a  firmer  or  wiser  friend 
of  education.  He  was  always  active,  and  generally  wise.  He  was  an 
eflicient  member  of  the  school  board  of  Providence  for  more  than  thirty 
years.  He  was  president  of  the  Rhode  Island  Institute  of  Instruction, 
and  of  the  American  Institute  of  Instruction,  aud  a  member  of  the 
National  Council  of  Education.  He  was  a  trustee  of  Brown  University, 
and  later  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Fellows  of  that  institution.  For 
thirty-three  years  he  filled  the  office  of  deacon  in  the  Baptist  Church, 
and  by  the  symmetry  of  his  Christian  character,  his  example  was  f\ill 
of  good  fruits. 

MISS  MARGARET  K.  SMITH,  of  Oswego,  New  York,  well 
known  as  a  teacher,  author,  and  translator,  who  has  lately 
returned  from  Euroi>e,  after  two  years*  study,  chiefly  in  Germany  and 
France,  is  at  present  translating  Herbart's  Manual  of  Psychology  and 
Lange's  Apperception. 


1888.]  FOREIGN  NOTES.  61 


FOREIGN  NOTES. 

Germany.  The  Classics  vs.  Science.  —  One  of  the  most  important 
contributions  to  the  discussion  of  the  classics  in  schools  in  Germany  is 
an  article  by  Prnfessor  Preyer,  which  appeared  in  the  *'  Revue  Scien- 
tifique"  for  April  28th. 

Professor  Preyer  insists  that  the  study  of  the  ancient  languages  as 
conducted  in  the  ^^  Gymnasia/*  is  an  obstacle  to  the  development  of  in- 
telligence and  that  the  advantage  which  the  ^'  Gj'mnasia"  have  over  the 
^^  Real  Schools  *'  by  the  admission  of  their  pupils  to  all  the  university 
faculties,  is  unjust  and  artificial.  In  1869  the  Prussian  Minister  of 
Public  Instruction  submitted  the  following  question  to  the  universities : 
Should  the  graduates  of  ''  Real  Schools "  be  admitted  to  the  several 
faculties,  and  upon  what  conditions  ? 

The  eleven  faculties  of  theology  responded  in  the  negative.  Six  of 
the  nine  faculties  of  law  did  the  same.  The  nine  faculties  of  medicine 
were  divided,  four  being  in  favor  of  admission,  four  opposed  to  it,  and 
one  neutral. 

According  to  Professor  Preyer,  since  1869  a  great  change  has  taken 
place.  While  the  theological  faculties  remain  favorable  to  the  old  pro- 
grammes, among  the  other  faculties  a  majority  would  be  found  to  favor 
placing  all  secondary  schools  on  the  same  footing. 

The  greater  importance  attaching  to  science  courses  at  the  present 
date  as  compared  with  1869  is  shown  by  the  relative  increase  in  the 
number  of  professors.  The  faculty  of  law  shows  a  numerical  increase 
of  3.3  per  cent.;  that  of  theology,  of  5.2  per  cent.;  while  the  increase 
in  the  faculties  of  philosophy,  science,  and  medicine  was  23.4  per  cent., 
46.4  per  cent,  and  55.7  per  cent,  respectively.  The  increase  in  the 
number  of  students  is  also  much  less  in  the  faculties  of  law  and  of 
theology  than  in  the  other  faculties.  The  tendency  is  illustrated  by  the 
attendance  upon  the  University  of  Berlin.  Here  the  faculties  of  medi- 
cine and  of  science  have  gained  over  the  other  faculties  more  than  700 
pupils,  or  a  number  in  itself  sufficient  to  fill  a  university.  ^^  These  fig- 
ures show  conclusively,"  says  Professor  Preyer,  '^  that  the  study  of  the 
natural  sciences  has  made  incessant  progress  in  the  last  few  years,  and 
has  necessitated  the  creation  of  a  much  greater  number  of  chairs  than 
are  required  in  the  faculties  of  law,  theology,  and  classical  philology. 
Gradually  but  surelj^*'  he  observes,  *^the  natural  sciences  are  taking  in 


•62  EDUCATION,  [September, 

the  higher  seat  of  learning  the  place  which  belongs  to  them,  and  it  is 
•certain  that  the  vivif3ing  influence  which  they  have  already  exercised 
upon  the  universities  will  be  felt  at  no  distant  day  in  the  secondary 
schools." 

France.  Address  of  the  Minister  op  Public  Instruction.  —  The 
spirit  which  animates  republican  France  is  well  illustrated  by  the  utter- 
ances of  successive  ministers  of  public  instruction.  The  changes  of 
government  have  brought  six  different  men  to  that  position  within  a 
decade  ;  but  it  has  wrought  no  material  change  either  in  the  conduct  of 
the  department  or  in  the  educational  ideals  maintained. 

The  present  minister,  Mons.  Edward  Lockroy,  delivered  an  address  on 
the  occasion  of  the  recent  annual  distribution  of  the  prizes  of  the  Poly- 
technic Association,  which,  saving  only  the  absence  of  the  impetuous 
florid  eloquence  of  Jules  Ferry,  might  have  been  his  own  speech  on  a 
similar  occasion  half  a  dozen  years  ago. 

While  understanding  perfectly  the  importance  of  technical  instruction, 
no  people  evince  a  Ailler  appreciation  than  the  French  of  the  narrowing 
tendencies  of  the  training  and  the  necessity  of  offsetting  these  in  the 
education  of  a  people. 

Mons.  LfOckroy  presented  these  conditions  in  a  manner  so  clear  and 
impressive  that  his  words  may  well  be  rehearsed  among  us :  — 

''You  have  understood,"  he  said,  addressing  the  members  of  the 
association,  ''  that  in  a  democracy  like  our  own,  it  is  not  only  necessary 
to  make  men  useful  and  honest,  —  without  honestj',  a  democracy  must 
soon  cease  to  exist,  —  but  also  to  make  citizens  familiar  with  general 
ideas,  having  notions  of  law,  of  political  economy,  of  history ;  capable 
of  comprehending  the  great  questions  that  agitate  Parliament,  capable 
also  of  judging  of  doctrines,  and  of  men  when  called  to  elect  representa- 
tives in  the  exercise  of  the  right  of  sovereignty. 

"  You  have  recognized  the  importance  of  raising  men  above  the  anxi- 
eties of  daily  life,  the  perpetual  routine  of  a  painful  existence,  above 
their  cares,  their  disappointments,  their  sorrows,  by  imparting  to  them 
an  interest  in  the  great  discoveries  of  science,  a  taste  for  general  knowl- 
edge, and  by  bringing  them  in  contact  with  great  writers  and  poets  who 
are  the  true  consolers  of  humanity." 

Physical  Training  in  French  Secondary  Schools.  —  A  committee 
has  been  formed  in  France  under  the  presidency  of  Jules  Simon,  for  the 
promotion  of  physical  training  as  a  part  of  the  education  of  the  young. 

This  committee  includes  a  number  of  men  holding  high  civil  positions 
or  distinguished  as  doctors  and  educators.  Recently,  under  the  guidance 
of  Mons.  Simon,  they  visited  the  Monge  school  to  investigate  the  first 


1888.]  FOREIGN  NOTES.  63 

experiment  made  in  France  for  including  physical  exercise  in  the  daily 
routine. 

The  director  of  this  school,  Mons.  Godard,  maintains  that  eleven 
hours'  intellectual  work  for  young  pupils  and  thirteen  hours  for  those  a 
little  older  is  too  much,  and  following  the  example  of  English  schools, 
he  has  decided  to  reduce  the  hours  of  stud}*  in  order  to  secure  time  for 
exercise  and  play  in  the  open  air,  — games  have  been  instituted  and  pro- 
vision made  for  riding  and  boating. 

Jules  Simon,  who  has  been  endeavoring  for  a  long  time  to  convince 
his  countrymen  that  French  students  are  overworked,  was  delighted 
with  what  he  saw  at  this  school.  It  is  his  purpose  to  create  three  school 
parks :  one  at  Saint  Cloud,  and  the  others  upon  appropriate  sites,  thus 
giving  substantial  proof  of  his  devotion  to  the  cause  which  he  has  so 
long  advocated. 

England.  Married  Teachers  under  the  London  School  Board. — 
The  motion  introduced  into  the  London  School  Board  by  Hon.  Conrad 
Dillon,  to  prevent  married  women  teachers  in  the  fhture  entering  upon 
or  remaining  in  the  service  of  the  Board,  excited  opposition  not  unmixed 
with  indignation.  The  most  satisfactory  endorsement  of  the  services  of 
the  married  teachers  was  the  loss  of  the  motion  by  a  vote  of  twenty^ 
seven  against  three. 

Sir  Henry  Roscoe  on  Technical  Training. — In  an  address  upon 
*' Technical  Instruction,"  delivered  June  20th,  on  the  occasion  of  the 
fifty-first  annual  meeting  of  the  Yorkshire  Union  of  Mechanics'  Insti- 
tute, Sir  Henry  Roscoe  examined  the  provisions  of  the  Technical  Bill 
now  before  Parliament.  While  he  took  a  more  favorable  view  of  many 
of  its  provisions  than  other  critics  have  done,  he  noted  as  a  grave  defect 
that  the  limit  of  the  instruction  is  placed  at  the  seventh  standard.  He 
urged  the  importance  of  a  provision  similar  to  that  in  the  Scotch  Bill, 
by  which  the  Boards  are  empowered  to  use  the  rates  for  the  maintenance 
of  higher  grade  schools.  *'  All,**  he  says,  *'  acknowledge  the  importance 
of  this  higher  training.  If  the  head  is  not  educated,  the  hands  are  apt 
to  get  into  mischief.**  And  again,  commenting  upon  the  adage  that 
victory  comes  to  the  strong,  he  said,  *'  But  remember  that  it  is  not  to 
the  bodily  strong,  but  only  to  the  strong  mentall}'  and  morally'  that  the 
victory  comes.**  a.  t.  s. 


64 


ED  UCA  TIOX. 


[Septeinbert 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  OF   CURRENT  PERIODICAL    LIT- 

ERATURE    UPON  EDUCATION. 


The  followlngr  bibliography  of  current  periodical  literatare  includes  articles  upon 
education  and  other  subjects  calculated  to  intei*est  teachers.  Only  articles  from  peri- 
odicals not  nominally  educational  are  mentioned.  ArticleH  of  special  importance  to 
teachers  will,  as  a  rule,  be  mentioned  in  notes. 


American  Party  Convention,  The. 
Alexander  Johnston.  iVeto  Princeton 
Bevievo^  July. 

Astres,  Sur  rA^randissement  des 
Astresdl  Horizon.  G.  Lechalas.  Re- 
vue Philosophique^  July. 

Bologna,  Die  Universit&tsfeier  von, 
in  ihrer  Bedentung  fur  die  italienisch- 
deutsche  Rei;ht8-und  Staatswissen- 
sehaf t.    Deutsche  Rundschau.  August. 

Bologne,  Le  Huiti^me  Centeuaire  de 
I'Universit^  de.  Gaston  Boissier.  Re- 
vue des  Deux  Mondes,  1  August. 

Botany  as  it  may  be  taught.  B.  D. 
Halsted.  Popular  Science  Monthly. 
July. 

British  Intellect,  The  Geographical 
Distribution  of.  Dr.  A.  Conan  Doyle. 
Nineteenth  Century^  August. 

British  Museum,  The,  and  the  Peo- 
ple who  go  there.  Blackwood's  Maga- 
zine^ August. 

Bruno,  Giordano,  Before  the  Vene- 
tian Inquisition .  Scottish  Review,  *^"IZ' 

Capital  and  Culture  in  America.  K. 
A.  Proctor.  Fortnightly  Review,  Au- 
gust. 

Catholic  University,  The  Present 
Standing  of  the.  Catholic  World,  Au- 
gust. 

Christianity.  What  Is  Left  of  Chris- 
tianity ?  W.  8.  Lilly.  Nineteenth  Cen- 
tury, August. 

City  Life,  Injurious  Influences  of. 
Walter  B.  Piatt,  M.  D.  Popular  Sci- 
ence Monthly,  August.    Suggestive. 

Conkling,  Roscoe.  Isaac  Smlthson 
Hartley.  Magazine  of  American  His- 
tory^ August. 

Coal  and  Iron  Interests  of  the  Pa- 
cific Coast.  Henry  G.  Hanks.  Over- 
land Monthly.  August. 

Countlng-Out  Rhymes  of  Children. 
H.  Carrington  Bolton.  Journal  of 
American  Folk-Lore,  April-June. 

On  the  principle  that  things  which 
occupy  the  serious  attention  of  men  in 


the  savage  st^te  become  the  play- 
things of  children  In  a  civilized  period^ 
the  writer  holds  ''that  ^ countlng-out *^ 
is  a  survival  of  the  practice  of  the  sor- 
cerer, using  this  word  In  its  restrlctcni 
and  etymological  meaning.*^ 

Courage.  General  Viscount  Wolse- 
ley.    Fortnightly  Review,  August. 

Criminal,  The  Study  of  the.  Ando- 
ver  Review,  Aufi^uH.    Editorial. 

Culture  and  Science.  Theodore  GUI. 
American  Naturalist,  June. 

Darwinism  and  the  Christian  Faith. 
III.  (Concluded.)  Popular  Science 
Monthly,  July.  Reprinted  from  The 
Guardian. 

Dialectlque  Soclale,  La.  G.  Tarde. 
Revue  Philosophique,  July. 

Education  and  Hinduism  in  Bengal. 
F.  H.  Barrow,  C.  S.  Calcutta  Review^ 
July. 

Education  In  America.  J.  H.  Cal- 
cutta Review,  July. 

Education,  The  New.  Prof.  Geo. 
M.  Forbes.  Baptist  Quarterly  BevieWy 
July. 

Engineering  Schools.  George  Fran- 
cis Fitzgerald.    Nature,  August  2. 

English  Dictionaries,  Some  Curiosi- 
ties of.  G.  L.  Apperson.  Chntle- 
man^s  Magazine,  August. 

English  Elementary  Schools,  Short- 
comings of.  J.  H.  Yoxall.  Long- 
man-s  Magazine,  August. 

English  Pronunciation.  Knowledgcy 
July  and  August. 

Epicure,  son  ^poque,  sa  religion, 
d'  apr^A  de  r^cens  travaux.  L.  Car- 
tau.  Bevue  des  Deux  MondeSy  1  Au- 
gust. 

Essen,  Ueber  Gebr&uche  und 
Aberglauben  beim.  Carl  Haberland. 
Zeitschrift  fur  Volkerpsychologie  und 
Sprachwissenschaft,  Drittes  Heft. 

Evolution  and  Ethics.  Rev.  James 
Eastwood.  Universalist  Quarterly^ 
July. 


1888.] 


BIBLIOOBAPHT. 


65 


Faust  Legend,  The.  T.  B.  Saun- 
ders.    Scottish  Revietc^  July. 

Frankreich  im  siebzehnten  und 
achtzehnten  pohrhundert.  Fenlinund 
I^theissen.  Deutsche  Btmdschau,  Au- 
gust. 

Freedom  of  Education  in  Massachu- 
setts, The  Attack  on.  Prof.  Thomas 
D wight,  M.  D.  American  Catholic 
Quarterly  Remew^  August. 

'*  The  protest  against  the  Mnjority 
Report  of  the  Joint  Special  Committee 
of  the  General  Court  of  1887  on  the 
Employment  and  Schooling  of  Chil- 
dren and  against  any  Legislative  In- 
terference with  Private  Schools.'' 

Genius  and  Talent.  Grant  Allen. 
Fortnightly  Review^  August. 

German  University  as  a  Pattern, 
The.  James  T.  Bixby.  Unitarian 
Review^  August. 

Argues  especially  for  the  German 
Freedom  of  instruction. 

Grant,  General,  Personal  Recollec- 
tions of.  Charles  K.  Tuckerman. 
Magazine  of  Americ<in  History^  Au- 
gust. 

Great  Men,  Their  Tastes  and  Hab- 
its. W.  H.  D.  Adams.  Gentleman's 
Magazine,  August. 

Homeric  Life  in  Greece  Today.  J. 
Theodore  Bent.  National  Review^  Au- 
gust. 

Shows  many  interesting  parallels  to 
Homeric  life  in  the  life  of  today  in  the 
remoter  Greek  islands. 

Humanistic  Religion.  Alexander  T. 
Ormond.     New  Princeton  Review,,  July. 

"Increment"  Dogma  of  Henry 
George  a  Delusion,  The.  David  >f. 
Johnson.    Uhiveraalist  Quarterly ^  July, 

Inter-Collegiate  Contents;  Are  they 
Pernicious?  Andover  Review,  July. 
An  editorial. 

Israel.  Etudes  d*histoire  Israelite. 
H.  Ernest  Renan.  Revue  des  Deux 
Mondes^  15  July  et  1  August. 

Judiciaiire.  I  At  Pouvoir  Judicial  re 
aux  li^tats-Unis.  Due  de  Noailles. 
Revue  des  Deux  Mondes^  1  August. 

Literature  In  the  Public  Schools. 
Horace  E.  Scudder.    Atlantic,  August. 

A  forcible  argument  ft)r  the  free  use 
of  the  classical  American  authors  in 
the  schools.  *'  The  place  of  literature 
in  our  pi^blic  school  education  is  in 
spiritualizing  life.*' 

Literature.  The  study  of  Eigh- 
teenth-Century Literature.  Edmund 
Gosse.     New  Princeton  Review,  July. 

Manual  or  Industrial  Training.  G. 
Von  Taube.  Popular  Science  Monthly, 
July. 


Math^matiques,  Les  Notions  Pre- 
mieres en.  A.  Galinon.  Revue  Philo- 
sophique,  July. 

Memory.  Westminster  Review,  Au- 
gust. 

Gives  a  good  account  of  Pick's  sys- 
tem of  mnemonics,  and  notices  the  r^ 
cent  books  that  show  Loisette's  system 
to  be  essentially  the  same. 

Menacing  Irruption,  A.  T.  V.  Pow- 
derly.  North  American  Review,  Au- 
gust. 

Mental  Deterioration :  Some  of  Its 
Avoidable  Causes.  Westminster  Re- 
view, July. 

Discusses  the  alcohol  habit,  tobacco 
habit,  excessive  mental  work,  etc.,  as 
causes  of  menial  deterioration. 

Mental  Science:  Experiments  in 
Thought-Transferrence.  Science,  Ju- 
ly 27. 

A  criticism  of  Charles  Rlchet's  arti- 
cle in  the  last  Issue  of  the  Proceedings 
of  the  English  Society  for  the  Psychi- 
cal Research. 

Mental  Science :  The  Nature  of  Mus- 
cular Sensation.  Memory  of  Move- 
ments.    Science,  July  13. 

Misquotations,  Current.  E.  A. 
Meredith.    Andover  Review^  August. 

Names,  History  in.  Rev.  G.  H. 
Hubbard.     Yale  Review,  August. 

Naval  Academy,  The  United  States. 
J.  D.  Jerrold  Kelly.    Harper*s,  July. 

Neo-Scholasticism,  The  Lesson  of. 
F.  Winterton.     Mind,  July. 

New  Departure  In  Education,  The. 
James  Runclman.  Contemporary  Re- 
view, July. 

A  very  bright  criticism  of  prevalent 
methods  in  English  schools,  with  ap- 
proval of  the  present  movement  for 
manual  instruction. 

New  England  Educational  Institu- 
tions. XII.  Colby  University.  Prof. 
Albion  W.  Small.  XIII.  Newton 
Theological  Institution.  New  England 
Magazine,  August. 

New  England,  The  Awakening  of. 
Francis  H.  Underwood.  Contempo- 
rary Review,  August. 

New  York  after  Paris.  VV.  C.  Brow- 
nell.     New  Princeton  Review,  July. 

Octroi  at  Issoire,  The :  A  City  made 
Rich  by  Taxation.  Prof.  David  Starr 
Jordan.  Popular  Science  Monthly,  Au- 
gust. 

Shows  in  a  most  readable  manner 
the  fallacies  of  some  of  the  ordinary 
arguments  for  protective  taxes. 

Parlor  Game  Cure,  The.  Rev.  Thom- 
as Hill.  Popular  Science  Monthly,  Au- 
gust. 


66 


EDUCATION. 


[September, 


Pensiero  logico,  La  eostanza  del  dos- 
tro,  e  la  scienza  e  la  pratlca  delT  Ed- 
ucazioue.  Bivista  di  Filosojia  Scienti/i-' 
ca^  M&gg\o, 

Philosuphisehe  Kriticismus,  Der. 
Th.  Aohelis.     Unsere  Zeit^  Achtes  Heft, 

Physiology.  Teaching  Physiology 
In  the  Public  Schools.  A  Teacher. 
Popular  Science  Monthly^  August. 

Au  interesting  article. 

Programmes.  Can  School  Pro- 
grammes be  Shortened  and  Enriched? 
C.  W.  Eliot.    Atlantic,  August. 

Contains  valuable  suggestions  for 
the  improvement  of  our  school  sys- 
tem. 

Prohibitory  Law  and  Personal  Lib- 
erty. President  Seelye  et  al.  North 
American  Beview^  August. 

Prometheus  of  ..^schylus.  Part  L 
William  Cranston  Lawtou.  Atlantic, 
August. 

Protection.  Abbot  Kinney.  Over- 
land Monthly,  August. 

Psychologic.  Zur  Psychologic  der 
Scholastik.  H.  Siebeck.  Arcnir  fur 
Oeschichte  der  Fhilosophie,  Heft  3  u.  4. 

Psychology,  The  Uerbartlau.  G.  F. 
Stout.     Mind,  July. 

Gives  a  systematic  summary  of  the 
synthetical  portion  of  ilerbart's  Psy- 
chology. 

Psychology.  The  Relation  of  Will 
to  the  Conservation  of  Energy.  E.  D. 
Cope.    American  Naturalist,  June. 

Abstract  of  a  paper  read  before  the 
Philosophical  Society  of  Washington. 
The  writer  lays  down  and  Illus- 
trates the  following  law :  **  The  Dyn- 
amic expenditure  of  au  act  of  will  has 
no  dynamic  relation  to  the  nature  of 
the  decision  involved  in  it."  The  will 
does  not  create  energy,  but  directs  it. 

Psychology,  The  Teaching  of.  M. 
Paul  Janet.  Popular  Science  Monthly, 
July. 

Translated  from  the  Bevue  des  Deux 
Mondes,  An  interesting  discussion  of 
physiological  psychology. 

Questions,  Our  One  Hundred.  Lip- 
pincotVs,  August. 

Reality  and  Thought.  F.  H.  Brad- 
ley.   Mind,  July. 

Reform  Essential,  Educational.  G. 
T.  Ferris.  North  American  Beview, 
August. 

Rivers  and  Valleys.  N.  S.  Shaler. 
8cribner*8,  August. 

Rousseau  und  Kant.  K.  Heinrich  von 
Stein.    Deutsche  Bundschau,  August. 

Rugby  Ramble,  A.  H.  A.  Newton. 
English  Illustrated  Magazine,  August. 

Sagenhafte  Volker   des  Altertums 


und  Mittela Iters,  Ueber.  LudwigTob- 
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Science,  The  Unity  of.  M.  Jacob 
Moleschott.  Popular  Science  Monthly, 
August. 

Scientitic  Spirit  of  the  Age,  The. 
Frances  Power  Cobbe.  Contemporary 
Beview,  July. 

Shows  the  dangers  that  beset  scien- 
tific education. 

Send  the  Whole  Boy  to  School.  Au- 
gustus D.  Small.  Catholic  World,  Au- 
gust. A  criticism  of  Professor  Stu- 
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son  d'Etre  of  the  Public  High  School," 
and  an  argument  for  religious  instruc- 
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Social  Question,  Aspects  of  the.  W. 
M.  Salter  and  the  Editor.  Unitarian 
Beview,  August. 

An  account  of  the  Chicago  Eco- 
nomic Conferences,  with  comments  by 
the  editor. 

Social  Science,  Instruction  in.  Lend 
a  Hand,  July. 

Stat«  Socialism.  John  Rae.  Con- 
temporary Beview,  August. 

Statesmen,  American  (concluded). 
Prof.  Goldwin  Smith.  Nineteenth  Cen- 
tury, August. 

Storage  of  Life  as  a  Sanitary  Study. 
B.  W.  Richardson.  Longman's  Maga- 
zine, August. 

Technical  Education,  Lord  Arm- 
strong on.     Nature,  August  2. 

Technical  Education,  The  Vague 
Cry  for.  Lord  Armstrong.  Nineteenth 
Century,  July. 

Telepathic.  Wilhelm  Bolsche.  Nord 
und  SUd,  August. 

Based  on  the  studies  of  Mr.  Gurney 
of  the  English  Psychical  Rese^irch  So- 
ciety. 

True  Theory  of  Identity,  The  Philo- 
sophical Importance  of  a.  B.  Bosau- 
quet.     Mind,  July. 

Trusts.  What  shall  be  Done  with 
Trusts?  Morrison  I.  Swift.  Andover 
Beview,  August. 

Truth,  The  Unity  of  the.  Rev. 
Francis  H.  Johnson.  Andover  Beview, 
August. 

Vacation,  the  Teacher's.  H.  W. 
Camptou.     Century,  August. 

What  Shall  the  Public  Schools 
Teach?  Bishop  R.  Gilmour.  Forum, 
June. 

An  argument  for  religious  instruc- 
tion. 

What  Shall  the  Public  Schools 
Teach?  Prof.  L.  H.  Ward.  Forum, 
July. 


1888.] 


AMONG  THE  BOOKS. 


«7 


AMONG   THE  BOOKS. 


Academic  Trigonometry.  Plane  and 
Spherical.  BvT.  M.  Ulakslee,  PH.D., 
Professor  of  Mathematics  in  the 
University  of  Des  Moin«'S.  Boston : 
Giiin  &  Co.  ISSS.  Pp.  33.  80  cents. 
Paper,  mailin*;:  price,  20  cents ;  for 
introduction,  15  cents. 

The  plane  and  spherical  portions 
are  arranged  on  opposite  pages.  The 
memory  is  aided  by  analo<^ies,  and 
the  author  believes  that  the  entire 
subject  can  be  mastered  in  less  time 
than  is  usually  given  to  plane  trigo- 
nometry alone,  as  the  work  contains 
but  twenty-nine  pages  of  text.  The 
plane  portion  is  compact,  and  com- 
plete in  itself. 

Warman's  Practical  Ortho^pt 
AND  CiUTiQUE.  By  K.  B.  Warman, 
a.m.,  author  of  "  Principles  of  Pro- 
nunciation'* in  Worcester's  Diction- 
ary, **  School-room  Friend,"  etc. 
Chicago,  111.:  W.  H.  Harrison,  Jr. 
Publishing  Co.  1888.  448  pages. 
Cloth,  $2. 

A  volume  from  the  pen  of  one  so 
widely  and  favorably  known  as  is  Mr. 
Warman,  and  one  which  shows  such 
an  immense  amount  of  time  spent  in 
its  preparation,  will  attract  the  atten- 
tion and  will  receive  the  careful  exam- 
ination and  study  of  thoughtful  edu- 
cators. Mr.  Warman  has  achieved 
an  enviable  reputation  as  an  oithoO- 
pist  and  a  master  of  ])honetization. 
His  •'Principles  of  Pronunciation" 
having  been  adopted  by  the  publishers 
of  Worcester's  dictionaries  and  issued 
by  them  in  the  school  edition,  War- 
man*s  Scries,  prove  him  to  be  acknowl- 
edge<l  authority.  We  have  not  room 
to  mention  the  headings  even  of  the 
various  subjects  so  ably  discussed  in 


this  valuable  work.  The  two  princi- 
pal subjects,  however,  are  his  **  Criti- 
cal Survey  ''  of  our  dictionaries,  which 
is  the  fruit  of  nine  years*  earnest 
labor,  and  is  a  bold,  vigorous  attack ; 
and  a  list  of  6,399  words  usually  mis- 
pronounced. Every  pronunciation 
accords  with  both  Webster  and  Wor- 
cester. When  the  authorities  do  not 
agree,  both  are  quoted.  The  volume 
is  certainly  worthy  the  perusal  and 
study  of  every  student  and  scholar  in 
the  country. 

BuFFON.  By  H.  Lebasteur.  Illus- 
trated. Paper  covers.  Paris:  H. 
Lecene  and  II.  Oudin.    Pp.  237. 

This  new  volume,  by  the  editors, 
Lecene  and  Oudin,  belong  to  their 
series  of  Popular  Classics.  Lebas- 
teur has  divided  his  work  into  six 
chapters:  (1)  Life  and  character  of 
Buffon;  (2)  Nature;  (3)  Man  and 
the  animals ;  (4)  Description  and  pict- 
ures ;  (5)  Epochs  of  Nature,  and  (0) 
Discourse  upon  style.  The  work  is 
admirably  dcme  and  will  prove  of  in- 
terest to  American  readers. 

Proceedings  of  the  Trustees  of 
THE  Peabodv  Education  Fund. 
1881-1887.  Vol.  111.  Cambridge: 
John  Wilson  &  Son.    1888.    Pp.  4:)"). 

This  volume  of  proceedings  of  the 
trustees  of  this  great  fund  should 
be  read  with  care  by  all  who  desire 
to  keep  ahead  of  the  times  in  matters 
showing  the  condition  and  progress 
of  education  in  this  country.  It 
contains  a  record  of  proceedings  dur- 
ing the  four  and  more  years  of  Dr. 
Curry's  general  agency,  and  the  sub- 
sequent   service   of    Dr.    Green    as 


68 


SDVCATIOK. 


[September, 


general  agent,  pro  tempore.  All  will 
be  glad  to  leiirn  that  Dr.  Curry,  who 
has  so  won  the  respect  of,  and  en- 
deared himself  to,  the  educators  of 
this  country,  both  North  and  South, 
is  expected  soon  to  accept  a  reap- 
pointment as  general  agent  of  this 
fund.  He  will  be  cordially  welcomed 
on  his  return  to  this  country,  and  we 
may  expect  to  be  richly  benefited  by 
what  will  appear  from  his  pen  con- 
cerning Spain  and  its  past  relations 
to  our  country. 

Max  O'Rell.  John  Bull,  Junior  ; 
OK,  French  as  shk  is  Traduced. 
By  the  author  of  *^  John  Bull  and 
His  J  Aland/*  etc.  With  a  preface 
by  George  Eggleston.  New  York : 
Cassell  A,  Co.,  104  Fourth  Ave. 
For  sale  in  Boston  by  Clarke  & 
Carruth.    Price,  $1.00. 

Mr.  Eggleston,  in  his  preface,  says 
that  in  his  opinion  this  is  the  best  of 
Max  O'Reirs  books.  A  very  wise 
and  distinguished  educator  has  de- 
clared that  ^^  the  whole  theory  of 
education  is  to  be  extracted  from  these 
humorous  sketches.**  In  this  work, 
as  in  his  others,  thei*e  is  much  of  wit 
and  humor,  but  the  main  purpose  is 
earnest,  and  the  wit  is  but  an  aid  to 
its  accomplishment. 

Christopher  Sower  and  his  De- 
scendants. 

This  is  a  remarkably  unique  chart 
about  four  feet  wide  and  ten  feet 
long,  exhibiting  by  an  original  design 
a  list  of  the  descendants  in  families 
of  that  worthy  settler  in  the  early 
days  of  Pennsylvania,  ^^  Christopher 
Sower,  Printer."  Compiled  by  Charles 
G.  Sower,  the  senior  member  of  the 
former  firms  of  Sower  &  Barnes; 
Sower,  Barnes  &  Potts ;  Sower,  Potts 
&  Co.,  and  now  Christopher  Sower 
Company.  Mr.  Charles  G.  Sower 
was  bookseller  in  Norristown  from 
1836  to  1844,  since  which  time  he 
has  been  a  publisher   of   excellent 


school   and   other   books   in   Phila- 
delphia. 

The  original  Christopher  Sower 
published  the  first  Bible  printed  in 
America  in  any  language  of  Europe. 
It  was  a  German  Bible  and  was  pub- 
lished in  Germantown  in  1743.  It 
was  in  quarto  form,  1,281  pages,  and 
was  sold  for  twelve  shillings  —  less 
than  two  dollars.  ^^  But  for  the  poor 
and  needy  we  have  no  price.*^  This 
work  of  Mr.  Sower  is  a  beautiful 
tribute  of  affection  and  appreciation 
to  a  noble  ancestor  by  a  worthy 
descendant. 

Introduction  to  the  Study  of 
English  Literature.  II.  Six 
Lectures.  By  G^eorge  C.  S.  South- 
worth.  Boston  and  New  York: 
Leach,  Shewell,  &  Sanborn. 

These  lectures  are  intended  to  give 
a  glimpse  of  the  proportions  of  the 
subject  to  a  class  about  to  begin  the 
study  of  the  successive  periods  of 
English  literature,  and  also  to  point 
out  models  of  English  style,  and  to 
delineate  the  epochs  of  national 
growth.  The  marginal  references 
will  be  found  to  be  of  great  value, 
aud  the  book  is  one  which  should  be 
upon  the  table  of  all  students  of  Eng- 
lish literature. 

Roger  Ascham  the  Schoolmaster. 
Edited  by  Edward  Arber,  f.s.a., 
etc..  Fellow  of  King's  College,  Lon- 
don.   Boston :  Willard  Small.    1888. 

This  book  belongs  to  the  series  of 
English  reprints.  It  was  written  be- 
tween 1563-08.  The  first  edition  was 
published  1570,  and  was  collated  with 
the  second  edit  ion,  1572.  In  our  rush 
for  the  new  we  overlook  the  value  of 
those  works  which  are  older.  The 
book  is  not  only  of  great  value  to 
those  who  are  teaching  I^atln,  but 
also  to  all  who  are  intei-ested  in  the 
subject  of  the  intellectual  and  ruoral 
development  of  the  young.  The  mar- 
ginal references  are  a  great  addition 
to  the  book. 


isdd.j 


AMONG  tBE  BOOltS, 


m 


British  Novelists  and  their 
Styles.  By  David  Masson,  m.a., 
Professor  of  English  Literature  in 
ttie  University  of  Edinburgh,  au- 
thor of  "The  Life  and  Times  of 
John  Milton,"  etc.  Boston:  Wii- 
lard  Small. 

This  critical  sketch  of  the  history 
of  British  fiction  is  made  up  of  four 
lectures,  llie  first  lecture  is  on  the 
novel  as  a  form  of  literature,  and  on 
early  British  prose  fiction ;  the  second, 
British  novelists  of  the  eight^^nth 
century ;  the  third,  on  Scott  and  his 
influence ;  the  fourth,  on  British  nov- 
elists since  Scott.  The  lectures  are 
full,  IntereAting,  and  critical. 

The  Blessed  Dead.  By  Rev.  J.  M. 
Greene,  d.d.  Boston  and  Chicago: 
CongTogational  Sunday-School  and 
Publishing  Society.  Price,  75  cents. 

Here  are  five  sermons  concerning 
death  and  life  beyond  the  grave,  which 
are  tender,  comforting,  and  assuring. 
Those  questions  are  answered  which 
are  in  the  minds  of  all  who  have  lost 
friends,  sometimes  much  to  their 
troubling.  The  book  is  very  taste- 
fully gotten  up,  and  is  worthy  both 
of  the  author  and  the  publishers. 

How  TO  Teach  Vocal  Music.  The 
Teacher's  Eclectic  Manual.  By 
Alfred  Andrews.  New  York: 
Fowler  &  Wells  Co.,  775  Broad- 
way. 

A  complete  course  of  study  is  here 
mapped  out  from  the  beginning  of 
"  learning  the  scale,"  and  which  may 
be  carried  through  several  years* 
practice,  if  desired.  Teachers  who 
have  vocal  music  as  a  part  of  their 
course  will  find  this  work  of  great 
value. 

The  Print  of  His  Shoe.  By  Rev. 
William  Wye  Smith.  Square.  Bos- 
ton and  Chicago:  Congreffational 
Sunday-School  and  Publishing  So- 
ciety.   Pp.  160.    Price,  75  cents. 

A  series  of  short  essays  on  Bible 
themes,  which  have  the  pungency  and 


directness  of  familiar  talks.  The 
author  has  a  happy  way  of  making 
his  readers  feel  that  they  are  pernon- 
ally  addressed.  The  essays  are  bright, 
readable,  and  short. 

Theological  EfiSAvs.  Ho  Deu- 
TEROS  Thanator;  or.  The  Second 
Death.  Dives  and  Lazarus.  By  an 
Orthodox  Minister  of  Fifty  Years' 
Standing.  Published  for  the  author. 
Syracuse,  N.  Y. :  C.  W.  Bardeeu, 
publisher. 

This  is  one  of  the  great  questions 
of  the  day.  Arguments  appear,  first 
on  one  side  and  then  upon  the  other. 
The  periodical  press  is  full  of  the 
subject.  In  this  little  work  by  "An 
Orthodox  Minister,"  he  who  enjoys 
this  sort  of  thing  will  find  the  sort  of 
thing  he  enjoys. 

Responsive  Readings  in  the  Re- 
vised Version.  With  Morning 
and  Vesper  Services.  By  Rev.  J. 
T.  Duryea,  d.d.  Boston  and 
Chicago :  Congregational  Sunday- 
School  and  Publishing  Society. 
Introduction  price,  50  cents.  Retail 
price,  70  cents. 

In  the  first  part  of  this  beautiful 
book  are  given  selections  from  the 
Psalms  and  other  Scriptures  In  the 
Revised  Version,  to  be  used  as  respon- 
sive reading  in  church  services  and 
on  special  occasions.  In  the  back  of 
the  book  a  morning  and  vesper  ser- 
vice are  given  for  the  use  of  congre- 
gations, colleges,  schools,  and  acade- 
mies, which,  bound  with  the  respon- 
sive readings,  add  much  to  the  value 
of  the  work.  In  the  readings  and 
in  the  services,  the  scholarly  and 
the  refined  taste  of  Dr.  Duryea  is 
everywhere  evident.  The  volume  Is 
printed  In  large  clear  type,  and  the 
book  presents  a  very  attractive  ap- 
pearance. The  morning  and  vesper 
services  are  bound  separately  and 
may  be  had  for  30  cents,  or  for  intro- 
duction at  25  cents. 


70 


EDUCATION, 


[September, 


Grammar  School  Reader.  Vol.  I. 
Price,  90  cents. 

History  and  Science  Reader. 
'i'he  Interstate  Publishing  Ck)., 
Boston:  30  Franklin  Street.  Chi- 
cago :  183  Wabash  Ave.  Price,  50 
cents. 

Vol.  I  of  the  Grammar  School 
Rc4ider  contains  three  hundred  and 
eighteen  pages,  is  fully  illustrated, 
and  finely  bound  In  cloth.  Stories 
and  sketches  by  best  authors.  An 
excellent  book  for  a  reader,  since  It 
is  made  up  of  stories  that  cannot  fail 
of  interesting  the  pupils.  It  is  also  a 
book  that  will  be  held  as  a  treasure 
in  any  family. 

The  Ili.-^tory  and  Science  Reader 
contains  one  h  indred  and  ninety-four 
pages,  with  continued  articles  under 
titles,  "Magna  Charta  Stories,'' 
*'  Little  Biographies  —  Music,"  ''  The 
Traveling  Law  School,"  "  Old  Ocean," 
"  Health  and  Strength  Papers,"  etc., 
by  famous  authors,  beautifully  illus- 
trated, and  tastefully  bound  in  cloth, 
for  school  use.  This  book  also  is  one 
from  which  the  children  will  learn 
much  that  is  valuable. 

These  two  books  arc  made  from 
material  which  has  been  used  the  past 
two  years  in  the  monthly  '•  Grammar 
School,"  the  first  being  made  up  of 
stories,  the  latter  of  the  **  Supple- 
ment" or  ''History  and  Science  De- 
partment." 

The  Lki)-1Iorsk  Claim.  By  Mary 
Hallook  Foote,  author  of  "Friend 
Barton's  Concern,"  "  A  Story  of 
the  Dry  Season,"  etc.  Boston: 
Ticknor  &  Co.    Price,  oO  cents. 

This  romance  of  the  mining  camp 
combines  some  description  of  the 
miner's  life  and  surroundings  of  the 
camp  with  a  novel  such  as  will  inter- 
est many  who  deliglit  in  n»ading  of 
the  wild,  rougli  manners  of  the  fron- 
tier life,  or  the  lumberman's  hut,  or 
the  miner's  camp. 


Helps  to  the  Intelligent  Study 
OF  College  Preparatory  Latin. 
By  Karl  P.  Harrington,  m.a.  Bos- 
ton :  Ginn  &  Co.    1888. 

This  little  work  is  intended  to  help 
the  student,  as  well  as  the  teticher, 
find  the  answers,  in  the  briefest  pos- 
sible time,  to  such  questions  as, 
**  Who  was  Caesar?"  **  Who  were  the 
Gauls?"  ''Why  did  Caisar  subdue 
them?"  "What  kind  of  a  soldier 
was  he?"  "  How  did  Virgil  look?" 
"What  sort  of  a  man  was  he?" 
"WTiat  kind  of  hexameter  did  he 
write?"  "Was  Catiline  as  bad  as 
Cicero  makes  him  out?"  "How 
may  Cicero's  literary  style  be  de- 
scribed?" etc.  These  are  questions 
which  tlie  students  in  our  preparatory 
schools  cannot  answer.  This  book 
will  show  them  where  to  find  the 
answers,  and  will  serve  to  encourage 
individual  research. 

Laboratory  Year  Book  for  1S8S. 
By  John  Howard  Appleton,  a.m., 
I*rofessor  of  Chemistry  in  Brown 
University.  Providence,  H.  L: 
Gordon,  'Boscoe  &  Co.  Pp.  32. 
Price,  12  cents. 

Among  the  large  number  of  mod- 
em calendars,  here  is  one  for  the 
chemist.  Revised  to  date,  it  is  an 
excellent  handbook  for  the  desk  of 
every  science  teacher. 

Cassell's  National  Library.  Sub- 
scription price  per  year,  $o.00; 
t<»n  cents  a  copy.  Cassell  &  Co., 
739  Broadway,  New  York. 

No.  104.  An  Essay  upon  Pro- 
.JECTS.  By  Daniel  Defoe.  No.  105. 
Crickkt  on  the  Hkarth.  With 
selections  from  *'  Sketches  by  Boz.'' 
By  Charles  Dicke'ns.  No.  106.  Anec- 
dotes of  the  Late  Samuel  John- 
son, LL.D.  By  Hester  Ljnich  l*io/zi. 
No.  107.  Plutauch's  Lives  of 
Solon,  Publicola  Philopoewkn, 
Titus  Quinctius  Flamininus,  and 
Caius   Mauius.    No.  108.     Prome- 


1888.] 


ciMOXG  TUE  BOOKS. 


71 


THEUS  Unbound.  With  Adonais,  The 
Cloud,  Hymn  to  Intellectual  Beauty, 
and  An  Exhortation.  By  Percy 
Bysshe  Shelley.  No.  109.  The  Re- 
public OF  THE  FuTUKE.  By  Anna 
Bowman  Dodd.  No.  110.  Kino 
Lear.  By  William  Shakespeare. 
No.  111.  Seven  Discourses  on 
Art.    By  Sir  Joslma  Reynolds.    No. 

112.       A     IllSTORY    OF     THE     EaRLY 

Part  of  the  Reign  of  James  the 
Second.    By  Charles  James  Fox. 

Riverside  Literature  Series.  No. 
;W.  Tales  OF  a  Wayside  Inn.  By 
Henry  W.  Lonj^fellow.  With  an  in- 
troduction }in(i  notes.  In  tliree 
parts.  Tart  I.  No.  34.  Part  II.  No. 
30.  Sharp  Eves  and  Other  Pa- 
pers. By  John  Burrou«:hs.  No.  3"). 
Tales  of  a  Wayside  Inn.  By  IL 
W.  Lonjjjfcllow.  With  an  hitrodur- 
tion  and  notes.  In  three  num- 
bers. III.  lioston  and  New  Yorlv : 
IJoujjliron,  Mittlin  &  Co.  Single 
numbers,  15  cents.  Yearly  8ul>- 
scription  (9  numbers),  91.2o. 

Cassell's  National  Library. 
Price,  ten  cents  each.  Subscripti<m 
price  per  year,  8.5.00.  New  York : 
Cassell&Co.  No.  113.  The  Diary 
OP  Sajviuel  Pepys.  From  October, 
1607,  to  March,  IfiOS.  No.  114. 
London  in  1731.  By  Don  Manoel 
Gonzales.  No.  ll.'i.  The  Apolo<jy 
OF  the  Church  of  England.  By 
John  Jewel.  No.  110.  Much  Ado 
About  Nothing.  By  William 
Shakespeare.  No.  117.  Sketches 
of  Persia.  By  Sir  .folin  Malcolm. 
Vol.1.  No.  118.  The  Shepherds' 
Calendar.  By  Ednmnd  Six»nser. 
No.  119.  The  Black  Death  and 
the  Dancing  Mania.  By  J.  F.  C. 
Ilecker.  No.  120.  Sketches  of 
Persia.  By  Sir  John  Malcolm. 
Vol.  11.  No.  121.  The  Diary  of 
Samuel  Pepys  from  March  to 
November,  1008. 

Old  South  Leaflets.  General 
Series.  Price,  5  cents  per  copy ;  one 
hundred  copies.  $3.00.  Published  by 
D.  C.  Hejith  &  Co.,  Boston.  No.  1. 
The  Constitution  of  the  United 
States.  No.  2.  The  Articles 
of  Confederation.    No.  3.    The 


Declaration  of  Independence. 
No.  4.  Washington's  Farewell 
Address.  No.  5.  MagnaCharta. 
No.  6.  A  Healing  Question. 
By  Sir  Henry  Vane.  No.  9.  Frank- 
lin's Plan  of  Union,  17.*i4.  No. 
10.  Washington's  Inaugurals. 
No.  12.  The  Federalist,  N«»s.  1. 
and  2.  No.  13.  The  Ordinance 
OF  17S7. 

The  latest  volumes  of  the  Ticknor 
Paper  Series  are  Next  Door  and 
The  Minister's  Ch ar(je.  The  former 
of  these  two  popular  novels  is  writ- 
ten by  Clara  T^ouise  Buruham  and  is 
one  of  the  few  stories  in  which  the 
characters  and  plot  are  true  to 
nature.  This  delightful  and  domes- 
tic story  is  full  of  bright  humor 
and  pure  healthful  sentiment.  The 
character  sketches  are  wonderfully 
natural,  piquant,  and  attractive.  The 
Minister's  Charge,  by  William  D. 
Uowells,  Avlll  need  no  recouunen- 
dation  to  those  who  so  enthusias- 
tically welcome  anything  from  the  pen 
of  this  popular  author,  llowells's 
pure,  inimitable  fun  is  enough  to 
carry  any  story  he  may  write. 

We  have  received  from  Ilenry  Holt 
&,  Co.,  New  York,  A  Manual  of 
Qeiuian  Prefixes  and  Suffixes. 
By  J.  S.  Blackwell,  PH.D.,  Professor 
of  Semitic  and  Modern  Languages 
in  the  University  of  Missouri.  Tlie 
book  is  designed  as  a  practical  aid  to 
students  who  may  wish  to  gain  a 
nearer  sense  than  even  the  best  dic- 
tionaries give  of  the  meaning  of  Ger- 
man words.  The  work  gives  in  a 
small  compass  a  great  deal  of  matter 
that  cannot  be  found  elsewhere  in  so 
convenient  form.  The  plan  of  the 
Manual  does  not  include  the  etymol- 
ogy of  the  pretixes  and  suOlxes. 
Students  of  German  will  hail  with 
delight  this  work  which  gives  such 
an  insight  to  the  German  language. 


72 


EDUCATION. 


[September, 


The  Social  Influence  of  Chris- 
tianity, with  special  reference  to 
Conteinporary  Problems.  By  Da- 
vid J.  Hill,  LL.D.,  President  of  Buck- 
nell  UniYersity.  The  Newton  I-eo- 
turoj*  for  188*7.  231  pages.  Full 
Cloth,  Gilt,  Price,  $1.25.  Boston: 
Silver,  Burdett  &  Co.  Publishers. 

This  work  by  President  Hill  is  unique 
and  scholarly,  rather  than  a  mere  com- 
pilation of  current  thoughts  intended 
for  temporary  popular  efft»ct.  It  is  a 
work  of  a  really  philosophical  charac- 
ter presented  in  a  most  inviting  form. 
Ten  years  of  experience  as  a  teacher 
of  economics  and  sociology  have  ena- 
bled the  author  to  grasp  the  Issues  of 
his  subject  in  a  scientific  manner,  and 
his  extended  travel  in  Europe  has  en- 
riched his  knowledge  of  the  contem- 
porary condition  of  society  with  the 
fruits  of  observation.  The  leading 
views  regarding  the  nature  of  society, 
both  ancient  and  modern,  are  com- 
prehensively stated,  traced  In  their 
development,  and  intelligently  criti- 


cised from  a  scientific,  Christian,  and 
American  point  of  view.  The  central 
Ideas  of  Christianity,  which  the  au- 
thor carefully  distinguishes  from  the 
Church,  are  admirably  defined,  and 
their  Influence  upon  society  histori- 
cally studied.  In  typography,  bind- 
ing, etc.,  the  book  Is  a  gem^  and  adds 
another  to  the  beautiful  specimens  of 
book-making  recently  given  to  the 
public  by  Its  publishers.  It  should 
find  a  place  In  the  library  of  every 
thoughtful  student. 

Trie  Blue;  Mother  Goose's  Cam- 
paign Melodies.  Edited  by  a  well- 
known  American  author.  Published 
by  the  Campaign  Publishing  Com- 
pany, 707  Filbert  Street,  Philadel- 
phia. 

Bright  with  wit,  sparkling  with 
good  sense,  and.  In  a  happy  vein,  puts 
some  logical  political  arguments  terse- 
ly and  with  becoming  gravity.  Sent 
by  mall  for  ten  cents. 


MAGAZINES. 


PoMiibly  no  other  departmont  of  our  lit- 
erature has  made  more  rapid  Improve- 
ment within  the  last  ten  or  a  dozen  yearn 
than  the  maKazineo.  The  Century ^  Scrib- 
ner*tt  The  Forum,  The  American  Magazine, 
The  Atlantic,  The  Xetc  Princeton,  The  North 
Amerimn  Jievitw,  The  Catholic  m»rld.  The 
Popular  Science  Monthly,  LippincotVa,  Sew 
EnyUtmler,  Awlover  Revtcw  Presbyterian  /?e- 
riew,  Frank  Leslie,  Cosmopolitan,  and  a  hotit 
of  olhera  "  too  numerouM  to  mt* ntlon,"  are 
all  witne»«e8  to  the  Mlaut  Htridei*  of  Im- 

{)roveinent  made  In  this  direction.  We 
lave  not  ttpace  to  speak  of  them  all  in  de- 
tail, but  Hhall  from  month  to  month  call 
the  eHpeolal  attention  of  our  readern  par* 
tlonlarly  to  those  articles  which  seem  to 
have  the  greatest  interest  and  to  be  of  the 
greatest  value  to  the  e<lucatlonal  frater- 
nity. Every  teacher  should,  however,  c<m- 
slantly  bt>ar  in  mind  that  much  reading 
should  be  done  outside  ofprofessional  lines. 
—Mrs.  Martha  J.  l^mb  gives,  in  the  Septem- 
ber number  of  The  American  Magazine  of 
History,  an  especlall}'  interesting  and 
wellllluMtrate<l  account  of  Marietta,  Ohio, 
speaking  particularly  of  the  foundation 
of  civil  government  beyond  the  Ohio  Kiv- 
er.— **  Tne  Story  of   Boston  Common  "  is 

given  in  Edward  Everett  Hale's  usual 
right,  attractive  style,  in  the  September 
Ifide  AuHil-e.—The  torum  for  September 
gives  a  glowing  tribute  to  the  Government 
of  the  I  nited  States,  fnnn  the  pen  of  the 
Marquis  of  Lome.  Ever>-  American  citi- 
zen ought  to  be  more  proud  of  his  country 
after  reading  this  answer  to  an  "eminent 
American  writer."  The  article  is  entitleil 
**  Distrust  of  Popular  Government." — Paul 
B.  Cleveland  discusaea  in  the  Augoat  Cos- 


mopolitan the  question,  **  Is  Literature 
Bread-winningi'^'  — All  lovers  of  history 
and  civil  government  will  be  glad  to 
rea<l  .John  Fiske's  account  of  the  **  First 
Year  of  the  Continental  Congress,"  in  the 
September  number  of  the  Atlantic  Monthly. 
—A  unique  article  on  **  History  in  Names  " 
by  Rev.  G.  H.  llubbard,  of  North  Cam- 
bridge,  is  given  in  the  Xew  Englander  and 
Yale  Review.— The  question,  ••What  is  a 
Royal  Commission?  *'  is  answered  in  the 
September  number  of  CasselVs,  by  George 
Howell,  M.  P.— i>rof.  John  W.  Burgess  gives 
an  account  of  ••  The  German  £mperor,"  in 
the  Political  Science  Quarterly.— Tho  excel- 
lent articles  on  Abraham  Lincoln  still  con> 
tinue  In  the  Century,  The  August  number 
gives  the  history  connected  with  Tennes- 
see and  Kentucky.— TAt;  Overland  Monthly 
for  August  opens  with  an  article  about  the 
great  artesian  belt  of  the  I'pper  San  .Joa- 
quin Valley.— A  most  instructive  as  well  as 
interesting  article  is  to  bti  found  in  the  Au- 
gust Scribner*s,  by  N.  S.  8haler,  on  **  Rivers 
and  Valleys."— In  the  September  Wide 
Awake,  Rev.  H.  O.  Ladd,  President  of  the 
University  of  New  Mexico.  <lescribes  the 
Ramona  Industrial  School  at  Santa  Fc^  and 
the  Ramona  Memorial  Hall,  a  beautiful 
school  for  Indian  Girls  which  Is  being  built 
as  a  monument  to  ••  H.  H."  The  JTide 
Awake  children  are  invited  to  build  the  Re- 
fectory in  the  school,  giving  two  cents  a 
weeJ:  for  a  year.  This  dining-nall  is  to  cost 
a  thousand  dollars,  and  is  to  be  known  as 
the  IFiile  Awake  R^ectory.  The  names  of 
the  ••  Ri-fectory  Thousand  "  — the  givers— 
are  to  be  hung  in  the  hall,  and  are  also  to 
be  printed  in  WkU  Awake, 


€3d  U  CTATI 0  R 

DEVOTED  TO  THE   SCIENCE,  ART,  PHILOSOPHY,  AND 

LITERATURE  OF  EDUCATION. 


Vol.   IX.  OCTOBER,    1888.  No.   2. 


THE    TEACHING   OF   THE    ENGLISH  LANGUAGE 

AND  LITERATURE,^ 

BY  n.   E.   SHEPHERD,  LL.  D. 
Preiident  of  CkarUtion  CoUege^  CharUttont  8.  C. 

I. 

METHODS   OF   STUDY   IN  ENGLISH   LITERATURE. 

THE  prominence  assigned  in  our  contemporary  educational  lit- 
erature, as  well  as  in  our  practice,  to  the  art  of  methodology, 
has  led  to  a  revulsion  which  is  both  logical  in  its  character  and 
salutary  in  its  effects.  The  untempered  zeal  of  the  extreme  meth- 
odologists  has  caused  them  to  assign  to  their  shallow  artifices  a 
sort  of  magical  efficacy,  as  though  the  highest  ends  of  insti'uction 
were  to  be  accomplished  by  mere  dexterity,  pure  attainment,  culti- 
vated judgment,  delicate  scholarship,  lofty  idealism,  all  being  of 
secondary  import  in  this  dispensation  of  sciolism.  In  the  develop- 
ment of  his  philosophic  system  Bacon  seems  to  have  anticipated 
some  of  the  characteristic  features  of  our  modern  educational  em- 
piricism. The  Novum  Organum  which  he  believed  was  to  revo- 
lutionize existing  methods  of  philosophic  investigation,  was  to 
achieve  success  not  by  force  of  individual  skill  or  aptitude,  but  by 
the  intrinsic  excellence  of  the  mode  pursued.  Original  differences 
of  genius,  temperament,  character,  were  to  be  effaced  by  the  adop- 
tion of  a  system  which  ignored  them  and  accomplished  its  ends  by 
the  supreme  merit  of  method  alone.     Bacon's  scheme  of  levelling 

1  Copyright,  1888,  by  Eastern  Educational  Bureau. 


74  EDUCATION.  [October, 

all  original  differences  and  setting  aside  all  native  or  acquired  fac- 
ulties is  a  suggestive  and  entertaining  commentary  when  read  in 
the  light  of  modern  developments.  Still,  it  is  neither  wise  nor 
salutary  to  press  reactionary  movements  to  an  extreme  degree,  and 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  metliods  may  be  effectively  employed 
as  an  auxiliary  to  the  higher  condition  of  true  scholarship.  In 
any  sphere  of  educational  work,  their  function  must  be  secondary 
and  subordinate,  not  primary  or  exclusive. 

So  much  has  been  written  and  said  in  regard  to  modes  of  instruc- 
tion in  primary  schools  tliat  the  world  has  grown  weary  of  the 
theme.  The  loftier  spheres  of  scientific,  literary,  and  historical 
teacliing  have  happily  escaped  the  empirical  epidemic,  and  will 
remain  free  from  its  tainting  touch.  The  field  of  English  Litera- 
ture and  the  English  Language  —  in  its  higher  forms  —  seems  to 
have  been  thus  far  undesolated  by  the  oracles  of  empirical  edu- 
cation. 

I  pur|)Ose  in  the  present  paper  to  set  forth  concisely  some  results, 
gathered  from  a  varied  and  changeful  career  as  teacher  of  English 
Literature.  They  are  offered  in  no  spirit  of  dogmatism  —  merely 
as  suggestions  for  consideration  —  for  scholarly  reflection  —  by  no 
means  for  necessary  acceptance  or  approval. 

First  of  all,  it  is  the  tendency  of  modern  teaching  to  divorce 
the  literature  from  its  natural  cognate  and  interpreter  —  the  de- 
paHment  of  history.  For  literature  is  the  artistic  expression  of 
the  historic  life.  The  one  elucidates  and  illumines  the  other; 
their  separation  is  illogical  and  empirical.  A  broad,  critical,  and 
sympathetic  knowledge  of  the  great  lines  of  historic  growth,  is  an 
essential  requisite  on  the  part  of  every  teacher  of  English  litera- 
ture. It  is  in  the  bewildering  complexity  of  modern  historic  life 
that  tliis  harmony  of  relation  is  most  perceptible  and  most  impress- 
ive, yet  it  may  be  traced  in  the  simpler  liistoric  development  of 
antiquity — a  notable  illustration  being  the  advance  of  Athens  to 
the  literary  and  political  supremacy  of  Greece,  under  the  stimu- 
lating influence  of  the  Persian  wars.  Other  instances  may  be 
gathered  from  the  elder  world,  but  the  modem  ages  abound  in 
examples  and  illustrations.  Let  us  select  from  the  rich  field  at 
our  disposal,  elaborating  our  selections,  so  as  to  confirm  the  truth 
of  the  general  proposition.  The  Elizabethan  age  is  a  mirror  held 
up  to  nature,  in  wliich  is  reflected  the  form  and  pressure  of  the 
historic  life.     Every  phase  of  its  luxuriant  and  versatile  growth, 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  ENGLISH  LANOUAOE.  76 

is  suggestive  of  some  distinctive  feature  of  its  political,  moral,  or 
material  expansion.  The  creative  form  assumed  by  its  litemry 
types,  the  surrender  of  its  noblest  writers  rather  to  impulse  than 
to  critical  guidance,  point  to  the  quickening  force  of  certain  his- 
toric influences  which  we  shall  now  endeavor  to  indicate. 

As  a  matter  of  historic  record,  when  Elizabeth  ascended  the 
throne  in  1558  both  language  and  people  were  in  a  disorganized 
and  distracted  condition.  The  sweet  strains  of  English  song  that 
had  arisen  with  Chaucer  died  away  almost  as  suddenly  as  they  had 
begun,  leaving  only  fitful  echoes  of  their  melody  during  the  dreary 
age  that  extends  from  the  advent  of  the  fifteenth  century  to  the 
preluding  symphonies  of  Surrey  and  Wyatt.  The  nation  had  been 
convulsed  by  the  thirty  years'  war  of  York  and  Lancaster  —  a 
struggle  involving  no  grave  constitutional  or  moral  principle,  but 
leaving  an  abiding  impress  upon  the  character  of  English  history 
and  of  English  speech.  The  introduction  of  printing  stimulated 
in  its  first  effects  prevailing  linguistic  disorder.  The  Renaissance 
and  The  Reformation  followed  in  its  train.  Classical  learning,  at 
first  pursued  in  accordance  with  logical  and  rational  methods, 
soon  degenerated  into  an  elegant  affectation,  and  instead  of  striv- 
ing to  domesticate  the  acknowledged  graces  of  Greek  and  Roman 
artists,  strove  to  engraft  upon  the  simple  structure  of  our  lan- 
guage, the  complicated  periods  of  the  ancients.  The  acrimonious 
strife  of  the  Reformation  absorbed  the  minds  of  scholars,  and 
diverted  their  energies  from  the  ennobling  pursuits  of  literature. 
The  structure  of  the  language  was  unsettled,  its  syntax  was  fluc- 
tuating, its  vocabulary  not  ascertained,  its  metrical  principles  and 
combinations  undetermined.  Its  verbal  richness  was  being  steadi- 
ly increased  by  translations  of  the  Greek  and  Latin  classics,  by  the 
spirit  of  commercial  adventure,  geographical  enterprise,  and  knight- 
ly daring.  For  the  higher  purposes  of  scholarly  composition,  the 
language  was  had  in  slight  esteem,  and  Ascham  apologizes  for 
employing  it,  "  doubting  not  that  he  should  be  blamed  "  for  this 
act  of  supposed  condescension  to  the  rights  of  the  native  speech. 

At  the  accession  of  Elizabeth,  there  was  no  clear  foreshadowing 
of  the  most  brilliant  creative  epoch  that  has  been  developed  in 
modern  literature.  Yet  in  thirty  years  from  the  beginning  of  her 
reign  it  was  ripening  into  supreme  vigor  and  splendor  —  the  trans- 
formation is  complete. 


I 


76  EDUCATIOy.  [October, 

Let  118  note  the  historic  influences  that  had  produced  this  mar- 
velous result.  First  of  all  —  preeminent  above  all  —  was  the  lofty 
sense  of  self-respect,  the  stimulus  to  national  consciousness,  re- 
sulting from  the  splendid  victory  over  the  Spanish  Armada,  an 
achievement  that  may  be  justly  described  as  the  English  Salamis. 
Other  influences  are  to  be  enumerated.  The  knightly  love  of  ad- 
venture ;  the  spirit  of  heroic  emprise  ;  the  expansion  of  geograph- 
ical and  commercial  knowledge ;  colonization ;  the  quest  of  strange 
lands  in  the  "  unformed  Occident,"  were  all  determining  forces, 
exhilarating  agencies.  Then  too,  was  the  relation  of  England  to 
foreign  powers,  growing  out  of  the  complex  struggles  of  the 
Reformation  to  esttiblish  itself  in  the  Low  Countries,  the  Hugue- 
not struggles  in  France,  and  the  almost  ceaseless  strife  with  the 
power  of  the  Spanish  monarchy.  The  revolt  of  the  Netherlands 
began  in  1568.  Sidney  was  then  fourteen  years  of  age ;  Bacon, 
eight ;  Shakespeare,  four ;  Raleigh  and  Spenser  were  sixteen,  being 
both  born  in  1552.  In  the  midst  of  all,  and  in  one  sense  above 
all,  was  the  brilliant  figure  of  Mary  Stuart,  the  inspiration  of  the 
Catholic  cause ;  the  object  of  an  unfailing  homage,  whose  tragic 
death  at  Fotheringay,  in  February,  1587,  was  the  immediate  occa- 
sion of  the  descent  of  the  Armada  upon  England.  Sir  Philip 
Sidney,  the  purest  expression  of  all  that  was  noble  and  lovely  in 
the  manhood  of  Elizabethan  England  breathed  out  his  young  life 
in  October,  1586.  During  this  year  it  is  probable  that  Shakes- 
peare came  to  London  in  quest  of  a  livelihood.  In  1587  appeared 
Marlowe's  Tamerlaine,  wliich  forever  fixed  the  place  of  blank 
verse  in  the  English  drama.  During  these  same  eventful  years, 
Raleigh  was  founding  the  first  English  colonies  on  Roanoke  Island, 
and  Drake  was  circumnavigating  the  globe.  The  age  was  a  drama 
in  constant  progress ;  its  moulding  influences  were  dramatic  ;  that 
its  literature  should  have  in  large  measure  assumed  the  di-amatic 
form  is  but  the  logical  outcome  of  the  events  that  fashioned  it. 
Much  even  of  its  non-dramatic  poetry  is  tinged  by  a  dramatic 
radiance.  The  noblest  allegorical  expression  of  contemporary  life 
has  its  dramatic  features  and  its  dramatic  tone.  The  peculiar 
blending  of  the  spirit  of  chivalry,  the  fantasies  of  the  mediajval 
era  with  the  rising  realism  of  the  modern  world,  is  a  marked  char- 
act^jristic  of  the  Elizabethan  age.  Its  Sidneys  and  Raleighs,  its 
Galahads  and  Lancelots,  had  not  outlived  the  fascination  of  the 
romantic  day,  at  the  same  time  they  had  developed  some  of  the 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  ENGLISH  LANGUAGE.  77 

distinctive  features  of  our  modern  materialistic  and  realistic  life. 
They  stand  on  the  border  land,  where  the  charm  of  one  age  is 
receding,  and  the  strongly  marked  outline  of  another  is  rising  into 
view.  The  old  order  is  changing,  but  the  ancient  economy  lin- 
gers, its  brilliance  and  its  glamor  are  still  reflected,  and  the  new 
dispensation  has  not  lost  the  freshness  and  the  vigor  of  novelty. 
That  the  literature  of  Elizabethan  days  should  have  assumed  a 
creative  and  dramatic  caste,  would  seem  to  be  the  mere  logic  of 
events,  every  historic  influence  converging  to  this  grand  result. 
No  teacher  is  capable  of  estimating  the  character  or  the  causes  of 
this  unparalleled  era,  who  is  not  acquainted  with  the  complex 
historic  life  of  the  sixteenth  century.  If  we  select  the  age  of 
Anne,  we  find  that  the  general  law  of  literary  and  historic  rela- 
tion holds  good.  If  we  investigate  the  closing  decades  of  the 
Georgian  era,  the  epoch  coincident  with  the  dawn  of  the  first 
French  Revolution,  the  revival  of  romanticism,  and  the  decay  of 
classicism,  we  find  that  our  principle  applies  in  undiminished 
vigor.  It  is  one  of  the  peculiar  charms  of  literary  history,  if  it 
be  pursued  in  accordance  with  rational  or  scientific  spirit,  that  the 
seminal  forces,  the  germs  which  are  to  ripen  into  mature  activity 
in  a  given  age,  may  be  detected  in  the  age  which  precedes  it. 
The  neologism  or  barbarism  of  one  era  becomes  the  reputable 
idiom,  the  recognized  type  of  the  next.  The  scholastic  genius  of 
our  Augustan  age  is  not  only  potentially  present,  but  vigorously 
developed  in  the  literary  work  and  character  of  Ben  Jonson.  The 
philosophic  scheme  of  Bacon  was  unfolding  just  as  Shakespeare 
had  reached  the  highest  point  of  our  romantic  drama. 

When  we  pass  from  the  "  spacious  times  of  great  Elizabeth," 
into  the  reign  of  the  second  Stuart  monarch,  we  note  the  gradual 
but  steady  development  of  that  "obstinate  questioning,"  that 
rationalistic  temper  which  at  a  subsequent  day  is  to  come  to  ma- 
turity in  the  Principia  of  Newton,  the  philosophy  of  Hobbes  and 
of  Locke,  the  structural  charm  and  "  golden  cadence  "  of  Addison 
and  Pope.  In  political  development,  in  the  struggles  of  the  Long 
Parliament,  in  the  constitutional  revolution  of  1688,  in  the  expan- 
sion of  physical  science  by  scholars  and  thinkers  during  the  dis- 
tractions of  the  civil  war,  in  its  mature  development  under  the 
culture  of  Newton,  in  every  phase  of  intellectual  life,  we  detect 
the  presence  of  this  same  critical  arid  regulative  spirit.  It  is  seen 
in  the  decline  of  our  periodical  syntax,  in  the  development  of  our 


78  EDUCATIOX.  [October, 

modern  prose  form,  in  the  perfection  of  the  heroic  couplet,  in  the 
Bentley-Boyle  controversy,  as  well  as  in  the  struggles  against 
monarchical  absolutism.  The  entire  range  of  literature  will  fur- 
nish scarcely  an  exception  to  the  fundamental  law  enunciated. 

Take  the  decline  of  German  national  spirit  and  the  consequent 
decay  of  German  literary  aspiration  aft^r  the  Thirty  Yeara'  War ; 
the  subjection  of  Germany  to  Parisian  influences,  intellectual  as 
well  as  political ;  the  falling  off  of  English  literature  from  the 
death  of  Chaucer  to  the  advent  of  Surrey  and  Wyatt,  in  whom  we 
see  the  first-fruits  of  the  English  Renaissance ;  the  classic  type 
assumed  by  French  literature  in  consequence  of  the  political  in- 
fluences that  controlled  the  age  of  Louis  XIV. ;  the  vice  of 
romanticism  in  France  during  the  era  succeeding  the  revolution, 
when  in  Great  Britain  the  genius  of  Wordsworth,  Burns,  and 
Scott  had  laid  bare  the  very  springs  of  native  life  and  romantic 
spirit. 

Let  us  insist  rigidly  upon  the  observance  of  the  principle,  that 
literature  and  history  elucidate  and  interpret  each  other ;  that  the 
scheme  of  instruction  which  divorces  the  one  from  the  other  is 
illogical,  misleading,  and  irrational. 

In  the  next  place  I  would  impress  the  need  of  restraint  and 
moderation  in  the  pursuit  of  this  study.  Nowhere  in  the  range 
of  instruction  is  the  necessity  greater  for  regarding  the  laws  of 
harmony,  the  principle  of  adjustment. 


THE  marvelous  changes,  political,  social,  moral,  intellectual, 
and  physical,  which  give  character  to  the  nineteenth  century, 
are  but  the  prelude  to  a  drama  which  shall  make  all  past  acliieve- 
ments  of  our  race  appear  weak  and  contemptible.  To  imagine 
that  our  superiority  is  merely  mechanical  and  material  is  to  fail  to 
see  things  as  they  are.  Greater  individuals  may  have  lived  than 
are  now  living,  but  never  l)efore  has  the  world  been  governed 
with  so  much  wisdom  and  so  much  justice ;  and  the  power  back 
of  our  progress  is  intellectual,  moral,  and  religious.  Science  is 
not  material.     It  is  the  product  of  intellect  and  will. 

•        Bishop  John  Lancaster  Siwldixg,  of  Peoria. 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS.  79 


THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS.^ 

II. 

THE  ECONOMY   OF   MEMORY   IN   THE   STUDY   OF    ARITHMETIC.  —  II. 

BY  SIMON  N.   PATTEN,   PH.  D., 
ProfuMor  in  the  Untveraitff  of  Penntylvania. 

TO  use  correctly  different  systems  of  measurement  is  not  so 
easy  as  it  may  seem  at  fii-st  sight.  Even  mature  minds 
easily  become  confused  when  they  attempt  to  use  different  stan- 
dards. Take  for  example  the  case  of  thermometers.  How  many 
persons  are  there  who  can  readily  tell  how  forty-eight  degrees 
alx)ve  zero  Fahrenheit  is  expressed  in  both  of  the  other  methods  of 
measuring  temperature  ?  To  do  this,  a  person  must  have  the  three 
different  units  of  measurement  well  in  hand,  and  this  requires  a 
great  effort  even  for  a  mature  mind.  Persons  living  in  foreign 
countries  always  have  great  difficulty  in  using  the  new  standards 
of  money,  weights,  etc.,  and  this  can  be  true  only  because  it  re- 
quires so  much  effort  to  acquire  a  ready  use  of  any  one  system 
of  measurement.  If  the  changing  of  the  standard  of  measure- 
ment requires  a  great  effort  even  on  the  part  of  mature  persons, 
why  should  we  compel  children  to  measure  each  numl)er  directly 
by  every  smaller  number  instead  of  allowing  them  to  measure 
them  all  by  that  system  which  is  most  familiar  —  the  system  of 
twos  ?  If  a  child  had  twenty  sticks,  in  what  way  would  he  ac- 
quire the  best  idea  of  their  relative  lengtlis  —  by  using  everj'^  stick 
in  turn  as  a  measure  of  the  others,  or  by  using  some  one  stick 
until  he  became  so  familiar  with  its  use  that  he  thought  of  every 
other  stick  only  in  terms  of  this  one  stick?  Suppose  again,  that 
a  mother  wished  to  teach  her  child  the  capacity  of  all  the  dishes 
she  used.  Should  she  measure  each  dish  by  each  smaller  one  — 
the  dipper  by  the  cup,  the  kettle  by  the  dipper,  and  the  tub  by 
the  kettle  ?  Or  would  she  succeed  better  if  she  used  some  one 
dish,  say  the  quart  biusin  as  the  unit  in  whose  terms  the  capacity 
of  all  the  dishes  is  expressed  ? 

>  Copyright,  1888,  by  Eastern  Educational  Bureau. 


80  EDUCATION.  [October, 

Now  these  questions  are  of  the  greatest  importance.  From  the 
difficulty  in  changing  from  one  standard  of  measurement  to  an- 
other must  we  determine  whether  we  should  use  some  one  number 
as  the  measure  of  all  others,  or  whether  we  should  measure  each 
number  directly  by  every  smaller  number.  We  can  compare  each 
number  with  everj"^  smaller  number  and  still  use  one  unit  of  meas- 
urement ;  for  example,  five  can  be  compared  with  three  by  using 
two  as  the  unit  of  measurement ;  three  equals  one  two-j-l,  and 
five  equals  two  twos-j-l*  Their  difference,  therefore,  is  two,  and 
their  sum  eight.  When,  however,  we  measure  five  directly  by 
three,  we  attempt  a  difficult  task  for  a  child,  and  one  that  should 
be  deferred  until  a  later  period. 

Commencing  with  the  smallest  combination  of  numbers  and 
learning  each  larger  one  in  turn  in  a  disconnected  way  is  just  as 
confusing  and  burdensome  as  it  is  in  history  to  leani  the  first  fact 
of  any  period,  then  the  second  one,  and  so  on,  making  no  grouping 
of  the  isolated  facts  around  the  more  important  events  with  which 
tliey  are  associated.  A  teacher  who  teaches  history  in  a  discon- 
nected way  is  not  now  regarded  as  very  progressive,  nor  should 
that  teacher  be  ranked  any  higher  who  in  numl>ei*s  commences 
with  the  smallest  combination  and  then  proceeds  to  the  larger  ones 
in  order,  thus  comi)elling  the  child  to  keep  them  all  distinct  in 
memory  without  the  aid  of  any  system  of  notation. 

Griibe  was  right  when  he  advocated  that  all  four  primary  oper- 
ations, addition,  subtraction,  midtiplication,  and  division,  be  taught 
in  connection  with  one  another.  lie  overlooked,  however,  the 
fifth  primary  operation,  the  need  of  a  system  of  notation  to  ex- 
press numbei's  and  the  relief  which  is  thereby  given  to  the  memo- 
ry.  This  also  should  1x3  taught  from  the  Ixjginning,  and  this  can 
only  be  done  when,  for  the  time  being,  the  decimal  system  is  dis- 
carded and  in  its  place  a  system  of  twos  —  the  most  simple  of  all 
systems  —  is  substituted.  A  child  should  be  taught  to  think  in 
this  system,  and  no  other  way  of  measuring  numbere  shoidd  l>e 
used  until  the  child  can  exi)ress  all  the  small  numbers  readily  in 
terms  of  two,  and  can,  by  substitution,  find  the  sum  of  any  two  of 
the  small  numbei's.  Then  he  should  be  taught  to  think  by  the 
system  of  fours,  which  is  \\(tyii  to  the  system  of  twos  in  simplicity ; 
two  twos  make  four,  and  it  is  as  easy  for  a  child  to  think  by  fours 
if  he  can  already  think  by  twos,  as  it  was  in  the  beginning  to  go 
from  a  system  of  units  to  the  system  of  twos. 


1888.]  THE  TEACHIXO  OF  MATHEMATICS.  81 

When  these  two  systems  have  been  thorouglily  acquired,  the 
child  is  ready  for  the  decimal  system,  and  with  the  aid  of  what  he 
already  knows  he  can  soon  master  this  system  if  it  be  correctly 
presented.  We  must  not,  however,  rely  on  mere  memorizing,  but 
the  facts  should  be  so  presented  that  their  relations  can  be  seen 
and  thought  out.  The  digits  are  related  to  one  another  according 
to  their  position  in  the  decimal  scale,  and  those  numbers  should 
be  taught  together  which  are  nearest  related  and  not  in  their 
numerical  order.  Nine  should  be  thought  of  as  10 — 1 ;  eight  as 
10 — 2;  seven  as  10 — 3,  and  six  as  10 — 4.  When  this  is  done, 
any  one  who  is  familiar  with  the  combinations  of  four  and  the 
smaller  numbers  can  perform  any  of  the  operations  of  the  decimal 
system.     The  following  tables  will  show  clearly  what  I  mean :  — 


0 

90 

0 

80 

0 

60 

0 

70 

1 

81 

2 

72 

4 

54 

3 

63 

2 

72 

4 

64 

8 

48 

6 

56 

3 

63 

6 

56 

12 

42 

9 

49 

4 

54 

8 

48 

16 

36 

12 

42 

5 

45 

10 

40 

20 

30 

15 

35 

6 

36 

12 

32 

24 

24 

18 

28 

7 

27 

14 

24 

28 

18 

21 

21 

8 

18 

16 

16 

•    32 

12 

24 

14 

9 

9 

18 

8 

36 

6 

27 

7 

From  these  tables  it  will  be  seen  that  the  order  in  which  the 
digits  occur  in  the  last  figure  of  each  number  is  the  same  for  ones 
in  addition  as  for  nines  in  subtraction,  for  twos  in  addition  as  for 
eights  in  subtraction,  and  for  fours  in  addition  as  for  sixes  in  sub- 
traction. The  revei"se  is  also  true.  The  order  of  ones  in  subtrac- 
tion is  the  same  as  of  nines  in  addition ;  twos  in  subtraction  is  the 
same  as  eights  in  addition,  and  foui-s  in  subtraction  as  sixes  in 
addition.  A  summary  of  these  facts  can  perhaps  be  best  illus- 
trated by  placing  the  final  figures  of  each  set  in  a  circle :  — 


Fo 

r  Ones  and  Nines. 

For  Threes  and  Sevens. 

0 

0 

1 

9 

3 

7 

2 

8 

6 

4 

3 

7 

9 

1 

4 

6 

9 

8 

82  EDUCATIOX.  [October, 

For  Twos  and  Eigbts.  For  Fours  and  Sizes. 

0  0 

2  8  4  6 

4        0  8        2 

If  in  any  of  these  circles  we  begin  at  any  point  going  to  the 
right,  we  add  by  the  larger  number  and  subtract  by  the  smaller 
numl^er,  thus :  beginning  with  3  in  the  second  circle  if  we  add 
by  seven,  we  have  the  last  figure  of  each  of  the  numbers  in  turn 
moving  to  the  right,  3,  10,  17,  24,  31,  38,  45,  52,  59,  66,  73,  80. 
If  we  desire  to  subtract  by  seven,  we  must  go  the  other  way 
around  the  circle,  thus :  93,  86,  79,  72,  65,  58,  51,  44,  37,  30,  23, 
and  so  on,  ever  repeating  the  circle.  For  the  even  numbers  the 
series  is  more  simple,  as  there  is  but  one-half  the  numbers  in  it ;  thus, 
in  adding  by  six  beginning  with  8,  we  have  8,  14,  20,  26,  32,  and 
then  the  circle  is  again  repeated,  38,  44,  50,  56,  62.  We  have 
also  the  same  series  of  final  figures  in  subtracting  by  fours,  thus : 
58,  54,  50,  46,  42,  38,  etc.  Go  around  the  same  circle  the  other 
way  and  we  subtract  by  six  or  add  by  four ;  thus,  subtracting  by 
six  we  have  94,  88,  82,  76,  70,  64,  etc.,  or  in  adding  by  four  we 
have  4,  8,  12,  16,  20,  24,  etc. 

If  these  facts  be  generalized  it  will  l)e  seen  that  all  the  opera- 
tions, whether  in  addition,  subtraction,  multiplication  or  division, 
have  at  tlieir  basis  a  regular  order  of  repeating  the  final  figures, 
and  if  numbers  be  taught  so  that  the  child  can  perceive  this  fact, 
the  burden  on  tlie  child's  memory  will  be  greatly  reduced.  Ones 
and  nines  should  be  taught  in  connection,  l)ecause  they  repeat  the 
final  figures  in  the  same  order.  For  the  same  reason  the  twos  and 
the  eights  go  together,  the  fours  with  the  sixes,  and  the  threes  with 
the  sevens.  When  the  larger  numbei's  are  thus  taught  in  connec- 
tion with  the  smaller  numl>ers,  they  can  be  learned  without  burden- 
ing the  memory.  If  nine  be  taught  as  10 — 1,  and  eight  as  10 — 2, 
any  one  who  understands  the  decimal  system  and  knows  the  ones 
and  twos,  can  add  or  subtract  by  eight  or  nine.  When  ten  is 
added  and  two  is  sul)tract^d  we  add  eight,  and  if  we  subtract  ten 
and  add  two  we  subtract  eight.  In  a  like  manner  six  becomes 
10 — I  and  seven  becomes  10 — 3.  When  we  subtract  ten  and  add 
three  we  subtract  bv  seven,  and  to  add  by  seven  we  must  add  ten 
and  subtract  three.     All  the  combinations  of  the  digits  are  really 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS.  83 

nothing  but  those  of  the  first  four  numbers,  and  if  tlie  pupil  keeps 
in  mind  the  decimal  system  and  the  order  in  which  the  last  fig*e 
of  each  series  repeats  itself,  the  whole  subject  becomes  very  sim- 
ple indeed.  The  great  difficulty  in  teacliing  the  use  of  the  larger 
digits  arises  from  the  endeavor  to  teach  them  before  the  child  really 
comprehends  the  decimal  system.  Addition  by  tens  should  precede 
the  addition  by  any  digit  larger  than  four.  If  a  child  cannot  readi- 
ly see  that  G3-|-10^73,  or  26+10=36,  he  has  not  that  maturity 
needed  to  add  by  any  of  the  larger  digits  and  he  should  be  re- 
quired to  think  by  twos  or  fours  until  the  proper  age  has  arrived. 

The  multiplication  and  division  tables  are  of  course  but  a  form 
of  adding  or  subtracting  continually  by  the  same  number.  Care 
should  be  taken  by  the  teacher  to  see  that  these  tables  are  thought 
out  by  the  pupil,  and  that  they  are  not  acquired  by  mere  memoriz- 
ing. The  child  should  be  made  to  comprehend  all  those  facts 
which  will  enable  him  to  think  from  one  step  to  another.  This  he 
will  do  but  slowly  at  first.  Soon,  however,  he  can  think  out  the 
steps  as  rapidly  as  he  could  if  he  liad  memorized  them  and  without 
the  liability  of  becoming  confused  by  a  failure  of  memory.  To 
think  of  nine  as  10 — 1  is  at  first  a  slow  process ;  but  when  this 
habit  has  been  once  acquired,  the  act  can  be  performed  as  readily 
as  if  all  the  combinations  of  nine  had  been  learned  outright. 

It  may  seem  at  first  sight  that  what  I  call  thinking  out  the  sum 
of  two  numbers  is  in  reality  but  another  name  for  memorizing  it ; 
but  a  closer  examination  will  show  a  radical  difference.  There 
are  three  different  ways  in  which  we  determine  the  sum  or  differ- 
ence of  two  numbers.  Suppose  the  sum  of  three  and  five  be 
required.  We  may  first  take  three  objects  and  then  five  more 
objects  and  placing  them  all  in  conjunction,  we  can  determine  that 
their  sum  is  eight.  This  way  I  should  call  working  out  the 
answer.  Secondly,  we  may  think  of  three  and  five  in  terms  of 
two.  Then  three  becomes  one  two  and  one,  while  five  becomes 
two  twos  and  one  ;  two  twos  and  one  two  are  three  twos ;  one  and 
one  are  one  two ;  tliree  twos  and  one  two  are  four  twos,  and  four 
twos  are  eight.  In  this  way  we  reason  out  the  result,  using  as  a 
basis  of  our  reasoning  our  knowledge  of  a  number  smaller  than 
those  about  which  we  wish  to  reason.  Tliis  is  what  I  call  think- 
ing out  the  answer.  The  third  way  Ls  to  memorize  all  the  possible 
combinations  so  that  when  the  sum  of  three  and  five  is  desired  we 
can   remember  it  is  eight.     This   third   way  is  what  sliould  be 


84  EDUCATION.  [October. 

avoided.  A  skillful  iise  of  the  fii-st  two  will  accomplish  all  that 
is^esired  and  at  the  same  time  call  into  exercise  those  faculties  in 
the  child  of  which  he  stands  in  the  greatest  need.  By  the  first 
method  the  perception  is  developed,  and  by  the  second  a  habit 
of  accurate  thinking  is  acquired  and  only  by  the  proper  develop- 
ment of  both  of  these  faculties  can  the  child  make  that  progress 
which  we  desire. 

When  the  tables  are  learned  by  memory  alone  the  child  has  no 
idea  of  the  relations  in  which  the  numbers  stand  to  one  another. 
When  the  child  says  2  X  6=12,  2x  7=14,  etc.,  the  relation  which  ex- 
ists between  twelve  and  fourteen  is  not  brought  out.  If  it  be  said 
A  is  six  miles,  B  is  eight  miles,  and  C  is  ten  miles  from  Boston,  there 
is  no  ground  for  the  inference  that  all  three  places  are  in  the  same 
direction  from  Boston,  and  that  B  is  two  miles  from  A  and  C,  and 
that  C  is  four  miles  from  A.  They  might  l^  in  different  direc- 
tions from  Boston  and  be  ten  or  twelve  miles  apart,  and  yet  the 
statement  l)e  true.  The  usual  manner  of  learning  tlie  tables  has 
the  same  defect  as  the  above  statement  alx)Ut  the  places  around 
Boston.  They  do  not  bring  out  the  relation  that  exists  l^etween 
the  various  products  and  thus  connect  the  facts  here  learned  with 
the  previously  acquired  knowledge  of  these  numbers.  To  show 
the  relation  existing  between  the  various  products,  the  tables 
should  l)e  thought  out  in  the  following  manner  until  the  child  is 
thoroughly  familiar  with  the  table  :  — 

2x1+2=4  2X4      =  8 

2X2      =4  2x4+2=10 

2x2+2=0  2x5      =10 

2x3      =6  2x5+2=12 

2x3+2=8  2x6      =12 

This  form  of  the  table  keeps  vivid  in  the  child's  mind  the  con- 
nection Iwjtween  addition  and  multiplication.  The  child  can  see 
that  two  added  to  the  product  of  two  multiplied  by  any  number  is 
the  same  as  tlie  product  of  two  multiplied  by  the  next  higher 
number.  All  the  steps  in  the  tal)le  are  l)rought  out  clearly  and 
the  child  can  see  liow  to  construct  a  like  table  for  himself.  When 
all  the  steps  are  visible  the  child  can  think  out  a  tal)le  for  himself 
without  memorizing ;  but  when  any  of  them  are  left  out,  the  child 
has  no  other  resource  tlmn  its  memory. 

« 

To  keep  clearly  in  a  child's  mind  the  connection  bet\Yeen  addi- 
tion and  multiplication  is  the  first  essential  in  giving  him  a  clear 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS.  85 

conception  of  numbers.  For  this  reason  it  is  best  always  to  give 
some  work  in  addition  in  direct  connection  with  the  multiplication 
table.  The  utility  of  such  work  is  greatly  increased  from  the  fact 
that  in  practice  there  is  almost  always  something  to  add  to  each 
product  —  the  tens  of  the  previous  product.  In  multiplying  8234 
by  9,  we  have  in  each  product  after  the  first  some  tens  to  carry, 
which  must  be  added  to  the  product  of  the  next  number  multiplied 
by  nine.  As  in  actual  work  we  are  compelled  to  carry  and  add, 
we  should  teach  the  tables  so  as  to  accustom  the  child  to  such 
work.  For  example,  instead  of  telling  the  child  to  say  the  fours 
alone  we  should  give  it  some  number  to  add  to  each  product. 
The  child  should  be  taught  to  say  the  fours  and  carry  one,  then  to 
carry  two,  and  then  three.  With  each  table  each  of  the  numbers 
smaller  than  the  multiplicand  in  the  table  should  be  made  use  of 
as  a  number  to  carry.  In  actual  practice  each  of  these  numbers 
would  occur  as  a  number  to  carry  and  all  that  the  child  will  meet 
in  real  work  should  be  taught  him  in  his  preliminary  practice. 
Tables  with  a  number  to  carry  would  be  formed  thus :  — 

6x1+4=10  8x1+5=13 

6x2+4=16  8x2+5=21 

6  X  3+4=22  8  X  3+5=29 

6  X  4+4=28  8  X  4+5=37 

6x5+4=34  8x5+5=45 

There  would  also  be  a  great  advantage  in  such  work  from  the 
means  it  would  offer  to  test  each  child  as  to  whether  he  really 
understood  the  tables,  or  had  merely  learned  them  by  rote. 
While  a  child  can  learn  the  simple  tables  by  rote  without  under- 
standing them,  he  cannot  in  this  manner  learn  all  the  varieties  of 
them  which  could  be  fonned  by  carrying.  All  these  varieties 
could  be  readily  thought  out  by  the  child  who  understood  the  sub- 
ject, and  thiLs  the  teacher  would  have  a  ready  means  of  determin- 
ing the  real  knowledge  of  each  child. 

The  single  rule  that  must  be  kept  in  mind  in  using  the  method 
I  have  presented  is  to  think  of  the  larger  numbers  in  terms  of  the 
smaller  ones.  When  this  is  done  all  the  operations  of  primary 
arithmetic  l)ecome  very  simple  and  there  is  no  need  of  much 
memorizing.  The  child  should  be  first  taught  to  think  by  twos 
and  each  number  should  be  thought  of  as  so  many  twos  and  all 
operations  should  be  performed  in  tenns  of  twos.     After  the  child 


86  EDUCATION.  [October, 

can  think  readily  in  the  system  of  twos  he  should  be  taught  to 
think  by  fours,  and  when  he  can  do  this  easily  the  decimal  system 
should  be  presented.  Each  of  the  digits  should  be  taught  in  con- 
nection with  the  number  expressing  its  difference  from  ten,  and 
all  numbers  should  be  taught  as  relative  terms  before  they  are 
taught  as  absolute  terms.  By  this  means  alone  can  a  child  be 
taught  to  reason  correctly  and  the  use  of  memory  l)e  so  econo- 
mized as  to  render  the  study  of  arithmetic  a  pleasure  instead  of  a 
dreary  task  which  it  too  often  becomes  when  presented  by  other 
methods. 


HOW  THET  WERE  EDUCATED. 

BT  FRANK  U.   KASSON,   A.  M. 

AMONG  the  very  interesting  series  of  papers  recently  published 
in  the  Forum  under  the  heading,  *'  How  I  was  Educated," 
three  are  of  special  interest.  They  were  written  by  Rev.  Dr. 
Edward  Everett  Hale,  Col.  Thomas  W.  Higginson,  and  President 
S.  C.  Bartlett,  of  Dartmouth.  A  comparison  of  their  experiences 
may  not  be  uninteresting.  These  three  men  were  born  about  the 
same  time ;  Doctor  Hale  In  1822,  Colonel  Higginson  in  1824,  and 
President  Bartlett  in  1817.  Dr.  Hale  was  the  fourth  of  seven 
children,  Colonel  Higginson  "  the  youngest  of  a  large  family,"  and 
President  Bartlett  one  of  five  brothers,  three  of  whom  had  a  col- 
lege education. 

Each  of  these  famous  men  had  parents  of  whom  he  was  justly 
proud.  Doctor  Hale's  father  was  a  distinguished  Boston  editor, 
and  he  it  was  who  "  introduced  the  railway  system  into  New  Eng- 
land." His  mother  was  a  thoroughly  sensible  woman  who  made 
him  this  answer  when  he  thought  she  would  be  displeased  because 
he  stood  only  nmth  in  a  class  of  fifteen :  "  O,  tliat  is  no  matter. 
Probably  the  other  boys  are  brighter  than  you.  God  made  them 
fio,  and  you  cannot  help  that.  But  the  report  says  you  are  among 
the  boys  who  behave  well.  That  you  can  see  to,  and  that  is  all  I 
care  about."  And  the  Doctor  adds  his  own  later  estimate,  that 
conduct  is  '*  the  most  important  affair  in  earth  or  heaven." 

Colonel  Higginson  came  of  a  noted  clerical  and  literary  family. 
His  grandfather  was  the  reputed  author  of  the  "  Laco  "  letters,  his 
father  "wTOt«  several  pamphlets"  and  his  mother  "some  chil- 
dren's books,  in  one  or  two  of  which  I  figured."     He  came  hon- 


1888.]  HOW  THEY  WEBE  EDUCATED.  87 

estly  by  his  love  of  authorship,  and  also  by  his  ardent  anti-slavery 
principles,  for  he  tells  us  that  his  eldest  brother  wrote  ''  a  little 
book  against  slavery."  President  Bartlett  speaks  in  high  terms 
of  his  parents.  His  grandfather  was  a  physician  and  his  father  a 
successful  country  trader.  The  latter  was  noted  for  liis  "integ- 
rity, energy,  skill,  prudence,  and  executive  ability."  Of  his  moth- 
er he  remarks,  she  was  "  in  her  sphere  fully  the  equal  of  my 
father."  When  he  was  eight  years  old  she  gave  him  a  Bible  for 
having  read  it  through.  Thus  we  see  that  each  of  these  distin- 
guished men  was  exceptionally  well  born.  And  tliis  is  a  very 
great  advantage  to  anyone. 

Dr.  Hale  began  to  go  to  school  to  Miss  Susan  Whitney  when 
very  young,  because  the  older  children  went.  And  here  he  stayed 
three  hours  in  the  morning  and  two  in  the  after^^oon  till  he  was 
five  years  old.  Of  this  early  period  he  recollects  four  things :  the 
flickering  of  motes  of  dust  in  the  sunbeams,  making  sand-pies  on 
the  floor,  the  first  page  of  the  New  York  Primer,  and  sitting  in  a 
yellow  chair  reading  an  interesting  book.  At  five  years  of  age  he 
began  attending  a  boys'  school.  At  six  years  he  was  studying 
Latin  paradigms,  and  at  eight,  limped  through  a  Latin  version  of 
"  Robinson  Crusoe."  At  nine  he  went  to  Boston's  famous  Latin 
School  —  the  oldest  school  in  America  —  in  wliich  such  men  as 
Benjamin  Franklin,  Samuel  Adams,  John  Adams,  John  Hancock, 
Edward  Everett,  Charles  Sumner,  and  Wendell  Phillips  have  been 
trained.  Four  years  of  faithful  work  here  fitted  him  to  enter 
Harvard  College  in  1835. 

Colonel  Higginson  was  born  next  door  to  Oliver  Wendell 
Holmes,  just  in  front  of  the  Jefferson  Physical  Laboratory,  being 
then  just  outside  of  the  Harvard  College  grounds.  The  poet's 
birthplace  has  already  given  way  to  a  "  great  academic  structure." 
Higginson's  advantages  were  exceptional.  He  "  tumbled  about " 
in  the  very  same  library  with  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes,  and  at 
home  in  a  "  comfortable  library  of  Queen  Anne  literature."  At 
four  he  could  read  or  lie  on  the  hearth-rug  and  hear  his  mother 
read  Scott's  novels.  Many  distinguished  people  visited  his  home 
and  added  a  keen  literary  stimulus  to  the  active  young  mind. 
After  being  taught  for  a  time  by  a  woman,  he,  at  eight  years  of 
age,  went  to  William  Wells's  preparatory  school.  Being  a  day 
scholar  he  walked  the  mile  each  way  twice  a  day.  Among  his 
schoolmates  were  Lowell  and  Story,  though  they  were  five  years 
older  than  Higginson. 


88  ED  UCA  TION.  [October, 

President  Bartlett  early  began  attending  the  large  district  school 
at  Salisbury,  N.  H.,  six  houi-s  a  day  being  spent  in  study,  and 
the  rest  of  his  time  being  given  to  outdoor  sports.  His  teach- 
ers were  largely  Dartmouth  students.  Though  attending  this 
district  school  in  winter  till  about  twelve,  he  began  at  nine  to 
attend  the  Salisbury  Academy  in  summer,  and  was  thoroughly 
drilled  in  Latin.  At  eleven  he  spent  some  time  at  the  Boscawen 
Academy,  under  the  stimulating  instruction  of  JarvLs  Gregg,  and 
began  the  mastery  of  the  Greek  language.  The  next  winter  he 
was  placed  for  a  time  under  the  private  tuition  of  a  young  cler- 
gyman. Then  followed  two  years  of  hard  study  at  Pinkerton 
Academy  (Derry,  N.  H.),  and  he  was  ready  to  enter  college. 

Each  of  these  three  young  men  entered  college  at  a  very  early 
age ;  Doctor  Hale  and  Colonel  Higginson  at  thirteen  yeai's,  and 
President  Bartlett  before  he  was  fifteen.  The  first  two  graduated 
at  Harvard  in  1839  and  1841,  respectively,  being  each  but  seven- 
teen years  of  age.  President  Bartlett  studied  at  Dailmouth,  and, 
though  yoimg,  by  his  energy  and  remarkable  faculty  of  continu- 
ous application,  stood  at  the  head  of  his  class.  Among  those 
whom  Doctor  Hale  regards  as  his  chief  teachers,  and  of  whom  he 
speaks  most  feelingly,  were  Professors  Edward  T.  Channing  and 
Longfellow ;  also,  his  father,  his  mother,  and  an  elder  brother. 
Colonel  Higginson  makes  special  reference  to  Professoi-s  Chan- 
ning, Longfellow,  and  Peirce.  For  the  latter  he  has  the  strongest 
words  of  kindly  recollection.  Other  powerful  influences  came 
from  Jared  Sparks,  Ralph  Waldo  Emeraon,  and,  after  graduation, 
from  a  cousin,  Stephen  H.  Perkins.  President  Bartlett  gratefully 
recalls  the  stimulating  influences  of  his  father,  his  mother,  and 
her  two  sisters,  highly  educated  teachers,  as  well  as  J.  J.  San- 
bom,  Jarvis  Gregg,  and  Professor  Haddock.  And  then  some 
years  later,  the  powerful  influence  of  those  great  Andover  pro- 
fessors, B.  B.  Edwards,  Moses  Stuart,  and  chief  of  all,  Edwards 
A.  Park. 

The  ripe  fruits  of  the  matured  intellects  of  these  three  great 
scholars.  Hale,  Higginson,  and  Bartlett,  justify  and  elucidate  the 
remark  of  President  Bartlett,  that  "  all  higher  education  is  essen- 
tially self-education."  College  life  and  good  teachers  greatly  assist 
the  young  scholar  to  get  a  start  and  awaken  his  dormant  faculties 
and  set  them  in  the  right  direction,  but  success  only  comes  by  long 
and  assiduous  study  and  reflection.  May  these  examples  incite 
many  of  our  best  youth  to  wise  and  noble  endeavor. 


1888.]  TEACHING  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  LANGUAGES.  89 


THE    TEACHING    OF    THE   CLASSICAL 

LANGUAGES,^ 

II. 

THE   FIRST   YEAR    IN   I^VTIN. — I. 
BT    ADELINE   A.    KNIGHT. 

MANY  a  reader  must  have  smiled  with  ready  sympathy  over 
Dr.  Muuger's  remark  in  a  late  article  of  his  that  he  really 
supposed,  during  his  boyish  conflict  with  Homer  that  the  Iliad  was 
written  to  bear  out  the  assertions  of  the  Greek  grammai*.  But  the 
unnatural  devotion  to  syntax,  which  was  an  unwelcome  and  gro- 
tesque fact  about  very  much  of  the  teaching  of  twenty-five  years 
ago,  remains  in  full  force  in  the  heginning  year  of  any  language. 
The  first  textbook  —  be  it  ancient  Jacobs  or  the  brightly  man- 
aged and  seductive  modern  Lessons — has  been  "written  to  bear 
out  the  assertions"  of  the  Latin  Grammar;  precisely  tliat,  and 
not  much  more.  It  is  all  prose,  literally  and  figuratively.  It  calls 
for  and  calls  forth  the  same  quality  of  teaching  faculty  as  does  the 
needful  drill  of  little  people  in  the  introductory  years  of  English ; 
it  calls  for  this,  plus  as  ripe  scholarship  as  one  can  possibly  pos- 
sess, that  the  Latin  class  may  be  taught  wisely,  with  due  regard 
for  the  imperious  necessity  of  differing  presentations  of  the  facts 
to  differing  orders  of  minds.  Beginners  should  never  be  put  to 
teach  beginners.  Just  as  in  morals,  the  weak,  worst  people  need 
the  best  and  rarest  people  immediately  next  them,  so  the  begin- 
ners of  a  language  heed  teachers  who  have  found  out  its  secret 
somewhat. 

The  matter  of  the  pages  of  the  grammar  must  be  gone  over 
much  and  over-much,  and  this  is  also  true  of  the  incessant,  vigilant, 
varying  application  and  illustration  of  the  matter.  The  dry  bones 
of  nominative  and  verb  must  be  treated  patiently.  Seldom  allow 
yourself  to  relate  an  incident.  Reserve  it,  usually,  for  the  lesson 
in  Roman  history.  All  standard  Latin  Lessons  present  their  meth- 
ods in  the  order  of  a  recitation,  and  thus  are  to  the  inexperienced 

1  Copyright,  1888,  by  Eastern  Edacational  Bureau. 


90  EDUCATION.  [October, 

teacher  an  indispensable  help ;  and  to  the  experienced,  they  are 
a  daily  bread  of  suggestions.  To  this  prosy  aid  we  must  cling, 
sternly  watching  ourselves  lest  for  a  few  indolent  minutes  we  "  let 
up "  on  the  drill.  Rapidity  of  work  is,  of  course,  so  largely  a 
matter  of  class  material  and  of  personal  genius  for  teaching  that 
it  has  to  be  left  to  the  individual  worker. 

Unavoidably  there  are  many  workers  in  comparative  isolation, 
with  a  very  limited  opportunity  to  study  methods  other  than  their 
own.  Unavoidably  and  in  consequence,  there  is  a  great  waste  of 
nervous  force  in  anxiety  and  depression  about  apparent  results. 
It  is  a  very  true  thing,  and  one  which  will  bear  passing  on  from 
one  generation  of  teachei*s  to  another,  that  you  cannot  really  esti- 
mate results  by  appearances,  and  that  a  dull  first-year  class  is  apt 
to  be  roused  astonishingly  by  Caesar.  But  the  little  flask  of  bitter 
tonic  must  be  handed  along  also,  that  the  average  success  of  any 
class  —  dull  or  clever  —  in  the  examinations  depends  upon  the 
amount  of  prosy,  tiring,  half-doubting,  and  somewhat  discouraged 
drill  you  have  given  it. 

It  is  possible  that  some  teacher  who  vexes  her  conscientious  soul 
may  be  comforted  by  the  presentment  of  what  appears  to  an  old 
teacher  an  ordinary  progress  of  a  recitation  in  Latiii  Lessons,  with 
fiuch  results  in  the  quality  of  blackboard  work  as  are  often  found 
there. 

We  will  call  the  recitation  period  forty  minutes,  and  we  will 
follow  the  order  of  work  given  in  Jones's  Lessons.  Thus  there 
will  be  a  few  paragraphs  of  syntax  to  be  thoroughly  memorized, 
three  or  four  examples  in  English  and  Latin  illustrative  of  the 
syntax,  a  Latin  exercise  to  be  pronounced  and  translated,  a  couple 
of  selected  sentences  of  this  to  be  analyzed,  a  necessary  note  or 
two  at  the  foot  of  the  lesson  to  be  noticed,  and  six  or  eight  sen- 
tences of  English  to  be  turned  into  Latin.  This  English  into 
Latin  is  the  real  test. 

The  lesson  may  be  the  use  of  the  Ablative.  In  this  case  a 
couple  of  girls  will  go  to  the  board  with  directions  to  write  out 
paragraphs  250,  251  of  Allen  and  Greenough.  You  should  always 
cause  them  to  depend  upon  numbers  only,  without  any  sort  of  aid 
in  the  way  of  mention  of  the  subject  of  the  proposed  paragraph. 
While  they  write,  four  others  will  be  called  upon  for  the  Latin  of 
the  examples.  Three  more  will  pronounce  the  sentences  of  Latin 
text  and  three  others  translate  them.     By  this  time  the  pupils  at 


1888.]  TEACHING  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  LANGUAGES,  91 

the  board  have  probably  finished  their  tasks  and  must  be  called 
upon  directly  to  read  the  paragraphs,  with  class  corrections  of 
text,  spelling,  and  punctuation.  The  entire  class  is  now  at  liberty 
for  the  second  exercise  which  must  be  carefully  written  upon  the 
board.  The  fourth  sentence  of  the  English-Latin  exercise  of  the 
lesson  on  the  Use  of  the  Ablative  is  a  representative  one.  Let  us 
read  it  in  English  and  then  examine  the  ordinary  facility  with 
which  it  will  be  rewritten  in  Latin. 

The  lieutenant  led  his  army  into  winter-quarters  among  the  Aedui 
a  little  sooner  than  the  time  of  year  dejnanded. 

Legatus  eum  exercitun  in  hiberna  in  Aedos  paulo  facilius  quam 
tempus  anni  postulavit  deduxit. 

Or  the  lesson  may  be  the  Use  of  the  Dative.  The  writer  thinks 
teachers  will  agree  that  the  example  illustrative  of  the  Dative  of 
The  Person  Possessing, — 

/  have  a  father  at  home^ 
will  pretty  surely  be  (according  to  the  unlucky  beginner), 

Est  domi  pater. 

And  the  example  of  the  Double  Dative, — 

Th£y  were  a  protection  to  the  hindmost^ 
will  turn  out, 

Novissimis  subsidio  erant. 

These  things,  using  the  language  of  Mr.  Micawber,  may  be 
expected  with  confidence,  and  must  be  borne  with  philosophy, 
unless  a  teacher  pleases  to  send  the  cleverest  girls  to  the  board 
with  marked  frequency. 

If  the  sentence  happens  to  hold  an  ablative  absolute  and  a  sub- 
junctive clause,  like  the  following :  — 

Ccesar^  after  removing  his  horse  out  of  sights  urged  his  men  to  fight 
bravely^ 

she  need  not  be  at  all  surprised  if  one  pupil,  if  no  more,  utterly 
breaks  down  after  writing  out  — 

Caesar  equo  conspectu 

and  if  there  is  more  or  less  of  a  procession  of  unfortunates  to  the 
board  before  the  Latin  equivalent  is  achieved  in  passable  fashion : 

Caesar  remoto  ex  conspectu  suo  equo  suos  hortatus  est  ut  fortiter 
pugnarent. 

Translation  work  from  Latin  to  English  is  often  quite  as  dis- 
couragingly  done.     Take,  for  instance,  a  sentence  like, — 


92  EDUCATIOy.  [October, 

Nam  equitatuU  quern  auxilio  Cceaari  Aedui  miserant  Dumnorix 
prceerat ; 

Tlie  translator  will  most  likely  begin, — 

For  Dumnorix  had  ruled  over  the  cavalry,  etc. ; 
a  translation  full  of  clumsiness  as  well  as  of  inaccumcy. 

JSrit  co7iHuli  niatpius  exercitus 
will  very  likely  be  rendered, — 

The  consuls  will  have  a  large  army. 

As  was  above  said,  these  tilings  will  happen  if  you  call  upon 
the  rank  and  file  of  your  class  without  fear  or  favor.  Teachers 
are  familiar  with  this  sort  of  sentence, — 

Boii  et  Tulhufi^  qui  hominum  milihus  eirciter  quindecim  aymen 
hostium  claudebant^  ex  itinere  nontros  circumvenere. 

And  with  the  perennial  tmnslation  by  some  handsomely  dressed 
little  dunce, — 

The  Boii  and  Tulingi  drew  up  the  rear  of  the  enemy,  who  were 
about  fifteen  thousand  in  number,  etc. ; 
and  with  the  depressing  effort  of  the  next, — 

The  Boii  and  Tulingi  who  had  drawn  up  the  rear  of  the  enemy, 
about  fifteen  thousand  men  m  number,  etc., 

A  time  of  general  trial  and  trouble  following  and  bringing  to 
the  surface  the  fact  that  the  clever  ones  only  were  aware  that  eir- 
cumvetiere  is  a  form  of  the  perfect. 

How  many  women  have  felt  like  giving  up  teaching  in  the  face 
of  Latin  perpetrated  over  this :  — 

It  wa4t  a  great  hindrance  to  us  in  battle  that  we  could  not  fight  with 
sufficient  ease^ 

with  —  as  a  usual  thing,  its  flat  and  senseless  equivalent  put  upon 
the  board  in  fully  as  silly  a  way  as  the  following :  — 

Impedimento  erat  satis  commode  ad  pugnam  vobis. 

A  luckless  friend  of  mine  once  bade  a  pupil,  who  it  is  fair  to 
state  was  an  uncommonly  stupid  girl  with  small  fitness  for  Latin, 
but  with  ambitious  parents  who  were  determined  she  should  have 
it,  turn  so  simple  a  sentence  as  this  into  Latin :  — 

Mg  friend  has  faur  sans  ;  obtaining  this  strange  garment  for  it : 

Filii  meam  amico  sumus. 

Courage  !  "  Rome  was  not  built  in  a  day."  Uncompromising 
thoroughness  is  to  the  last  degree  important ;  so  it  may  be  well  to 
devote  another  five  minutes  to  the  syntax  on  the  boards.  Section 
251,  A.  &  G.,  for  example,  has  been  legibly  written  thereon :  — 


1888.]  TEACHING  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  LANGUAGES.  93 

The  Ablative,  with  ax  Adjective  or  limiting  Genitive 
is  used  to  denote  quality. 

As  you  are  quite  aware  that  the  girls  have  a  narrow  range  of 
English  and  an  apathy  about  grasping  ideas,  you  had  best  ask 
the  meaning  of  Section  251  of  the  one  who  wrote  it,  and  beg  her 
to  illustrate  with  an  example  in  English.  Her  definition  and 
example  may  be  distressingly  wide  of  the  mark,  but  probably  you 
will  see  that  barely  a  half  dozen  of  the  class  dare  raise  their  hands. 
Of  the  half  dozen,  two  are  likely  to  give  accurate  statements,  put- 
ting their  comprehension  of  the  matter  beyond  doubt.  So  you 
give  yourself  up  to  illustrations  in  English  and  Latin.  In  Section 
250,  ask  the  meaning  of  the  phrase  Comparatives  and  tvords  imply' 
ing  comparison.  You  are  sure  to  feel  disagreeably  about  the  qual- 
ity of  your  teaching  wliich  has  led  girls  to  write  out,  foinUime^ 
syntax  which  they  really  know  next  to  nothing  of.  So  you  try  to 
do  your  best  at  this  gap,  and — the  bell  rings.  You  look  up  to 
see  that  the  sun  has  slipped  a  little  down  tlie  sky,  and  that  its 
light  has  a  trifle  more  of  the  afternoon  look.  You  bow,  and  the 
girls  file  out. 

The  teacher  is  fortunate  who  finishes  tlie  allotted  amount  of 
work  in  a  formal  lesson  in  forty  minutes.  She  is  fortunate  if  she 
finishes  tluee-fourths  of  it.  Miss  Smith  is  unusually  dense  and 
has  to  try  a  sentence  many  times,  and  Miss  Brown  fails  to  accent 
the  right  syllable  of  the  word,  and  is  able  to  correct  herself  and 
give  the  rule  of  proof  after  reflection  only ;  and  for  one  reason  or 
another  the  bell  seems  always  to  ring  unduly  soon.  ''  If  I  could 
only  have  time  enough ! "  the  teacher  thinks  as  she  closes  the 
books.  But  *'  if  "  is  always  in  the  way  about  most  things  in  this 
world. 

It  is  especially  well  for  a  class  to  begin  Roman  history  during 
the  first  year  in  Latin,  using  also  the  section  of  Latin  literature  in 
Mrs.  Lynch-Botta's  General  Literature,  or  some  primer  of  Latin 
literature.  The  department  of  Rome  in  Anderson's  General  His- 
tory is  very  much  what  beginners  require,  and  witli  proper  sup- 
plementing from  the  desk  will  furnish  a  term  of  history  lessons. 

Tlie  objection  may  be  felt  if  left  unexpressed  tliat  it  is  a  pity  to 
introduce  immature  girLs,  standing 

*'  Where  the  brook  aud  river  meet,'' 
to  the  evils  of  a  whole  national  life,  which  is,  after  all,  so  much 
like,  and  only  so  much  more  than  the  history  of  a  whole  human 


U  EDUCATION.  [October, 

life.  There  is  force  in  the  objection  ;  but  perhaps  the  objectors  are 
unacquainted  with  the  present  type  of  young  girl  character.  The 
writer,  for  one,  always  hangs  with  affection  over  Bjornstone's 
description  of  a  swarm  of  girls  of  Norway,  at  a  nutting  party  : — 

^^  The  girls  laughed  for  nothing  at  all ;  if  three  laughed,  then  five 
would  laugh  just  because  those  three  laughed.  Altogether,  they  behaved 
as  if  they  had  lived  with  each  other  all  their  lives ;  and  yet  there  were 
several  of  them  who  had  never  met  before  that  very  day.  When  they 
caught  the  bough  they  jumped  afler  they  laughed,  and  when  they  did  not 
catch  it  they  laughed  also ;  when  they  did  not  find  any  nuts,  they  laughed 
because  they  found  none ;  and  when  they  did  find  some,  they  also 
laughed.  They  fought  for  the  nutting  hook  ;  those  who  got  it  laughed, 
and  those  who  did  not  get  it  laughed  also.  Godfather  limped  after  them, 
trying  to  beat  them  with  his  stick  and  making  all  the  mischief  he  was 
good  for ;  those  he  hit  laughed  because  he  hit  them,  and  those  he  missed 
laughed  because  he  missed  them.  But  the  whole  lot  laughed  at  Arne 
(the  solitary  boy,)  because  he  was  so  grave ;  and  when  he  could  not  help 
laughing,  they  all  laughed  because  he  laughed." 

Tfiere  is  the  true  giggle  of  fifteen  I  How  ashamed  I  used  to  be 
of  laughing  so  much,  and  how  I  thought  I  never  should  be  able  to 
leave  off  giggling  indecorously  I  and  could  not  imagine  what  life 
would  be  like  when  I  should  be  tamed  enough  to  no  more  do  thus. 
I  was  not  wrong,  maybe,  in  thinking  it  would  be  difficult  to  leave 
it  off ;  I  had  no  idea  how  easily  it  would  leave  me  off. 

There  seems  less  gaiety  and  sparkle  about  schoolgirl  daily  liv- 
ing now.  They  appear  to  be  missing  some  of  the  keen  delight  of 
their  life's  June.  A  part  of  the  change  —  be  it  real  or  apparent 
—  is  due  to  the  different  sort  of  teaching  required  for  them  today, 
in  place  of  the  desultory  species  of  education  bestowed  formerly, 
when  one  attended,  to  acquire  one's  learning  and  one's  accomplish- 
ments, some  private  school  or  other  of  excellent  reputation,  kept 
in  a  fine  old  house,  roomy,  airy,  bright,  sunny,  cheerful,  with 
lawns  turned  into  capital  playgrounds.  There  is  no  doubt  that  a 
lack  of  assiduity  in  studies  was  less  severely  treated  than  was  well 
for  heedless  offenders.  The  curriculum  was  elastic,  and  subjects 
that  were  uncongenial  matters,  which  the  mind  was  unable  or  un- 
willing to  assimilate  were  waived  with  a  regard  for  individual 
development  exceedingly  and  necessarily  rare  in  the  admirably 
arranged  courses  which  have  destroyed  the  old  method  of  study- 
ing whatever  our  people  chose  for  us,  as  we  sat  upon  long  benches 
in  the  "day  schoolroom"  through  whose  open  windows  came  the 


1888.]  TEACHING  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  LANQUAOES.  95 

powerful,  spicy  odor  of  pinks  like  a  warm  breath  of  summer 
sweetness.  Recesses  were  long,  and  the  lofty,  oil-clothed  halls 
were  very  dim  and  cool ;  and  probably  too  large  a  portion  of  our 
abundant  leisure  slipped  away  in  promenades,  and  somewhat  envi- 
ous regard  of  the  boarders,  who  joined  only  in  some  of  the  les- 
sons. In  general,  these  ladies  had  nothing  to  do  with  us ;  they 
had  privileged  places  everywhere,  and  led  a  life  of  dignified  sep- 
aration from  the  day  scholars.  How  desirable  were  even  the 
ostrich  tips  upon  their  awkward,  "  sky-scraping  "  bonnets,  which 
were  perched  in  those  days  with  nearly  alike  unbecomingness 
above  wrinkled  countenances  and  sweet  young  faces.  There  were 
also  occasional  erratic  vacations  when  the  elders  at  home  noticed 
that  a  small  back  threatened  to  become  bent,  or  when  headaches 
seemed  frequent  —  weeks  when  we  ransacked  the  high  pastures 
for  berries,  and  the  sweet  and  solemn  presence  of  the  woods  and 
hills  and  meadows  and  the  forms  and  movements  of  the  clouds 
were  influences  whose  powerful  spell  was  felt  rather  than  perceived 
by  matter  of  fact  young  creatures  who  hardly  knew  how  divine  a 
ministration  they  were  receiving  from  everything  that  surrounded 
them.  In  some  such  fallow  time,  began  for  some  of  us  an  epoch 
of  indiscriminate,  omnivorous  reading  —  a  doubtful  good  —  which 
lasted  until  we  began  to  t^ach,  when  such  delights  were  unavoida- 
bly given  up  for  the  practice  of  our  profession.  Vastly  different 
from  rambles  through  pleasaunces  which  the  rising  tide  of  im- 
provement has  since  swept  away  and  growing  towns  have  rolled 
over  and  beyond,  is  the  steady  work  and  are  the  serious  examina- 
tions expected  of  those  whom  we  teach.  The  training  of  the 
present  is  begun  early  and,  "  without  haste,  without  rest,"  pro- 
gresses steadily  through  a  term  of  years,  subduing  the  body  to  an 
absolute  responsiveness  to  the  will  practically  unknown  in  the 
schooldays  of  twenty-five  years  ago,  when  lessons  in  all  other 
books  than  the  all-engrossing /ai'oriY^  study,  whatever  this  chanced 
to  be,  were  deferred  disgracefully  and  committed  at  the  last  min- 
ute with  a  fitful  and  thoughtless  spurt  of  resolution  which  was 
enough  to  electroplate  us  with  cheap  and  hasty  half  knowledge. 
Mental  processes  now  go,  or  are  expected  to  go  true  to  a  hair 
along  the  upward  ways  of  many  a  subject  which  used  to  be  treated 
in  a  rudimentary  fashion  ;  although  we  were  not  wholly  brainless 

and  our  classics  were  not 

"  Ladles'  Greek 
Without  the  accents." 


06  EDUCATION,  [October, 

And  the  graceful  women  who  superintended  our  tutors  and  our 
exercises  managed  successfully  all  their  pupiLs,  becoming  objects 
of  enthusiastic  devotion  to  the  elder  ones  whom  they  admitted  to 
companioiLship. 

These  girls  of  fifteen  are  a  trifle  older  and  very  much  wiser 
than  were  we. 


PHILOSOPHT IN  COLLEGES  AND  UNIVERSITIES.^ 

BY   WILLIAM  T.  HARRIS,    LL.  I>. 

IN  this  paper  I  shall  not  undertake  to  furnish  the  statistics  of 
courses  of  study  in  our  colleges,  nor  to  discuss  the  trend 
of  philo80i)hic  instruction  in  view  of  such  statistics.  I  shall  as- 
sume nither  tliat  the  present  trend  in  higher  instruction  is  to 
undervalue  philosophy  and  its  methotls.  And  accordingly  I  shall 
endeavor  to  sliow  that  philosophy  is  indispensable  to  any  and  all 
courses  of  higher  instruction.  I  shall  also  endeavor  to  show  that 
philosophy  is  the  most  practical  of  all  studies,  l>ecause  it  furnishes 
the  will  power  or  the  executive  personality  of  the  soul  with  the 
results  of  the  intellect  (or  tlie  discui'sive  power  of  the  soul). 

I. 

T  ask  attention  fii'st,  to  a  brief  stjit^ment  of  the  nature  of  plii- 
losophy  and  it«  method,  in  order  that  we  may  see  clearly  it«  rela- 
tion to  all  other  dei)artments  of  knowledge,  and  hence,  to  all 
higlier  instruction.  Philosophy  is  that  science  (if  we  may  call  it 
science,)  which  investigates  the  ultimate  i)resup[)Ositions  of  exist- 
ence. It  seeks  a  iii-st  [)rinciple  of  all.  Accordingly,  it  sets  out 
from  any  given  fact,  tiling,  or  event,  and  begins  at  once  to  elim- 
inate from  it  what  is  accidental  or  contingent  and  drop  it  out  of 
consideration.  Any  science — all  sciences  deal  in  unity.  They 
unite  phenomena  in  a  princii)le.  If  they  have  lK>come  genuine 
sciences,  they  find  for  a  i)rineiple  a  definite  causal  energy  which 
unfolds  or  acts  according  to  laws.  These  laws  exi)ress  the  nature 
or  constitution  of  that  causal  energy.  A  science  tliat  rests  on 
mere  classification  has  not  yet  arrived  at  a  true  scientific  form 
because  it  has  not  yet  shown  how  its  general  principle  produces 
its  details  and  api)lications.     Such  an  imperfect  science  reaches 

1  Read  before  the  National  Educational  Association,  Departraentof  Higher  Instruction, 
July  18.  1888. 


1888.]  PHILOSOPHY  AV  COLLEGES  AND  UmVERSITIES.  97 

merely  subjective  unities — mere  aggregates  of  things  or  events 
more  or  less  independent  of  each  other. 

The  word  process  names  the  important  idea  in  science.  All  the 
material  of  a  science  should  be  united  in  one  process.  To  consti- 
tute a  process  it  is  clear  that  there  must  be  an  active  cause  and 
its  operation  according  to  a  fixed  method. 

Keeping  in  mind  this  consideration  of  special  sciences  for  a 
moment,  we  may  notice  that  all  science  discusses  presuppositions, 
and  that  philosophy  is  not  the  only  knowledge  of  presuppositions. 
Given  a  thing  or  event,  science  proceeds  to  discover  its  ante- 
cedents and  consequences — in  short,  to  find  its  place  in  some 
process.  This  investigation  on  the  part  of  science  aims  to  learn 
the  history  of  the  object — which  is  a  thing  or  an  event.  Its  his- 
tory reveals  to  us  its  former  states  and  transmutations,  in  other 
words,  the  activity  of  its  energy  or  cause  by  which  it  has  come 
to  be. 

The  true  method  of  science,  it  is  pretty  generally  conceded 
now,  is  the  historical  one  —  the  method  of  discovering  one  by  one 
the  antecedent  stages  of  thing.s  or  events,  and  learning  by  this 
means  the  nature  of  the  principle  that  reveals  itself  in  the 
process. 

This  method  of  Natural  Science  points  towards  Philosophy  as  a 
sort  of  science  of  science.  For,  that  there  is  a  general  scientific 
method  implies  that  all  the  sciences  are  related  one  to  another 
through  some  universal  underlying  condition,  so  that  all  objects 
must  have  antecedent  conditions,  belong  to  processes,  and  have 
their  explanation  in  principles.  This  underlying  condition  in 
which  all  objects  find  their  unity  is  time  and  si)ace,  and  all  sci- 
ences presuppose  the  possibility  of  a  science  of  time  and  space. 

The  doctrine  of  time  and  space  as  explained  through  the  idea 
of  causality  furnishes  ultimate  science  because  it  explains  how  the 
special  sciences  get  their  form. 

It  is  ultimate  science,  or  philosophy,  too,  inasmuch  as  it  shows 
causality  as  transcending  time  and  space,  and  it  discovers  this 
form  of  absolute  or  independent  causality  to  be  Mind  or  RecOson  — 
Self-conscious,  Absolute  Personality. 

Such  ultimate  science  shows  the  place  of  each  and  every  thing 
or  event  in  the  system  of  the  universe  and  reveals  its  origin  and 
destiny.  It  explains  things  and  events  through  the  self-revela- 
tion of  the  Absolute  Mind. 


98  EDUCATION.  [October, 

At  this  point  we  must  note  that  philosophy  does  not  affect 
omniscience,  no  matter  how  much  the  above  statements  may 
seem  to  imply  it.  Philosophy  does  not  inventory  anything  what- 
ever; it  explains  only  what  is  furnished  it  —  something  being 
given  in  a  definite  manner,  philosophy  will  discover  one  by  one 
it«  pre-suppositions  and  find  it«  place  and  function  in  the  absolute 
system.  If  the  thing  or  event  is  not  so  far  defined  by  one  of  the 
special  sciences,  that  it  can  be  referred  to  some  one  of  their  princi- 
ples, then  only  a  very  vague  utterance  about  it  can  be  made  by 
philosophy.  If  it  is  only  a  thing  or  event,  and  it  is  not  said 
whether  it  is  animal,  vegetable,  or  mineral,  or  some  activity  of  one 
of  them,  then  only  the  vague  di  ctum  can  be  pronounced  that  it 
arises  somewhere  in  the  creative  process  of  the  absolute,  —  or  as 
religion  states  it,  '*It  has  arisen  in  the  wisdom  of  God's  Provi- 
dence,"— and  we  are  sure  in  advance  of  all  examination  of  the 
thing  or  event  that  it  has  a  place  and  a  purpose. 

If  the  thing  or  event  is  defined  as  a  plant,  or  some  activity  of 
it,  we  can  speak  more  definitely  and  predicate  of  it  what  philoso- 
phy has  discovered  in  regard  to  the  place  and  function  of  vegeta- 
tion in  the  world. 

I  repeat  it — for  the  reason  that  philosophy  does  not  inventory 
any  facts  or  events,  but  assumes  them  as  thus  inventoried  by 
other  sciences,  it  cannot  be  accused  of  affecting  omniscience.  It 
is  in  fact  a  special  department  of  human  knowledge  and  requires 
special  study  and  investigation  just  like  other  departments. 

Here  we  encounter  another  great  word  in  tliis  dispute  as  to  the 
place  of  philosophy,  namely  the  word  specializatimu  We  are  told 
that  specialization  is  the  principle  of  all  progress ;  that  philosophy 
deals  with  ultimate  unities,  and  therefore  can  make  no  progress. 
All  progress  comes  through  inventorying  anew  some  minute  prov- 
ince— division  or  subdivision  is  best  because  the  minuter  the  field 
the  more  completely  and  exhaustively  it  may  be  inventoried. 
Philosophy,  it  is  said,  is  the  enemy  to  this  specializing  and  inven- 
torying ;  it  is  content  with  any  results  that  are  handed  to  it,  and 
managed;  to  deal  quite  as  well  with  imaginary  things  and  events 
as  with  real  ones.  It  can  explain  equally  well  the  unicorn,  the 
phcenix-bird,  the  polar  bear,  and  the  kangaroo. 

For  the  reasons  I  have  mentioned,  namely,  that  philosophy  does 
not  inventory  nor  reduce  to  subordinate  scientific  unities,  we  must 
admit  the  validity  of  the  objection  in  so  far  as  it  condemns  philos- 


1888.]  PHILOSOPHY  IN  COLLEGES  AND  UNIVERSITIES.  99 

ophy  as  unfit  to  substitute  for  any  one  or  all  of  the  special  sciences. 
It  is  true  that  philosophy  can  explain  one  fact  as  well  as  another, 
and  just  as  completely  as  said  fact  is  offered  or  presented  to  it  by 
one  of  the  special  sciences.  Tliis  does  not,  however,  render  the 
explanation  of  real  facts  empty  and  void,  any  more  than  a  mistaken 
application  invalidates  the  religious  doctrine  of  Divine  Provi- 
dence. 

Another  objection  urges :  That  the  nature  of  philosophy  as  here 
set  forth  seems  to  assume  that  philosophy  has  only  one  form,  or 
that  all  its  forms  arrive  at  an  Absolute  Personal  Reason  as  ulti- 
mate principle,  whereas  there  are  many  philosophies  and  divers 
first  principles.  To  this  objection  it  must  be  replied,  that  all  phi- 
losophies do  imply  this  personal  first  principle,  although  they  do 
not  all  unfold  it  as  the  presupposition.  To  make  this  clear  it  is 
only  necessary  to  state  it  generally.  Every  philosophy  sets  up  a 
first  principle  as  the  origin  of  all,  the  cause  of  all,  and  the  ulti- 
mate destiny  of  all.  Let  such  principle  be  called  X.  Then  X  is 
assumed  as  originating  all  through  its  own  activity,  and  hence  X 
is  a  self-activity.  Self-activity  is  what  we  call  living  intelligent 
being  when  we  behold  it. 

Let  us  n8w  notice  the  utility  of  this  reference  of  things  to  a 
supreme  unity  — in  other  words,  the  utility  of  philosophy. 

II. 

Philosophy  is  the  form  of  thinking  which  is  exercised  or  em- 
ployed whenever  one  closes  a  train  of  reflection  and  resolves  to 
act.  Deliberation  belongs  to  the  intellect,  it  holds  action  in  sus- 
pense until  it  shall  get  a  complete  survey  of  the  subject.  Such  a 
survey  implies  an  inventory  and  an  act  of  systematizing.  But  by 
the  nature  of  the  case  an  inventory  of  an  objective  sphere  can 
never  be  completed,  by  reason  of  the  infinitude  of  its  details. 
Each  detail  can  be  subdivided  again  and  again.  If  the  will 
waited  and  held  back  its  action  until  absolutely  all  the  data  were 
in,  it  would  never  act  at  all.  The  deed  would  be  "sicklied  o'er 
with  the  pale  cast  of  thought."  What  is  necessary  is  this :  the 
inventory  must  be  stopped,  and  all  the  facts  must  be  assumed  to 
be  in  hand.  Then  they  must  be  summed  up  and  their  trend  and 
bearing  ascertained.  This  being  done,  it  is  now  in  readiness  to 
act.  All  action  of  the  will  assumes  that  the  inventory  is  com- 
pleted, and  that  the   ultimate   bearing   of   the   data   is   known. 


100  EDUCATION.  [October, 

Hence  all  practical  action  deserts  the  scientific  or  discursive  form 
of  thought,  and  put«  on  the  philosophical  attitude,  assuming  its 
survey  to  be  a  complete  and  absolute  one. 

With  this  insight  into  the  relation  of  the  philosophical  attitude 
of  the  mind  to  the  practical  will-activity,  we  may  now  demonstrate 
the  utilit}%  or  even  the  necessity  of  philosophy,  as  an  indispens- 
able branch  of  higher  instruction. 

III. 

The  object  of  all  instruction  is  said  to  be  self-knowledge.  Ad- 
mitting that  there  is  a  discrimination  between  two  selves — a  finite 
self  and  an  infinite  self — this  proposition  maybe  admitted.  Then 
it  would  mean  that  all  instruction  has  for  its  object  the  conscious- 
ness of  the  relation  of  the  finite  self  to  the  infinite  self — or,  less 
technically,  the  relation  of  man  and  the  universe  to  God. 

The  occasion  of  all  human  activity  moreover,  is  some  relation 
between  the  individual  and  the  universe  or  the  Author  of  the  uni- 
verse. It  is  evident  that  the  ultimate  ground  of  action  must 
always  be  a  moral  one,  therefore,  because  the  motive,  express  or 
implied,  must  always  be  some  relation  to  God  or  to  God's  purpose 
in  the  univei'se.  Now  these  relations  are  defined  fh  onlv  two 
ways — by  religion  or  by  philosophy — or  only  in  one  way,  inas- 
much as  religion  always  grounds  itself  and  its  mandates  in  the- 
ology. 

Higher  instruction  diffei*s  from  lower  instruction  chiefly  in  this, 
lower  instruction  concerns  more  the  inventory  of  things  and 
events,  and  hence  has  less  to  do  with  inquiring  into  the  unity  of 
things  and  events.  Higher  instruction  deals  more  with  relations 
and  the  dependence  of  one  phase  of  being  upon  another,  and  it 
deals  especially  with  the  practical  relation  of  all  species  of  knowl- 
edge to  man  as  individual  and  as  social  whole.  Such  relation  it 
is  admitted  is  ethical.  Now,  since  the  doctrine  of  the  ethical 
rests  on  the  nature  of  the  first  principle,  and  philosophy  is  the 
investigation  of  that  principle,  it  follows  that  philosophy,  express 
or  imi)lied,  must  be  the  basis  of  higher  education. 

It  is  singular  to  note  how  exactly  this  is  true,  even  in  those  col- 
leges and  univei'sities  where  agnosticism  prevails.  For  agnosti- 
cism is  a  world-view  founded  on  philosophy.  It  is,  so  to  speak,  an 
arrested  development  of  philosophy,  for  it  is  a  world-view  adopted 
by  cutting  short  the  philosophical  process  near  the  beginning. 


1888.]  PHILOSOPHY  IN  COLLEGES  AND  UNIVERSITIES.  101 

Insight  gets  so  far  as  to  see  the  uiisubstantiality  of  material 
things  in  time  and  space — in  other  words,  all  such  material  things 
are  ''phenomenal,"  or  dependent  on  something  that  transcends 
their  sphere.  At  this  point  the  doctrine  is  negative  only — it  ends 
in  negating  the  substantiality  of  the  material  world  and  denying 
its  finality.  The  real  and  substantial  is  something  that  transcends, 
but  it  is  not  said  positively  what  it  is.  Like  the  "persistent 
force"  of  Spencer  it  may  be  called  an  "unknowable"  or  an  "ulti- 
mate unknowable."  It  makes  forms  and  it  swallows  them  up 
again  through  the  changes  of  time.  Itself  is  no  form,  no  tiling, 
no  special  force.  Hence  it  is  negative  and  the  thinker  calls  it  the 
"unknowable." 

This  standpoint  is  pantheism.  Pantheism  is  objectionable  as  a 
world-view  because  it  denies  personality  to  God,  and  likewise  de- 
nies immortality  and  freedom  to  man.  But  pantheism  is  not  the 
legitimate  or  logical  outcome  of  philosophy.  If  one  moves  for- 
ward to  the  logical  conclusion,  he  reaches  affirmative  ground  and 
arrives  at  theism.  For  persistent  force  implies  self-activity  as  its 
true  nature,  inasmuch  as  the  persistent  force  is  not  correlated  with 
any  one  or  with  all  of  the  particular  forces  (heat,  light,  electricity^ 
magnetism,  gravity,  etc.),  but  it  is  the  foundation  of  all  of  them, 
and  they  arise  through  its  energy.  It  is  self-related  or  self-active, 
and  hence  it  is  of  the  nature  of  life  and  mind,  absolute  and  infi- 
nite. It  is  absolute,  because  being  self-active  it  does  not  depend 
on  anything  else  for  its  manifestation  and  constitution.  It  is 
infinite  because  it  is  self-limited,  or,  in  ot)ier  words,  it  makes  its 
special  limitations,  the  particular  forces  (heat,  light,  etc.),  by  its 
own  act,  instead  of  receiving  a  check  through  another  being  out- 
side of  it.  It  is  not  limited  by  others  but  only  self-limited — it  is 
the  absolute  creator  of  its  particular  forces.  Thus  even  the  agnostic 
doctrines  taught  in  the  schools  under  the  influence  of  George  Henry 
Lewes  and  Herbert  Spencer  are  only  premature  or  unripe  philos- 
ophies— even  their  own  doctrines  pointing  toward  theism. 

Hence  the  present  decadence  of  philosophy  in  schools  is  only 
apparent  and  not  real.  It  is  simply  the  Avatara  of  pantheism 
imder  a  new  form — the  form  of  mental  incapacity  to  comprehend 
what  is  already  defined  to  be  the  negative  of  all  attributes.  Such 
an  absolute  is  easy  to  comprehend,  in  fact,  because  there  is  noth- 
ing left  in  it  to  be  comprehended.  By  its  definition,  abstraction 
has  already  removed  all  distinctions  from  it  and  left  nothing  in  it 


102  EDUCATION,  [October, 

of  a  determinate  nature ;  if  reflection  finds  anything  to  think  in 
such  an  absolute,  it  must  supply  what  it  thinks  out  of  its  own 
store  of  ideas. 

It  is  clear  from  this  that  there  is  a  philosophy  presupposed  in 
those  schools,  and  that  it  is  a  bad  philosophy  because  it  is  a  pan- 
theistic philosophy — a  revival  of  Orientalism. 

In  this  theoiy  of  pantheism,  there  lie  coiled  up  all  the  princi- 
ples opposed  to  our  ci\Hlization.  The  history  of  the  past  two 
thousand  years  is  one  unbroken  contest  between  pantheistic  sur- 
vivals from  the  oriental  world  and  the  new  spirit  of  Christianity. 
There  has  been  a  tendency  to  lapse  back  into  some  doctrine  that 
denied  the  divine-human  nature  of  God,  or  the  individual  immor- 
tality of  man,  and  set  up  fatalism  in  the  place  of  moral  freedom. 
But  the  Church  has  always  had  the  clear  discernment  to  condemn 
as  heresy  all  such  doctrines.  Mohammedanism  was  the  most  formid- 
able bearer  of  this  spirit  of  the  east  against  the  spirit  of  Europe  and 
the'west.  Charles  Martel,  and  afterwards  the  Crusaders  defeated 
ite  armies  in  the  field,  while  Thomas  Aquinas  and  the  Scliolastic 
Theology  defeated  its  intellectual  heroes  and  established  the  doc- 
trines of  a  truly  Personal  God  against  an  abstract  Unity  as  the 
first  principle. 

It  is  the  true  function  of  our  higher  education  to  defend  and 
preserve  this  precious  doctrine  in  our  time,  and  in  no  way  can  it 
be  done  except  by  teaching  a  thorough-going  philosophy  which 
traces  out  the  presuppositions  of  matter  and  mind  to  their  ulti- 
mate implications  and  discovers  Personality  in  the  Absolute, 
and  immortality  and  freedom  in  man.  For  these  ideas  alone 
make  possible  our  civilization. 


We  cannot  help  rejoicing  in  the  increasing  prominence  of  the 
idea  that  every  being  whom  the  world  contains  has  his  true  place, 
written  in  the  very  make  of  his  nature,  and  that  to  find  that 
place  and  fill  it  is  success  for  him.  To  help  him  find  that  place 
and  make  him  fit  to  fill  it,  is  the  duty  of  his  educators  in  all  their 
various  degrees.  Phillips  Brooks. 


1888.]  DISCIPLINE  THE  PRICE  OF  FREEDOM.  108 


DISCIPLINE  THE  PRICE  OF  FREEDOM 

BY  CHARLES  E.   LOWREY,   PH.D. 

I 

OF  the  desirability  of  true  freedom  as  the  goal  of  human  en- 
deavor no  one  has  spoken  more  appropriately  than  Gen- 
eral Thomas  J.  Morgan  (Education,  May,  1888).  Far  be  it  from 
the  purpose  of  the  present  comment  to  detract  from  the  merit  and 
spirit  of  his  noble  article,  "  Education  and  Freedom."  Only  that 
freedom  may  be  a  reality,  and  not  a  sentiment,  is  there  need  to 
supplement. 

General  Morgan  says:  "The  only  discipline  that  fits  for  free- 
dom is  liberty."  That  liberty  is  a  discipline  is  granted.  But  tliat 
it  is  not  the  ordy  discipline  that  "fits  for  freedom"  is  wherein  lib- 
erty differs  from  freedom  itself.  Freedom  is  a  conscious  personal 
product  in  which  liberty  and  necessity  have  become  organically 
and  spiritually  a  living  unit. 

To  imperfect  activity  in  man,  freedom  assumes  a  double  face, 
essential  and  propaedeutic  to  the  personal  possession  of  it, — this 
apparent  contradiction,  an  incentive  to  complete  self-knowledge. 
We  must  will  to  act  the  perfect  way.  So  long  as  our  liberty  is  an 
offence  to  due  proportion  and  harmony,  Our  comprehension  of  its 
true  office  must  be  enriched  by  the  apparent  opposition  of  spirit- 
ual authority,  or  necessity.  Liberty  truly  is  God's  pledge  of  son- 
ship  ;  but  necessity  supplies  the  conditions  upon  which  conscious 
acCj^ptance  with  God  may  be  a  reality  in  our  personal  experience. 

"  There  is  nothing  new  under  the  sun,"  not  even  General  Mor- 
gan's statement,  that  "  discipline  is  much  milder  than  formerly." 
The  teachers  of  today  were  the  pupils  of  the  last  generation ; 
they  are  the  product  of  its  discipline.  Is  it  not  too  soon  to  say, 
granting  the  above  statement,  that  the  pupils  of  today  are  proving 
themselves  more  worthy  of  citizenship  under  the  "  milder  disci- 
pline" of  their  sires?  —  sires  who  forget  the  mother  and  source 
of  their  own  freedom  in  the  vain  hope  of  buying  for  their  off- 
spring some  easy  road  to  the  knowledge  of  themselves  and  of 
their  obligations  to  society. 


104  EDUCATION.  [October, 

In  all  time  and  in  all  conditions  of  society  discipline  has  made 
men  teachers  and  has  delegat<;d  them  the  guides  of  inexperience. 
To  be  sure  we  are  all  sons  of  God ;  but  only  by  self-conquest  are 
we  conscious  of  that  fact,  however.  As  children  are  not  full 
grown  at  birth,  so  wisdom  is  not  always  justified  at  the  hand  of 
her  unconscious  offspring. 

There  is  a  common  error  of  our  day  that  children  have  but  to 
be  told  the  truth  of  experience  to  do  it,  sometliing  analogous  is 
that  common  error  of  the  past  that  among  children  there  were  no 
seeds  of  righteousness  —  no,  not  one.  Let  it  be  observed  in  cor- 
rection of  both  these  extremes,  that  in  the  neglect  of  any  factor 
of  human  development  for  the  purpose  of  emphasizing  another 
possibly  equally  important,  but  not  more  essential,  the  abnormal 
"swing  of  the  pendulum"  is  inevitable.  Let  it  be  further  ob- 
served that  in  the  normal  development  of  the  perfect  man  there  is 
no  need  of  the  "  swing  of  the  pendulum."  That  is  merely  the 
corrective  of  human  limitation  and  perversion. 

Self-control  as  the  result  of  conscious  knowledge  of  divine  rela- 
tions is  the  authority  for  and  the  secret  of  all  control  over  others. 
This  admirable  quality  is  the  child  of  a  discipline  that  has  over- 
come the  world  bv  an  intellectual  conquest  of  the  reaso7i  for  the 
world's  opposition  to  human  desire. 

When  children  not  exercised  in  this  school  of  discipline  shall 
come  to  protect  the  souls  committed  to  their  charge,  shall  find 
human  nature  stubborn,  shall  find  in  their  own  experience  no 
solution  for  this  new  trouble,  we  may  expect  a  return  to  blows 
from  the  beautiful  product  of  mildness,  instead  of  progress  toward 
perfection. 

Man's  growth  is  an  intensifying  of  the  knowledge  of  the  ever- 
present,  ever-perfect  activity  of  God.  Man  in  his  personal  sq^a- 
tion  sees  a  progress  from  outline  insight  to  immortal  vital  partici- 
pation. The  procession  is  due  to  our  ability  to  review  the  suc- 
cessive stages  of  that  one  experience.  There  is  an  apparent 
progress  from  imperfection  to  perfection  of  insight.  Because  of 
obedience  and  an  acceptance  of  the  suggestions  of  discipline,  God 
is  making  His  reflection  of  Himself  in  the  world  better  for  this 
particular  servant  now  blossoming  into  sonship  and  conscious  im- 
mortality. That  son  mistakes  the  teaching  of  his  own  experience 
not  to  recognize  that  God's  way  has  been  perfect  from  all  eternity, 
today  as  yesterday  the  same,  that  there  is  no  growth  in  the  divine 


1888.1  DISCIPLINE  THE  PBICE  OF  FREEDOM.  106 

economy,  that  God  is  process^  not  progress^  and  that  man  in  the  full 
knowledge  of  his  privilege  is  like  Him,  hence  immortal. 

In  any  broad  philosophic  estimate  of  human  experience,  there 
is  place  neither  for  universal  pessimism  nor  for  universal  optimism. 
There  is  a  chance  for  either  in  that  at  will  we  may  be  demon  or 
like  God,  as  a  matter  of  personal  experience.  But  the  privilege 
of  self-mastery  or  the  contrary  as  a  decision  based  on  personal  dis- 
position to  know  and  be  free  or  to  act  blindly  and  be  a  slave  is  no 
prejudice  to  the  perfect  adjustment  of  the  divine  activity.  "  All 
things  work  together  for  good."  Even  the  wrath  of  wilful  imper- 
fection is  made  to  praise  this  perfection.  Not  that  God  forcibly 
restrains  and  thus  relieves  human  responsibility  —  God  does  not. 
But  it  is  in  the  nature  of  man  as  God's  image  that  wilful  and 
abnormal  perversion  shall  fail  of  its  purpose  and  produce  its  cor- 
rection. Out  of  man's  wilful  imperfection  and  self-correction 
grows  God's  perfection.  Otherwise,  spiritual  darkness  as  a  mat- 
ter of  disposition,  i.  e.,  eternal  death  — "  Who  hath  not  eternal 
life,  hath  eternal  death  already." 

As  before  suggested,  normal  growth  is  not  a  "swing  of  the 
pendulum,"  but  the  straight  and  narrow  way  that  grows  brighter 
until  the  perfect  day.  Man's  self-revelation  is  from  God  as  a  cen- 
tre in  all  directions.  That  God  is  the  spirit  of  which  all  the  ob- 
jects that  appear  to  imperfect  activity  in  man  are  the  manifesta- 
tions. In  the  conquest  of  the  significance  of  these  symbols  of 
the  richness  of  the  Divine  nature,  we  become  in  tnith  what  we 
are,  in  fact,  whether  conscious  of  it  or  not,  the  divine  activity^ 
sons  of  God,  spirits  like  unto  himself,  privileged  to  be  conscious  of 
God's  immortal  life,  like  Him  in  fullness  as  we  have  been  like 
Him  in  kind  from  all  eternity.  And  this  the  only  complete  answer, 
and  God's  own  answer,  to  the  niystery  of  our  nature. 

But  our  equality  of  privilege  with  God  is  not  an  equality  of 
"  rights  "  without  conquest.  So  far  as  we  are  not  perfect  we  are 
subordinate  to  the  "  perfect  law  of  liberty,"  and  this  law  is  neces- 
sary. No  fondness  or  indulgence  of  teachers  can  pervert  the 
divine  economy.  Wherein  the  inclinations  of  the  child  controvert 
the  experience  of  the  teacher  their  gratification  is  a  violation  of  a 
sacred  trust  that  shall  reap  condemnation  and  disrespect  when 
mature  manhood  has  revealed  the  truth. 

There  is  the  rankest  heresy  in  the  indiscriminate  allowance  of 
choice  in  matters  of  which  the  child  has  but  the  slightest  concep- 

t    ' 


106  EDUCATION.  [October, 

tion.  As  men  of  mature  yeare  we  see  no  kindness  in  the  per- 
mission tliat  encouraged  us  blindly  to  make  mistakes  that  the 
consensn4s  of  the  ages  had  judged  inevitable.  We  now  love  the 
teachers  who  encouraged  us  never  to  make  a  specialty  of  any 
particular  aptitude  before  we  were  conscious  of  ability  to  grasp 
the  whole,  without  a  knowledge  of  which  we  could  have,  in  our- 
selves, no  adequate  criterion  of  the  value  of  our  special  work. 

Many  of  us  go  farther,  and  declare  that  the  educational  spirit 
of  the  times  is  deficient  and  a  discouragement  to  honest  endeavor 
to  develop  well-rounded  manhood  as  the  necessary  basis  for  any 
particular  duties  in  life  whatsoever.  We  call  upon  the  profession 
in  general  and  on  all  who  have  been  subject  to  educational  influ- 
ences in  particular,  if  we  have  heard  as  much  as  we  ought  about 
making  specialties  of  our  weak  members  and  letting  the  apt  ones 
lend  a  helping  hand ;  the  rather  abnormal  proclivities  are  encour- 
aged to  assert  their  authority  for  the  purpose  of  perverting  the 
normal  development  of  the  divine  image  and  establishing  a  tem- 
poral monstrosity,  notorious  for  the  proclamation  of  mistakes  long 
since  known  to  be  inaccuracies  of  ignorance,  as  though  original 
wisdom  and  genius. 

We  can  predict  in  advance  the  absolute  success  of  the  noble 
spirit  that  will  study  his  own  weakness  and  that,  too,  discovered 
as  such  by  his  fellows;  and  then  without  proclaiming  himself 
shall  face  all  discouragements,  and  scoffs,  and  suggestions,  and 
rebuffs  from  narrow-minded  specialists  in  our  colleges  and  uni- 
versities, and  make  this  special  weakness  the  crowning  factor  in  a 
well-rounded  manhood. 

Such  an  one  can  never  be  surprised ;  he  is  fitted  for  any  emer- 
gency that  the  providence  of  God  may  present.  That  man  pos- 
sesses the  key  to  the  solution  of  every  industrial  and  social  prob- 
lem so  far  as  it  applies  to  his  own  experience.  That  man  has  as 
the  reward  of  the  bitter,  cruel  discipline  of  distrust  —  from  those 
who,  had  they  been  truly  wdse,  would  have  detected  the  pearl  — 
the  wonderful  freedom  of  the  divme  approval  and  guidance. 
That  man  is  the  product  of  a  self  discipline  that  should  have  been 
encouraged  and  suggested  by  those  to  whom  in  all  respect  and 
modesty  he  was  looking  for  assistance,  only  to  be  cruelly  disap- 
pointed. Such  an  one,  however,  dwells  "in  the  secret  place  of 
the  Most  High  " ;  he  abides  "  under  the  shadow  of  the  Almighty." 

We  have  no  desire  to  specify  any  particular  form  of  discipline^ 


1888.]  DISCIPLmE  THE  PBICS  OF  FREEDOM.  107 

only  to  impress  that  liberty  as  usually  understood  is  not  sufficient 
to  ensure  freedom.  Legislation  that  makes  the  attempt  infringes 
upon  the  proper  authority  of  the  teacher.  Neither  would  we 
return  or  advance  to  any  particular  aspect  of  the  term  dUciplhie. 
We  may  say  in  passing,  however,  that  there  never  had  been  the 
**  rod  "  without  the  occasion  for  it.  And  whether  the  exercise  be 
vested  in  the  teacher  or  in  the  civil  police,  there  are  always  pres- 
ent with  us  elements  of  character  calling  for  the  supremacy  of 
physical  suffering  to  correct  the  cruelty  and  ignorance  of  blind 
physical  self-assertion. 

We  contend  that  discipline  be  adequate  to  its  purpose.  What 
that  discipline  shall  be,  the  wise  teacher  sets  not  in  specific  rules 
to  be  misconstrued,  but  determines  on  occasion  as  cool  judgment 
may  suggest.  To  handicap  the  teacher  by  legal  enactment  is  to 
discredit  the  judgment  of  tlie  profession  and  to  provoke  pupils  so 
inclined  to  insubordination  in  the  very  particular  in  which  the 
teacher  is  powerless. 

The  teacher  should  suffer  the  consequences  of  a  lack  of  judg- 
ment in  correction  as  a  member  of  society,  but  should  not  other- 
wise have  his  authority  restricted.  Education  is  primarily  a  dis- 
cipline and  to  place  restrictions  on  discipline  means  in  some  cases 
a  necessary  failure  of  the  object  of  education. 

Expulsion  from  school,  for  example,  may  have  a  moral  effect  on 
those  who  remain,  but  it  is  not  a  correction  for  physical  insubordi- 
nation in  the  individual ;  and  the  discipline,  so  far  as  society  as  a 
whole  is  concerned,  is  simply  transferred  from  the  teacher  to  the 
police,  with  far  less  likelihood  that  the  corrective  be  accepted  as  a 
lesson. 

God-likeness  is  the  only  door  to  personal  freedom.  Any  grant- 
ing of  privileges  to  those  who  do  not  accept  that  as  the  goal  of 
human  striving,  is  a  license  for  which  succeeding  generations 
must  suffer.  "  The  government  of  the  people  by  the  people  "  in 
form  merely,  we  have  learned  to  our  sorrow  as  a  nation,  may  sig- 
nify a  perversion  of  proper  government  as  abhorrent  as  absolute 
despotism.  We  ask  the  pertinent  question.  If  children  are  capa- 
ble of  personal  freedom,  why  from  birth  to  maturity  not  give  them 
the  franchise  ? 

The  fact  stares  us  in  the  face  that  formal  emancipation  is  not 
freedom  without  the  free  act  and  effort  of  personal  individual 
experience.     There  are  kings  and  princes  of  character  under  every 


108  EDUCATION.  [October, 

form  of  government.  This  does  not  alter  that  other  truth,  that 
with  equally  favorable  opportunities  some  exercise  their  right  as 
free  men  but  as  the  license  of  slaves. 

We  do  not  deny  the  privilege  of  any  to  be  sons  of  God,  but  we 
do  assert  the  impossibility  of  a  person  who  has  not  earned  the 
right  of  freedom  by  self-conquest  and  discipline  making  anything 
but  license  of  a  formal  removal  of  restrictions. 

Much  of  the  discussion  concerning  autonomy  might  be  omitted 
as  irrelevant,  by  mere  recognition  that  autonomy  is  not  by  exter- 
nal removal  of  restriction,  but  by  a  law  as  eternal  as  God  himself. 
We  are  masters  by  being  like  God,  nothing  short.  There  is  no 
such  experience  as  freedom  without  the  conscious  authority  to  sub- 
ordinate imperfection  to  discipline. 

It  is  not,  however,  as  some  think,  a  question  of  dismembering 
man.  We  have  no  more  right  to  emphasize  authority  than  liberty. 
One  is  as  essential  as  the  other.  Without  faith  to  act  we  should 
never  know  the  opposition  of  perfect  law.  Without  faith  in  our 
ability  to  discover  the  teaching  of  opposition  we  should  never 
know  freedom.  Authority  and  liberty  are  members  of  the  same 
organism. 

The  lesson  of  these  particular  times  is  that  lack  of  discipline 
incapacitates  citizens  for  distinguishing  practically  liberty  from 
license.  Who  are  not  a  law  to  themselves  have  not  the  discern- 
ment to  govern.  Their  "  freedom  "  is  self-destruction.  Children 
do  not  see  the  necessity  of  obedience,  unless  by  experience  they 
know  the  healthy  thrill  of  self-conquest  and  consequent  useful- 
ness. 

As  the  world  reads  God's  dispensations  and  discipline,  "  Whom 
God  loveth  He  chasteneth  " ;  nevertheless,  such  is  the  road  to  free- 
dom and  consciousness  of  sonship.  Compulsion  is  for  ignorance ; 
for  knowledge  that  very  compulsion  is  a  privilege  willingly  exer- 
cised as  the  highest  freedom. 


A  man  conscious  of  enthusiasm  for  worthy  aims,  is  sustained 
under  petty  hostilities  by  the  memory  of  great  workers  who  had  to 
fight  their  way  not  without  wounds,  and  who  hover  in  his  mind 
as  patron  saints,  invisibly  helping.  Geokge  Eliot. 


1888.]  THE  RENAISSAXCE  AND  THE  REFORMATION.  109 


OUTLINE    NOTES    ON    THE    RENAISSANCE    AND 

THE    REFORMATION^ 

BY  IDA  M.  GARDNER. 

[These  outlines  are  based  apon  notes  on  lectures  delivered  before  the  Rhode  Island 
State  Normal  School  by  the  late  Prof.  J.  Lewis  Dlman,  D.  D.,  of  Brown  University.  No 
attempt  has  been  made  to  develop  them  into  anything  more  than  a  connected  whole. 
Such  as  they  are,  they  embody  the  permanent  Impression  made  by  the  lectures  upon  a 
comparatively  immature  mind ;  and  may  therefore  serve  to  illustrate  Professor  Diman's 
clear  presentation  of  a  subject,  and  its  careful  analysis.  It  is  believed  that  the  notes 
will  be  helpful  to  teachers,  not  only  in  the  lines  of  study  suggested,  but  in  presenting  to 
classes  a  short,  concise  statement  of  this  interesting  period  of  modern  history.] 

II.  —  THE   REFORMATION. 

IV. 

"TTXHILE  the  Lutheran  movement  was  going  on  in  Germany, 
▼  V  another  movement  was  going  on  in  Switzerland,  which 
led  to  different  results ;  though  both  were  movements  toward  reli- 
gious reform.  To  understand  the  Swiss  movement,  we  must  think 
of  the  difference  between  Germany  and  Switzerland.  Germany 
was  a  plain,  open  to  invasion,  cut  up  into  political  states.  Switz- 
erland was  a  land  of  mountains,  where  the  states  were  formed  by 
nature.  While  in  Germany  the  Feudal  System  prevailed,  Switz- 
erland was  comparatively  free.  When  Germany  had  grown  into 
an  empire  of  four  hundred  states  under  one  Emperor,  Switzerland 
was  only  a  collection  of  cantons,  held  very  loosely  together.  Ger- 
many was  a  feudal  aristocracy ;  Switzerland,  a  republic  and  free. 
But  political  circumstances  made  changes.  Charles  the  Bold, 
Duke  of  Burgundy,  was  more  wealthy  and  powerful  than  Louis 
XL  of  whom  he  held  his  fief.  Louis  occasioned  a  quarrel  between 
Charles  and  the  Swiss,  in  the  hope  that  both  would  become  ex- 
hausted. It  ended  in  the  death  and  overthrow  of  Charles.  The 
Swiss  became  famous  soldiers.  When  Louis  found  he  could  not 
exterminate  them,  he  took  them  into  his  pay,  and  formed  the 
famous  Swiss  guard.  The  Pope  saw  the  advantage,  so  he  had 
Swiss  soldiers  too.  This  led  to  unexpected  results.  The  Swiss 
had  been  good  Catholics,  noted  for  their  piety;  but  the  young 
men  after  serving  in  the  army,  came  home  with  very  different 

^  Copyright,  1888,  by  Ida  H.  Gardner. 


110  EDUCATJOX.  [October, 

ideas,  obtained  at  the  French  court  with  its  vices,  and  with  an 
independent  way  of  thinking.  Those  who  served  in  Italy,  came 
home  still  worse.  Under  Julius  II.  they  had  lost  their  old  rever- 
ence for  the  Pope.  Thus  at  the  beginning  of  the  Reformation, 
Switzerland  was  the  reverse  of  religious.  The  French,  to  get 
hold  of  the  Swiss,  paid  more ;  but  the  Church  gave  ecclesiastical 
indulgences.  Thus  Switzerland  became  worldly  and  profligate, 
and  free  from  ecclesiastical  control. 

In  1484,  Ulrich  Zwingle  was  born  at  St.  Gall.  He  was  high- 
spirited,  proud,  truthful.  He  was  sent  to  Zurich  where  the 
humanistic  studies  were  taught.  Erasmus  was  there.  Zwingle 
caught  the  inspiration,  and  became  a  fine  classical  scholar.  Zwin- 
gle was  a  minister,  and  early  took  high  grounds  for  personal 
morals.  He  opposed  the  foreign  service  of  his  countrymen.  He 
touched  no  doctrine  of  the  Church ;  but  as  a  teacher  of  morals 
insisted  on  a  higher  code  of  morals,  and  denounced  the  vices  of 
the  times.  Zwingle  had  good  qualities  for  a  leader.  He  was 
high  in  favor  with  the  ecclesiastical  authorities ;  a  very  fine,  noble- 
hearted,  brave  man. 

When  Zwingle  heard  of  Luther's  preacliing  against  the  sale  of 
indulgences,  he  gave  his  assent,  but  did  not  deny  the  authority  of 
the  Church.  He  was  in  high  favor  long  after  he  was  known  as  an 
opposer  of  indulgences,  and  was  promoted  to  Zurich,  one  of  the 
most  important  positions  in  Switzerland.  He  made  vigorous  ef- 
forts to  reform  the  Cathedral  system,  and  compelled  the  lazy 
canons  to  preach  a  course  of  sermons.  He  boldly  denounced  all 
sorts  of  profligacy.  He  was  a  moral,  rather  than  a  theological, 
reformer.     So  far  Zwingle  was  wholly  independent  of  Luther. 

Thus  things  went  on  until  all  Germany  was  in  an  uproar,  and 
all  Europe  divided;  until  the  time  had  come  when  every  man 
must  choose  the  side  on  which  he  would  stand.  Zwingle  did  not 
hesitate,  but  came  out  as  a  bold  reformer.  He  was  a  classical 
scholar,  but  he  coupled  the  Scriptures  with  the  classics.  As  he 
lectured  on  the  Bible,  liis  views  began  to  diverge  from  the  Catho- 
lic standard.  So  he  moved  off  on  to  a  new  platform,  until  at  last 
he  stood  side  by  side  with  Luther.  The  two  movements  had  dif- 
ferent origins,  under  different  circumstances,  and  were  carried  on 
in  a  different  spiiit.  Luther's  theology  lay  in  the  doctrine  — 
"The  just  shall  live  by  faith."  Zwingle  did  not  lay  stress  upon 
any  particular  doctrine,  but  inclined  toward  Luther. 


1888.]  THE  BEXAISSAXCE  AND  THE  REFOBMATION.  Ill 

Soon  after,  Zwingle  fell  in  battle,  for  he  believed  that  the 
Protestant  cantons  must  assert  their  rights  by  force  of  arms.  His 
movement  did  not  stop.  The  followers  of  Zwingle  put  forth 
views  which  Luther  rejected,  and  this  led  to  a  split  between  the 
two  parties.  Luther  was  still  two-thirds  Catholic ;  he  changed 
only  specific  points.  He  was  a  conservative ;  had  been  forced 
into  a  position  he  did  not  choose.  He  never  designed  that  the 
movement  should  take  a  political  tendency.  His  maxim  was, 
"  Cut  out  the  rotten  and  leave  the  rest."  The  Lutheran  Church 
was  much  like  the  Catholic  in  its  service.  Two  years  after  the 
Diet  of  Worms,  Luther  opposed  the  Revolt  of  the  Peasants.  He 
said  the  people  had  no  right  to  change  matters.  Changes  should 
be  made  by  authority.     But  he  could  not  stay  the  movement. 

Zwingle  with  his  well-balanced  mind  had  a  clearer  understand- 
ing, and  went  farther.  He  attacked  the  mass.  The  Roman  Cath- 
olic Communion  is  not  a  mere  commemoration.  The  Catholics  be- 
lieve that  they  partake  literally  of  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ,  into 
which  the  bread  and  wine  are  miraculoiLsly  changed  with  the  eleva- 
tion of  the  Host.  Luther  could  not  get  over  this  idea.  He  believed 
that  we  must  literally  partake  of  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ. 
Zwingle  was  not  a  scholastic.  He  had  a  ''harder  head"  than  Lu- 
ther. He  denied  the  miracle  in  the  mass,  and  believed  that  the 
Communion  was  simply  symbolical.  Luther  flew  into  a  passion, 
and  said  that  Zwingle  was  cutting  at  the  very  roots  of  faith.  The 
discussion  over  this  question  waxed  deep  and  strong.  At  last  Lu- 
ther said,  if  he  could  not  have  transubstantiation,  he  would  have 
consubstantiation.  The  doctrine  of  Luther  adopted  by  the  Diet  of 
Augsburg  was  this  doctrine  of  consubsttmtiation.^  But  the  Swiss 
and  others,  twenty  years  later,  adopted  the  Heidelberg  confession, 
which  embodied  Zwingle's  idea.  This  caused  a  division  in  the 
reformed  party.  When  this  schism  in  the  reformed  churches  took 
place,  the  Reformation  stopped. 

V. 

A  great  error,  into  which  most  historians  fall,  is  that  of  suppos- 
ing that  the  Reformation  was  a  movement  which  took  place  simply 
on  the  part  of  those  who  came  out  of  the  Church.     There  was  a 

1 "  Luther  maiDtained  the  real  and  substantial  presence  of  the  body  and  blood  of 
Christ,  taking  place,  not  by  u  transmutation  of  the  external  elements,  but  by  a  super- 
natural and  Inconceivable  union  of  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ  with  the  consecrated 
breaAland  wine."  • 


112  EDUCATION.  [October, 

great  reform  in  the  Church.  There  was  a  more  complete  trans- 
formation in  the  Church  of  Rome  than  in  any  other.  From  the 
time  of  Julius  II.  and  Leo  X.,  down  to  the  Council  of  Trent,  the 
Romish  Church  was  perhai)s  more  changed  than  the  Protestant. 
The  prevailing  temper  in  the  time  of  Leo  X.  was  indifference, 
utter  and  entire.  Never  had  there  been  such  neglect  and  denial 
and  utter  indifference  on  the  part  of  the  ministers,  as  in  the  time 
of  Alexander  VI.  and  Leo  X.  Look  ahead  fifty  years,  and  we  see 
the  Church  transformed.  We  find  it  full  of  zeal,  producing  con- 
fessors and  missionaries  in  great  numbers.  Not  since  the  time  of 
Benedict  had  there  been  such  a  missionary  spirit.  Alissionaries 
were  sent  into  every  part  of  the  world.  The  Popes  were  full  of 
zeal.  The  Inquisition  was  revived.  Heretical  books  were  sup- 
pressed. All  this,  Protestants  are  apt  to  overlook.  Their  move- 
ment reacted  on  the  Chuich,  yet  the  reform  was  not  wholly  a 
reaction.  It  took  a  tremendous  impulse  from  Luther  and  Zwingle ; 
but  there  was  a  genuine  religious  life  in  the  Church,  independent 
of  the  Lutlieran  movement.  Before  Luther  began  to  preach,  a 
very  singular  religious  movement  had  broken  out  in  Italy,  caused 
by  a  reaction  against  the  excessive  vice  of  Alexander  VI.,  and  the 
worldliness  of  JuliiLS  II. 

In  the  Italian  Renaissance,  certain  societies  called  Academies 
had  been  formed,  for  the  discussion  of  matters  literary  and  classi- 
cal. These  Academies  suggested  another  movement.  Religious 
societies  were  formed  on  the  same  plan,  called  Oratories.  (This 
term  was  often  applied  to  a  private  chapel ;  but,  originally,  to  an 
association,  not  a  room.)  The  most  famous  Oratory  was  one  of 
seventy  members.  They  met  in  the  evening  to  disciLS  topics  of 
religion,  usually  mattei*s  of  personal  experience.  There  was  noth- 
ing ecclesiastical  about  it.  All  were  members  of  the  Church. 
Laymen,  clergy,  and  ecclesiastics  were  all  on  the  same  grade. 
Tliere  was  nothing  antagonistic  to  the  Church. 

The  rise  of  Oratories  was  a  significant  feature  in  the  religious 
history  of  this  century.  It  roused  a  deep,  religious  feeling  in 
Italy.  The  movement  went  on  —  Leo  did  not  care  — until  Luther 
began  to  preach ;  and  his  books  got  into  circulation.  They  reached 
Italy,  and  attracted  the  attention  of  members  of  the  Oratories. 
Tliey  "  believed  just  so."  Strange  to  say,  the  doctrines  of  Luther 
had  been  widely  discussed,  before  Luther  liad  been  heard  of.  He 
had  not  then  been  excommunicated,  but  was  giving  great  impulse 


1888.]  THE  RENAISSANCE  AND  THE  REFORMATION  113 

to  thought.  While  the  Reformation  was  going  on  in  Switzerland, 
in  Rome,  in  Naples,  and  in  Northern  Italy  a  strong  but  quiet  move- 
ment was  going  on,  condemning  Luther,  yet  claiming  that  his 
doctrines  were  substantially  correct.  In  Spain,  the  more  intelli- 
gent Catholics  adopted  the  same  views.  There  was  great  progress 
in  religious  feeling,  and  reform  in  the  teacliings  of  the  Cliurch. 

The  Secretary  of  Charles  V.,  Juan  Valdez,  was  with  Charles  at 
the  Diet  of  Worms,  and  became  much  interested  in  Luther.  After 
this,  Valdez  went  to  Naples,  and  was  naturally  tlu-own  much  into 
high  society.  Here  he  commenced  a  singular  career.  He  wrote 
a  book  on  evangelical  religion,  which  for  a  long  time  was  supposed 
to  be  lost.  About  twenty-five  years  ago,  a  copy  of  it  was  found 
by  an  English  gentleman,  who  had  it  translated  and  published.  It 
is  known  as  *'One  Hundred  and  Ten  Considerations."  Valdez 
belonged  to  an  Oratory  in  Naples,  and  wrote  out  these  short  ser- 
mons on  personal  religion,  to  be  given  there.  It  is  a  remarkable 
book,  to  be  read  with  profit  by  any  Christian  of  today ;  a  remarka- 
ble instance  of  lay  influence.  Valdez  lived  in  the  elegance  and 
splendor  of  the  best  society  in  Naples,  yet  carried  alxiut  with  him 
the  earnest  influence  of  a  Christian  man.  His  example  exerted  an 
immense  influence. 

The  regular  meetings  of  the  Oratories  were  something  like  our 
"Conference  meetings."  Members  gave  free  expression  to  their 
personal  convictions.  In  the  citadel  of  Catholicism,  views  were 
held,  differing  from  Luther's  doctrine  only  "  by  the  shadow  of  a 
shade."  The  movement  went  on  to  1530.  The  way  was  prepared 
in  the  Church  for  the  Reformation.  Catholics  were  feeling  that 
they  must  choose  different  Popes.  In  the  next  ten  years  the  pa- 
pacy was  gieatly  changed.  Popes  had  unexceptionable  private 
characters.  Now,  the  connection  between  profession  and  life  was 
quite  as  respectable  as  in  case  of  some  of  the  reformers. 

The  movement  outside  of  the  Church,  culminated  in  the  Peace 
of  Augsburg,  1555;  also  in  the  Swiss  Church,  and  the  movement  in 
England.  That  inside  the  Church  was  carried  on  by  men  just  as 
pure  and  good.  Melancthon  and  Cardinal  Contarini,  representa- 
tives of  the  two  movements,  were  equally  devout,  equally  sincere, 
equally  anxious  to  have  truth  and  religion  settled  on  a  proper 
basis. 

From  1530,  the  breach  went  on  widening  between  northern  and 
southern  Europe;  yet  good  men  never  ceased  to  pray  that  it  might 


114  EDUCATION.  [October, 

be  healed.  It  continued  to  widen  until  1541,  when  the  Diet  of 
Ratisbon  met.  •  This  was  the  last  attempt  to  heal  the  breach.  It 
almost  succeeded.  The  two  parties  discussed  doctrines,  point  by 
point,  and  found  that  they  did  not  differ  so  verj^  much.  They 
were  on  the  verge  of  agreement,  when  it  was  blocked  by  two  in- 
fluences. Luther  had  received  so  many  hard  knocks,  that  he  had 
a  spirit  of  controversy,  and  did  not  believe  in  the  professions  made. 
He  used  his  influence  against  settlement.  The  other  influence 
was  that  of  Francis  I.,  who  was  a  genuine  disciple  of  the  Italian 
Renaissance.  He  had  just  about  as  much  religion  as  Leo  X.  He 
stood  by  the  faith  that  was  best  for  the  king.  Had  the  Diet  of 
Ratisbon  succeeded,  it  would  perhaps  have  led  to  an  alliance  of 
Charles  V.  and  the  Pope,  to  drive  France  out  of  Italy.  Francis 
did  not  wish  Charles  to  unite  with  the  Pope.  He  therefore  inter- 
fered privately,  and  Ratisbon  failed  of  success.  Reconciliation 
was  never  again  attempted. 

VI. 

Why  did  the  Reformation  happen?  The  answer  may  be  given 
in  one  sentence.  It  was  due  to  the  peculiar  conjunction  of  cir- 
cumstances; the  conjunction  of  a  religious,  spiritual  movement, 
with  political  changes.  The  results  were  due  to  political  influ- 
ences. The  Renaissance  gave  to  the  Reformation  its  intellectual 
features.  Other  characteristics  were  stamped  upon  it,  both  on  the 
Continent  and  in  Pingland,  by  the  personal  views  of  the  sovereigns 
of  the  period. 

Charles  V.,  Emperor  of  Germany,  was  present  at  the  Diet  of 
Worms.  He  was  then  a  mere  lad ;  but  though  young  in  years,  he 
was  mature,  clear,  profound,  in  his  political  ideas.  He  had  the 
largest  dominion  ever  inherited  by  a  prince.  He  was  the  monarch 
of  (Jermany,  a  large  part  of  Italy,  Spain,  the  Low  Countries, 
and  exclusive  monarch  of  the  New  World.  He  had  a  great  re- 
sponsibility, was  closely  connected  with  the  Church.  He  was  the 
head  of  Christendom,  in  liis  own  eyes  and  in  those  of  his  subjects. 
He  was  the  vice-gerent  of  Clirist  in  temporal  matters,  as  the  Pope 
was  in  mattera  spiritual.  Charles  felt  this  responsibility  deeply. 
He  was  grave  and  serious,  sometimes  unjust  and  severe.  He  car- 
ried his  Spanish  gravity  into  all  liis  duties.  He  wished  to  guard 
the  interests  of  Christendom.  His  position  was  complicated.  No 
ruler  ever  stood  in  such  a  conflict  of  interests  and  responsibilities. 


1888.]  THE  BENAJSSANCE  AND  THE  REFORMATION.  115 

Germany  was  composed  of  many  states.  All  the  great  men  of 
Germany  were  in  Feudal  relations  to  him.  He  was  bound  to 
guard  their  interests,  and  depended  on  them  for  support.  Had 
there  been  only  this,  it  had  been  an  easy  matter.  There  was  a 
disposition  on  the  part  of  the  German  princes,  to  oppose  the 
Church;  and  Charles  might  have  carried  through  the  reform. 
Charles  was  also  King  of  Spain,  where  he  ruled,  not  by  Feudal 
relations,  but  as  a  proper  monarch.  Public  sentiment  here  was 
just  the  reverse  of  that  in  Germany.  The  Spaniards  were  most 
bigoted  Catholics,  and  rebellion  was  easily  brought  about. 
Charles's  position  was  a  delicate  one.  In  the  Low  Countries^ 
the  wealthiest  part  of  Europe,  he  inherited  patrimonial  estates, 
and  ruled  by  an  independent  title.  In  Italy  he  inherited  from 
the  Aragonese,  Naples  and  Sicily,  and  had  claims  on  Milan.  It 
was  necessary  to  be  on  the  Pope's  side,  or  he  might  be  stripped  of 
his  Italian  possessions. 

Charles  V.  is  harshly  judged ;  is  acciLsed  of  vacillation,  of  hav- 
ing no  clear  political  principles.  This  is,  in  the  main,  unjust.  We 
must  bear  in  mind  the  complexity  of  his  position.  He  could  not 
move  without  alienating  somebody.  The  invasion  of  Italy  by 
Charles  VIII.  had  accomplished  nothing  permanent,  but  entailed 
great  consequences  on  Europe.  It  created  an  antagonism  be- 
tween Gennany  and  France,  through  the  union  of  Germany  and 
Spain.  The  old  sore  wiis  still  open.  The  rivalry  created  by 
Charles  VIII.  is,  in  a  political  sense,  the  clue  to  the  Reformation. 

The  whole  movement  aft^r  the  Diet  of  Worms  was  an  antago- 
nism between  Charles  V.  and  Francis  I.  The  contrast  between 
the  two  men  is  marked — Charles,  grave  and  serioiLs,  with  a  high- 
toned  honor ;  Francis,  of  the  House  of  Valois,  a  type  of  the  Ren- 
aissance period,  excelling  in  every  accomplishment  and  in  every 
vice ;  a  patron  of  art,  in  hearty  sympathy  with  the  Art  movement, 
but  with  no  moral  tone  whatever.  He  was  called  the  ''Most 
Catholic  King,"  yet  the  whole  policy  of  Francis  was  free  from  any 
religious  tone  or  tendency.  While  professing  loyalty  to  the 
Church,  he  cared  nothing  for  it.  His  dominions,  though  not  so 
extensive  as  those  of  Charles,  were  more  closely  compacted. 
Louis  XI.  had  made  France  the  most  consolidated,  best  organized 
government  in  Europe. 

To  the  Turks,  or  rather  to  their  Sultan,  Solyman  the  Magnifi- 
cent, we  owe  much.     The  Turks  took  Constantinople  in  1453,  and 


116  EDUCATION.  [October, 

the  same  dynasty  had  ruled  ever  since.  When  they  first  came 
into  Europe  they  were  war-like,  full  of  enterprise  and  intellectual 
spirit,  though  differing  from  the  Europeans,  with  whom  they  came 
little  in  contact.  The  Turkish  power  came  to  be  well  established. 
At  the  time  of  the  Reformation,  the  prince  on  the  Turkish  throne 
differed  from  his  predecessors.  Solyman  was  well  educated, 
versed  in  European  history,  and  in  the  relations  of  European  states. 
The  Danube  was  the  key  to  the  river-system  of  Europe.  To  one 
holding  Constantinople,  it  gave  access  to  Central  Europe.  In 
case  of  the  advance  of  the  Turks,  the  first  state  to  oppose  them 
was  Hungary,  then  the  hereditary  states  of  Austria.  It  was  sim- 
ply the  Duchy  of  Austria  under  the  Hapsburg  family.  Vienna  was 
the  objective  point  to  the  Turks ;  but  as  long  as  the  Turks  did  not 
advance,  it  was  no  matter. 

Solyman  was  ambitious  of  military  gloiy.  He  had  the  finest 
military  power  in  Europe,  a  well-disciplined  army  against  which 
no  state  could  stand.  As  Solyman  sat  in  his  capital,  dreaming  of 
extending  his  frontiers,  he  heard  the  mutters  of  trouble  in  Ger- 
many. He  learned  how  the  German  princes  were  disposed;  how 
Germany  was  in  danger  of  a  split.  He  saw  it  all,  and  framed  his 
policy.  The  Reformation  was  his  opportunity.  His  first  great 
invasion  was  in  1522.  He  overran  Hungary.  Europe  cared  little 
for  the  loss  of  Constantinople ;  but  this  was  another  thing  when 
the  Turks  came  up  the  Danube,  and  occupied  nearly  all  of  Hun- 
gary. The  first  person  to  suffer  was  Charles  himself.  Defence 
must  be  immediately  prepared.  Austria  could  not  do  it.  The 
only  way  was  to  secure  the  support  of  Germany,  and  especially  of 
the  towns.  Money  and  ammunitions  were  to  be  found  there. 
But  in  the  towns  the  new  doctrines  had  made  most  progress.  All 
the  cities  favored  the  Reformation,  hence  Charles  must  show  the 
reform  party  some  favor.  From  1522  onward,  whenever  the  Turks 
were  victorious,  the  Protestants  flourished.  This  was  kept  up  all 
through  the  early  years  of  the  Reformation.  We  owe  to  Solyman 
a  great  deal  of  the  religious  liberty  of  Europe.  Charles  V.,  Fran- 
cis I.,  and  Solyman  played  a  three-cornered  game.  Francis  was  in 
secret  alliance  with  Solyman,  urging  him  to  push  up  the  Danube. 
This  kept  the  Reformation  moving  on.  But  for  this  conjunction, 
Luther  might  have  been  silenced;  and  Germany  might  have  taken 
another  direction.  By  1531  the  Reformation  was  so  far  along, 
that  it  was  impossible  to  effect  a  settlement.     Charles,  up  to  this 


1888,] 


CHILD  SPEECH. 


117 


time,  had  tried  to  preserve  the  unity  of  Christendom;  but  he  was 
willing  to  make  concessions.  If  his  policy  seemed  vacillating,  the 
underlying  motives  must  command  respect.  Francis  did  nothing 
worthy  of  approbation. 

Had  Europe  been  as  it  was  three  centuries  before,  the  Reforma- 
tion could  not  have  taken  place.  Also  had  the  rulers  been  less 
powerful,  or  the  Turks  been  other  than  they  were. 

The  last  days  of  Luther,  though  happy  in  his  domestic  life,  were 
full  of  sadness.  The  wars  of  religion  that  deluged  Germany  with 
blood  for  a  hundred  years,  had  already  begun.  He  died  in  1546. 
In  1555,  by  the  Peace  of  Augsburg,  the  German  states  obtained 
permission  to  choose  their  own  form  of  worship ;  and  the  perma- 
nent division  of  the  Church  was  accomplished. 


CHILD  SPEECH,  AND  THE  LAW  OF  MISPRONUN- 

CIA  TION, 

BY  EDMUND  NOBLE,  BOSTON. 
II. 

IN  the  formation  of  certain  nouns  and  pronouns  strongly  per- 
gonal in  their  character,  there  is  a  striking  recurrence  of  the 
same  consonantal  elements,  and  this  similarity  may  be  observed  in 
languages  widely  separated  from  each  other.  It  is  further  note- 
worthy that  the  recurrence  is  always  of  easy,  never  of  difficult, 
sounds.  The  first  personal  pronoun  I,  for  example,  is  compounded 
in  a  large  number  of  tongues  with  the  labial  consonant  M  (inter- 
changeable with  N),  as  shown  in  the  following  list :  — 


Language. 

Word 
for  "  I." 

Language. 

Word 
for  "  I.»» 

Basque, 

Ni. 

Votyak, 

Mon. 

Georgian, 

Me. 

Zamnea, 

Nu. 

Korean, 

Nai. 

Aymara, 

Na. 

Mpougwe, 

M',  mi,  or  mie. 

Chiquita, 

Ni. 

Fiunish, 

Mina. 

Mandan, 

Mi. 

Mordv, 

Mon. 

Greek, 

Me. 

Ostiak, 

Ma. 

Latin, 

Me. 

Sirjan, 

Me. 

French, 

Moi. 

Cheremiss, 

Min. 

English, 

Me. 

Chavach, 

Maninn. 

German, 

Mich.i 

Vogul, 

Am. 

1  The  accasatlve  of  the  personal  prononn  is  older  than  the  nominative.  The  human 
body  is  a  **  me,"  or  **  it,"  —  a  thing  acted  upon—  before  it  becomes  an  **  I,"  a  subject,  or 
aotiiig  and  thinking  personality. 


118  EDUCATION.  [October, 

There  is  a  not  less  striking  recurrence  of  the  same  consonants 
in  the  names  given  by  different  races  to  personalities  of  the  fami- 
ly, such  as  *' father,"  "mother."  Herr  Buschmann  found  the 
sounds  PA  and  TA  (AP  and  AT)  to  predominate  as  names  for 
"  father  "  in  a  large  number  of  languages  examined  by  him,  wliile 
the  forms  for  "mother"  were  in  the  largest  proportion  of  the 
cases  MA  and  NA  (AM  and  AN). 

Let  us  turn  now  to  child  speech,  especially  to  the  earlier  sounds 
made  in  infant  attempts  to  imitate  spoken  words,  or  even  to  the 
incoherent  prattling  into  which  all  imperfect  child  language  has 
a  perj^etual  tendency  to  degenerate.  Here  there  will  be  found  a 
remarkable  and  unquestionable  resemblance  between  racial  and 
individual  recurrence  of  sound.  Preyer  cites  from  Air.  Darwin 
a  record  of  child  speech  in  which  the  sound  SHU-MUM  (with  the 
sense  of  "eatables")  is  mentioned,  and  goes  on  to  say  that  his 
own  infant  frequently  uttered  the  syllable  MOMM  to  indicate 
that  it  was  hungry.  Vierordt  heard  a  child  in  its  third  and  fourth 
month  repeat  frequently  the  syllables  and  dysyllables  MAM, 
AMMA,  FU,  PFU,  etc.  Preyer  records  of  a  Thuringian  child 
that  its  first  utterances  were  MA,  BA,  BU,  APPA,  AUGE,  etc. 
Sigismund,  another  observer,  mentions  a  child  that  utters  its  earli- 
est sounds  as  follows:  BA,  FBU,  FU,  BABABA,  DADADA, 
also  ADA!)  and  EDEI).  Amongst  the  meaningless  sounds  re- 
peated frequently  by  a  child  of  sixteen  months,  were :  PU JEH, 
TUPE,  AMMAM,  ATTA.  Sigismund  and  Preyer  give  the  fol- 
lowing as  names  applied  to  father  and  mother  at  successive  periods 
by  a  child  in  its  second  year :  — 


Vater, 

atte. 

Mutter, 

amme. 

Vater, 

atte. 

Mutter, 

amme. 

Vater, 

tate. 

Mutter, 

ammam. 

Vater, 

fatte. 

Mutter, 

matte. 

If  we  now  place  in  juxtaposition  some  of  the  more  suggestive 
of  the  sounds,  as  on  the  one  hand  heard  in  child  speech,  and  as  on 
the  other  actually  existing  in  names  taken  from  languages  with 
which  neither  German  nor  English  has  any  sort  of  aifinitj'^  what- 
soever, the  result  will  be,  to  say  the  least,  striking.     Thus :  — 

Cbild  Sounds.  Actual  Names. 

APPA.  APPA.i 

(Dravidian  for  "  Father.") 

i  M.  A.  de  la  Calle  mentions  in  Iiis  La  Glosaologrie  that  his  child's  first  pronunciation 
of  '*  Papa  *'  was  APPA. 


1888.]  CHILD  SPEECH,  119 

Child  Sounds.  Actual  Names. 

PAPA. 
(Indo-European  for  **  Father.") 
ATTA.  ATYA. 

(Hungarian  for  '*  Father.") 
MAM.  MAMAN  (French),  Mama. 

AMME.  AMMA  (Dravidian),  Mother. 

MA.  AMA  (Mongol),  Father. 

MAMMA.  EME  (Mongol),  Mother. 

BA.  BAB  A  (Carih),  Father. 

BABABA.  BIBI  (Carih),  Mother. 

ADAI).  DADA  (English),  Father. 

DADADA.  TYATYA  (Russian),  Father. 

The  conclusion  that  generic  names  given  to  parents  arise  in  the 
more  or  less  imperfect  language  of  children  themselves  thus  seems 
unavoidable.  Infants  utter  earliest  and.  oftenest  those  sounds 
which,  being  finally  modified,  by  the  lips  or  in  the  anterior  part  of 
the  mouth,  are  the  easiest  to  imitate  and.  to  pronounce.  And  it  is 
of  this  class  of  sounds  that  almost  all  names  of  ''father"  and 
"  mother  "  are  made  up.  For  such  names  as  these,  therefore,  and 
above  all  for  their  recurrence  amongst  so  many  different  races, 
there  is  a  simple,  and,  I  believe,  a  true  explanation.  The  firat 
sounds  uttered  by  an  infant  being  the  easiest  —  that  is  to  say,  of 
P,  D,  T,  M,  N, —  it  is  these  sounds,  or  some  of  them,  that  the  child 
will  apply  or  seem  to  apply  to  one  of  its  parents,  or  to  both.  The 
parents,  or  one  of  them,  will  naturally  note  any  striking  iteration 
of  a  particular  sound,  and  will  thereupon  begin  to  lay  emphasis 
upon  it  by  repeating  it  themselves,  and  further,  by  applying  it  to 
one  or  other  of  the  parents.  One  sound  may  be  chosen  to  repre- 
sent '*  father,"  another  to  mean  "  mother."  From  merely  uttering 
the  sounds  at  random,  the  cliild,  led  by  its  parents,  comes  to  attach 
meanings  at  first  vague,  afterwards  clear,  to  particular  sounds,  and 
at  last  associates  its  father  with  one  utterance,  its  mother  with 
another.  The  association  thus  set  uj)  establishes  the  names  of  the 
parents,  who  employ  them  in  self-designation,  and  transmit  them 
to  a  succeeding  generation.  Children  go  on  babbling  the  same 
-consonants  from  age  to  age,  but  after  the  names  io%  '*  father  "  and 
"  mother  "  have  once  arisen  in  the  natural  way  described  —  or  in 
jsome  way  closely  resembling  it  —  they  are  simply  inherited  as  part 
of  the  lingual  property  of  each  race.  Why,  amongst  some  peo- 
ple, B,  and  amongst  others  P,  should  be  selected  —  why  the  choice 


120  EDUCATION.  [October, 

should  at  times  fall  upon  D,  and  at  others  upon  T  —  why  in  some 
cases  M  should  be  used  for  a  particular  name,  and  in  others  N  — 
all  this  is  determined  by  some  accidental  circumstance  out  of  a 
complex  of  circumstances  which  affects  the  choice  at  the  time  it  is 
made.  If  a  child  is  in  the  habit,  at  intervals,  of  uttering  all  these 
sounds,  there  will  be  abundant  scope  for  any  one  of  them  to  be 
selected  as  the  predominant  sound  of  a  name  rather  than  any 
other.  It  is  the  particular  circumstances  of  each  case  that  deter- 
mine which  of  the  easy  consonantal  sounds  shall  bs  chosen.  It  is 
the  general  law  of  preference  for  easy  sounds  which  determines 
that  the  selection  shall  be  made  from  those  sounds,  and  from  no 
others.  And  the  explanation  thus  offered  of  the  recurrence  of 
the  same  sounds  in  the  words  for  "  father  "  and  "  mother  "  applies 
with  equal  validity  to  the  case  of  recurrent  M  (N)  sounds  in  the 
first  personal  pronouns  of  so  many  languages.  This  M  in  all 
probability  indicates  the  objective  relation  in  which  the  child  stood 
towards  its  parents,  to  whom  it  wotild  be  —  to  coin  a  dissyllable  — 
the  EMMer  (the  MOer,  MAer  or  MEer,  that  is  to  say,  the  maker 
or  utterer  of  the  M  sound).  That  the  P  and  B  were  not  em- 
ployed to  describe  the  objective  relation  of  the  child  to  its  parents 
may  be  attributed  to  the  fact  that  the  other  sounds  had  already 
acquired  definite  associations.  Or  some,  in  view  of  the  insepara- 
bleness  of  mother  and  child,  may  prefer  to  regard  the  personal 
ME  sound  as  a  sort  of  polarized  differentiation  of  the  generic 
sound  heard  in  "  Mamma,"  **  Mother."  That  the  ME  word  was 
invented  (or  applied)  by  parents,  and  the  I  word  originated  by 
the  individual  himself,  seems  at  least  probable. 

It  must  be  admitted  that  there  are  races  whose  speech  is  more 
or  less  wanting  in  labial  or  easy  sounds.  The  Hurons,  for  exam- 
ple, have  no  B,  F,  M,  P,  or  V.  The  sounds  of  B,  D,  F,  G,  S,  and 
X  are  said  to  be  absent  from  the  tongue  spoken  by  the  natives  of 
Peru.  That  the  Chinese  have  no  B,  D,  S,  and  Z  is  notorious. 
The  language  of  the  Indians  of  British  Columbia  is  wanting  in  B, 
D,  F,  J,  P,  V,  and  X  sounds.  Yet  it  would  be  much  easier  to 
exaggerate  than  to  underestimate  the  importance  of  these  deficien- 
cies. Compar^  with  the  number  of  languages  in  which  the  easy 
sounds  are  represented,  the  few  exceptions  cited  sink  into  insig- 
nificance. Moreover,  to  show  that  a  particular  consonantal  sound 
does  not  occur  in  an  alphabet  is  by  no  means  to  prove  that  such  a 


1888.]  CHILD  SPEECH,  '  121 

sound  may  not  exist  in  the  form  of  a  combination.^  Granted  that 
all  the  sounds  named  are  actually  absent  as  stated,  the  fact  estab- 
lishes nothing  more  than  that  whatever  the  tendencies  of  infant 
speech  may  be,  children  learn  languages  as  they  have  been  formed 
by  habit.  It  is  notable,  moreover,  and  proves  the  existence  of  law 
even  in  apparent  exceptions  to  its  operation,  that  the  exceptions 
go  in  classes,  no  easy  sound  and  no  difficult  sound  being  absent 
alone.     This  may  be  seen  from  the  following  arrangement :  — 

Race.  Easy  Sounds.  Dlfflcult  Sounds. 

Hurons,  No  B,  F,  M,  P,  V,  N. 

Peruvians,  No  B,  D,  F,  S.  No  G,  X. 

Chinese,  No  B,  D,  S,    Z. 

B.  C.  Indians,  No  B,  D,  F,  V,  P.  No  J,  X. 

The  alliance  of  sounds  in  classes  is  further  shown  by  the  fact 
that  in  the  Polynesian  dialects  no  distinction  is  made  between  the 
sounds  of  P  and  B,  of  T  and  D,  of  G  and  K.  That  the  Chinese^ 
turn  R  into  L,  and  the  Japanese,  L  into  R,  is  notorious.  Indeed, 
the  confusion  of  these  two  letters  took  place  in  ancient  Egyptian, 
and  is  said  to  have  been  also  characteristic  of  early  Aryan  speech. 
Professor  Sayce,  judging  by  its  alphabet,  is  of  opinion  that  Sans- 
crit once  confounded  B  and  V,  and  mentions  that  in  Assyrian,  M 
and  V  are  written  with  the  same  character. 


Forenoon  and  afternoon  and  night; 
Forenoon  and  afternoon  and  night; 
Forenoon  and  afternoon, —  the  empty  rhyme 
Repeats  itself .     No  more?     Yes;  this  is  life. 
Make  this  forenoon  sublime,  this  afternoon 
A  psalm,  this  night  a  prayer,  and  life 
Is  conquered,  and  thy  crown  is  won. 

£.  R.  Sill. 

1  It  may  be  truly  said,  for  example,  that  there  Is  no  B  and  no  D  In  New  Greek.  It  is 
none  the  less  true  that  the  B  sound  appears  In  the  MP  sound,  while  D  acquires  phonic 
existence  in  the  combination  NT.  When  preceded  by  N,  the  Romaic  T  takes  the  sound 
of  D. 

>  The  Chinese  pronounce  Christ  as  '*  Kilissetu." 


122  EDUCATION,  [October. 


THE  GLACIER   STREAM. 

BT  MISS    EMMA   SHAW. 
[Written  at  tho  foot  of  the  Glacier,  Glacier  House.  British  Columbia.] 

0  rapid  river  racing  down 

From  yonder  glacier's  snowy  crown, 

Entranced,  I  watch  thee  hurry  by 

With  spray  and  foam-wreatlis  tossing  high ! 

I,  listening,  try  to  catch  some  word 

Or  message,  and  my  heart  is  stirred. 

Wliat  old-time  secrets  thou  could'st  tell 

Yon  icy  heights  have  guarded  well, 

As,  year  on  year,  the  frozen  tide 

Has  crowded  down  the  mountain  side. 

Held  by  a  strong,  relentless  will  — 

A  wondrous  ice-field  white  and  still; 

Now,  now,  from  its  stern  thraldom  free, 

Resistlessly  thou  seek'st  the  sea, 

A  glacial  torrent  wildly  glad 

To  leave  the  peaks  all  snowy^  clad. 

Naught  save  the  whisper  of  the  trees 

Touched  gently  by  the  summer  breeze, 

And  the  glad  music  of  thy  tide 

Comes  to  me  through  the  forest  wide ; 

Each  passing  wave  in  spmy  laughs  out, 

Each  tiny  wavelet  seems  to  shout 

A  pagan  of  joy,  "We're  free  !     We're  free! 

We  're  hasting  on  to  join  the  sea ! " 

And  see !  afar  a  silver  gleam 

Points  out  a  hurrying  sister  stream 

That,  from  yon  adamantine  wall, 

Has  heard  thy  gleeful  waters  call. 

And,  downwara  through  a  dark  ravine, 

Where  sunny  gleams  are  rarely  seen, 

With  Titan  force  it  cleaves  the  way. 

Nor  rock,  nor  tree  its  force  can  stay ; 

And,  where  its  waves  thy  volum'b  swell, 

1  waft  to  thee  a  fond  "  Farewell  I  " 

Augu%t  23,  1888. 


1888.]  EDITORIAL,  123 


EDITORIAL. 

JUST  what  Professor  Charles  Eliot  Norton  meant  by  his  sweep- 
ing assertion,  at  the  late  dinner  of  the  Sanderson  Academy  at 
Ashfield,  Mass.,  that  '*the  aid  of  the  imagination  in  New  England 
education  had  been  overlooked,"  it  is  not  quite  safe  to  guess. 
For,  just  now,  a  class  of  educational  critics  in  the  higher  walks  of 
literature,  journalism,  and  divinity  seem  moved  to  utterances, 
sometimes  so  wide  of  the  mark  that  we  ask.  Where  has  this  man 
lived  that  he  should  stumble  upon  such  misleading  or  even  gro- 
tesque conceits  on  matters  open  to  e very-day  observation?  Of 
course,  from  the  high  ground  of  ideal  education.  New  England  is 
lacking,  in  all  ways,  in  its  practical  handling  of  school  life.  But, 
surely,  the  education  of  a  regime  that,  up  to  the  present  day,  has 
led  the  western  continent  on  every  line  of  production  fairly  in- 
cluded in  Imagination  cannot  be  so  far  defective.  The  leading 
poets  and  novelists,  the  most  accomplished  orators,  the  foremost  art- 
ists, and  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  most  distinguished  inventors 
of  the  country  are  the  product  of  New  England  education.  The 
instruction  in  music  in  the  common  schools  was  a  "Yankee 
notion  "  years  before  it  was  adopted  beyond  New  England.  Mas- 
sachusetts led  the  way  in  the  introduction  of  di*awing  in  the 
public  schools ;  and  the  Normal  Art  School,  with  the  School  of 
Technology  and  the  Normal  and  High  Schools  are  sending  forth 
men  like  Ordway,  the  Woodwards,  and  scores  beside  as  leaders, 
to  all  portions  of  the  Union.  It  was  a  New  Hamj)shire  graduate 
of  Dartmouth  that  inaugurated  tree  planting  and  the  celebration 
of  Authors'  Days  in  the  West.  The  village  improvement  move- 
ment began  in  Massachusetts,  and  its  apostle  to  the  nation  is  from 
Connecticut.  For  combined  economy  and  beauty,  Wellesley  Col- 
lege for  Girls  is  unsurpassed.  The  New  England  Conservatory 
of  Music,  with  its  2,500  students,  is  a  national  institution.  In  short, 
tliis  dry  and  dusty  skeleton  that  figures  in  the  imagination  of  the 
Cambridge  Professor  turns  out  to  be  a  creature  of  altogether  dif- 
ferent style.  Much  doubtless  remains  to  be  achieved ;  but  New 
England,  like  Old  England,  is  many-sided,  and  not  only  leads  in 
the  realm  of  the  practical  intellect,  but  of  the  philosophic  reason 


124  EDUCATIOy.  [October, 

and  poetic  imagination  as  well.  By  the  way, —  why  is  it  that, 
along  with  a  good  deal  that  is  elevating  and  suggestive,  a  larger 
number  of  absurd  and  incorrect  statements  have  been  made  con- 
cerning popular  education  at  the  annual  Sanderson  Academy  din- 
ner than  on  any  similar  occasion  in  the  country  ? 

PRESIDENT  PAYNE,  of  the  Peabody  Normal  School  at  Na^h- 
ville,  Tenn.,  has  again  put  on  record  his  disapproval  of  the 
practise  department  of  the  State  Normal  and  City  Training  School 
for  Teachei's,  which  he  styles,  '*  experimental  schools  where  chil- 
dren are  to  be  practised  upon  by  novices/'  If  President  Payne 
refers  to  a  certain  class  of  tmining  schools  where  a  lot  of  green 
girls  are  placed  in  charge  of  a  building,  on  half  or  quarter  salary, 
with  the  expectation  that  the  principal  shall  not  only  supervise  in 
school  hours,  but  give  pedagogic  instruction  at  intervals,  there  may 
be  a  ground  for  this  characterization..  But  even  this  is  a  long  step 
ahead  of  the  state  of  tilings  in  nine-tenths  of  the  public  and  too 
many  even  famous  private  schools,  w^hich  are  ''  prtictised  upon  " 
and  often  superintended  by  untrained  young  persons  who  never 
gave  a  month's  study  to  their  profession  and  whose  work  must  be 
emphatically  "experimenting  upon"  children  and  youth.  But 
how  can  a  man  of  the  reputation  of  Professor  Payne  use  such  lan- 
guage concerning  the  practise  department,  as  it  is  now  found  in 
connection  with  all  but  a  vanishing  minority  of  the  Normal  and 
Training  schools  of  our  own  and  all  civilized  countries  ?  To  speak 
of  the  work  done  by  pupil  teachers  who  liave  abeady  had  and  are 
still  receiving  instruction  in  the  art  of  teaching,  under  the  con- 
stant supervision  of  experts,  the  whole  work  subject  to  a  daily 
searching  criticism,  in  such  contemptuous  terms,  seems  to  us  wide 
of  the  mark.  So  far  from  the  children  in  a  genuine  practise  school 
being  at  a  disadvantage,  there  is  probably  no  class  of  pupils  in 
elementary  schools  under  such  favorable  conditions  or  so  well  off 
as  they.  One  of  the  amazing  things  about  the  Academical  and 
College  mind  is  its  insistence  on  special  training,  illustrated  by  the 
largest  field  of  observation  and  experiment,  in  every  profession 
and  department  of  the  higher  culture  w^hile  holding  that  a  "  good 
general  education,"  w4th,  possibly,  the  addition  of  a  course  of  lec- 
tures and  lessons  from  a  Professor,  is  the  best  furnishing  for  the 
science  and  practise  of  pedagogy, —  the  most  profound  science  and 
difficult  profession  of  all. 


1888.]  EDITORIAL.  126 

A  GOOD  deal  of  the  talk  so  abundant  among  the  Industrial 
Education  fraternity,  concerning  the  feasibility  of  keeping 
up  the  standard  of  common  school  acquirement  with  a  variety  of 
manual  occupations  thrown  in,  leaves  out  of  account  the  capacity 
of  the  average  child,  under  twelve  or  fourteen,  for  concentrated 
work.  Certainly,  a  trained  mind  could  do  this  work  better  in  one- 
fourth  of  the  time.  But  this  is  just  what  an  elementary  school  is : 
an  arrangement  for  training  the  average  child,  who  is  "  all  afloat," 
into  some  orderly  and  persistent  use  of  his  faculties ;  training  him 
in  that  cautious,  gentle,  and  inevitable  way  that  will  save  him  from 
over-weariness,  confusion,  or  a  sense  of  huriy  and  worry.  Now, 
it  is  possible  that  the  mass  of  childi-en,  as  is  affirmed,  can  do  their 
present  school  work,  with  the  addition  of  a  new  and  trying  disci- 
pline, of  a  kind  that  thousands  of  them  have  in  too  great  abund- 
ance at  home.  But  let  us  remember  that  children  must  have  "  a 
longer  rope  "  than  college  students ;  must  be  favored  and  worked 
with  by  all  the  devices  that  patient  skill  can  employ ;  and  that 
whatever  is  done  in  this  new  department  must  be  so  handled  as 
to  avoid  that  rage  for  getting  a  man's  and  woman's  work  out  of  a 
child  which  is  alike  the  insanity  of  an  ignorant  parent  and  an  edu- 
cational crank. 

"VTT'E  expect,  of  course,  that  the  average  politician  and  journal- 
V  V  ist  will  be  found  incapable  of  considering  toth  sides  of  any 
question  of  national  importance.  But,  when  the  great  statesman 
from  Texas,  and  a  journal  like  the  New  York  Nation,  are  found 
together,  reiterating  the  stupid  misapprehension  or  misrepresenta- 
tion, that  the  Blair  Educational  Bill  is  ''a  movement  towards 
concentrating  the  whole  common  school  system  of  the  country  in 
the  executive  branch  of  the  national  government,"  we  are  re- 
minded of  the  solemn  warning  of  Scripture  not  to  put  our  trust 
in  the  high  and  mighty  ones  of  the  land.  A  more  absurd  misstate- 
ment of  the  whole  scope,  intention,  and  application  of  this  meas- 
ure, can  hardly  be  conceived.  The  controversy  now  concerning 
National  Aid  to  Education  seems  to  be, —  How  long  can  ignorant 
or  mischievous  misrepresentation  outside,  and  the  shameless  pack- 
ing of  committees  inside  Congress,  hold  back  the  people  of  the 
United  States  from  giving  the  New  South  the  same  lielping  hand 
in  behalf  of  the  children  as,  for  the  past  half  century,  has  been 
extended,  with  such  boundless  liberality  and  blessed  result,  to  the 
New  Northwest  ? 


I 


126  EDUCATION,  [October, 


MIS  CELL  ANT. 

THREE  Removes  but  No  Fire.  —  This  office  was  moved 
from  3  Somerset  street  to  50  Bromfield  street,  December 
Ist,  1886.  We  first  secured  room  No.  10,  the  smallest  of  all  the 
rooms  on  the  floor.  Nine  months  later  No.  10  was  exchanged  for 
No.  14,  which  was  much  larger.  This  office  from  time  to  time, 
as  the  number  of  clerks  and  desks  increased,  appeared  to  grow 
smaller.  The  editor  and  one  clerk  did  all  the  business  at  first  in 
No.  10.  Then  a  second  clerk,  or  bookkeeper,  was  needed,  then  a 
proofreader,  a  little  later  a  subscription  clerk,  then  the  Teachers' 
Agency  required  a  manager,  an  office  boy  was  a  necessity,  and 
finally  a  business  manager  was  indispensable.  The  business  hav- 
ing entirely  outgrown  the  capacity  of  No.  14,  that  office  had  to  be 
abandoned  and  larger  accommodations  must  be  sought.  But  No. 
60  Bromfield  street  is  too  good  a  location,  the  building  is  too 
choice  a  one,  the  landlord  is  too  obliging,  the  tenants  too  good 
neighbors,  to  make  a  remove  from  tliis  location  at  all  agreeable  to 
think  of.  No.  14  has  kept  us  as  long  as  it  was  possible  for  us  to 
stay  without  overflowing,  by  either  an  occupancy  of  the  adjoining 
hall  or  hanging  out  of  the  windows. 

But  patient  waiting  has  had  its  reward.  Mr.  Holt's  Normal 
Music  Hall,  No.  8,  was  the  largest  room  upon  the  floor,  and  that, 
being  vacated  for  more  commodious  quarters  elsewhere,  has  been 
thoroughly  fitted  up  to  accommodate  the  growing  business  of  the 
Eastern  Educational  Bureau.  No.  8  has  now  been  divided  into 
three  rooms,  with  a  large  space  for  merchandise  and  packing. 
The  main  office  is  large,  airy,  and  convenient.  It  has  a  cheerful 
lobby  cut  off  from  the  counting-room  by  a  rail  and  gate,  a  counter, 
large  bins  for  books,  and  a  roomy  closet  for  maps  and  charts. 
The  main  office,  or  counting-room,  has  six  desks,  a  Caligraph  and 
a  Remington  type-writer,  a  long  table  for  the  display  of  our  books 
and  magazines,  a  reading  desk  filled  with  our  educational  ex- 
changes, and  a  large,  handsome  case  for  samples  of  our  wall 
maps.  Space  will  permit  only  a  brief  mention  of  the  editor's 
room  and  a  consultation  room  for  the  Teachers'  Agency,  with 


1888.]  MISCELLANY,  127 

large  book-cases  filled  with  the  choicest  educational  literature, 
reference  books,  atlases,  etc.  We  shall  be  glad  to  show  our  new 
quarters,  with  all  their  attractions  and  conveniences,  to  every  one 
of  our  subscribers. 

Here  we  shall  have  better  accommodations  for  the  easy  and 
rapid  transaction  of  our  business  than  have  been  hitherto  enjoyed. 
With  six  other  educational  establishments  in  the  same  building 
this  may  very  properly  be  considered,  what  many  now  regard  it, 
the  ^^Educational  Headquarter%^^  of  this  city. 

Thanking  our  numerous  patrons  for  past  favors  and  respectfully 
soliciting  their  patronage  for  the  future,  it  will  be  our  determin- 
ation to  furnish  to  teachers  and  educators  of  all  grades  the  best 
aids  and  the  most  important  means  of  improving  the  teaching  in 
our  schools  possible. 

THE  attention  of  teachers  is  hereby  called  to  the  Bibliography 
of  Current  Periodical  Literature  in  each  month's  issue  of 
Education.  It  is  probably  safe  to  say  that  never  before  was  so 
much  space  in  general  periodical  literature  devoted  to  educational 
topics  as  at  the  present  time.  Of  the  one  hundred  and  seventeen 
articles  mentioned  in  our  bibliography  this  month,  a  large  number 
treat  of  strictly  educational  topics.  Many  others,  though  nomi- 
nally upon  other  subjects,  contain  much  of  interest  and  value  to 
teachers.  The  aim  is  to  have  this  bibliography  mention,  in  addi- 
tion to  strictly  educational  articles,  the  most  important  articles 
upon  Psychology,  the  science  upon  which  the  art  of  teaching  is 
based ;  upon  Political  Economy  and  Sociology,  sciences  in  which 
every  philanthropic  and  patriotic  teacher  should  he  interested ; 
upon  Literature,  of  which  every  teacher  must  know  something ; 
and  also  upon  topics  of  general  interest  in  Science,  Philosophy, 
Ethics,  and  the  like. 

It  is  hoped  that  such  a  bibliography  will  be  of  use  to  many  teach- 
ers and  pupils.  Most  good  teachers  have  some  subject  in  which 
they  are  especially  interested,  and  desire  to  see  the  latest  words 
written  upon  the  subject.  But  few  teachers  have  access  to  the 
large  number  of  periodicals  that  our  bibliographer  considts  each 
month.  Yet  if  they  only  know  just  where  a  particular  subject  is 
treated,  it  is  an  easy  matter  to  order  from  some  bookseller  a  single 
number  of  the  periodical  containing  the  desired  article.     Some  of 


128  EDUCATION,  [October. 

the  best  educational  articles  are  found  in  out-of-the-way  places, 
and  even  if  teachers  have  access  to  large  libi-aries,  they  often  lack 
the  time  needed  to  hunt  through  a  list  of  magazines.  Again,  in 
academies  and  high  schools,  teachers  are  often  besieged  by  pupils 
preparing  for  compositions  or  debates  who  inquire  where  informa- 
tion upon  this  subject  or  that  can  be  found.  In  many  cases  the 
pupils  may  find  assistance  by  turning  to  the  files  of  Education 
and  consulting  this  department.  This  bibliography  is  the  most 
expensive  part  of  this  magazine,  but  the  editor  desires  to  keep  it 
up,  provided  it  is  properly  appreciated  and  proves  useful.  He 
will  be  pleased  to  hear  from  any  who  find  it  of  value. 

THE  Final  Report  of  the  Royal  Commission  on  Education  in  Eng- 
land has  been  made  and  published.  This  report  is  from  the  Com- 
missioners appointed  to  examine  into  the  sj'stem  upon  which  Elementary 
Education  is  conducted  in  that  country*.  There  was  a  majority  and  a 
minority  report.  The  question  of  religious  instruction  receives  s|>ecial 
attention.  They  very  strongl}'  commend  **the  religion  which  our  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  has  taught  the  world  *'  as  the  only  safe  foundation  on  which 
to  construct  a  theory  of  morals,  or  to  secure  high  moral  conduct,  and 
they  look  to  the  Bible  as  the  ''  inspired  source  for  the  sanctions  by  which 
men  may  be  led  to  practise  what  is  there  taught,  and  for  instruction  con- 
cerning the  help  b}'  which  they  ma}'  be  enabled  to  do  what  they  have 
learned  to  be  right."  They  say,  *'  In  some  board  schools  the  provision 
for  religious  training  is  very  meagre,  but  in  very  few  is  Christianity  ex- 
cluded altogether.  A  great  increase  is  noted  in  the  number  of  voluntary 
schools  in  which  the  whole  basis  of  education  is  religious." 

The  system  of  payment  by  results  seems  to  give  them  much  trouble. 
It  would  seem  that  great  efforts  have  been  made,  especially  b}'  the  teach- 
ers, to  do  awa}'  with  this  miserable  plan,  but  hitherto  without  avail. 
Mr.  George  Givling,  formerly  president  of  the  National  Union  of  Ele- 
mentar}'^  Teachers,  writes  a  bright  letter  to  the  Morning  Post,  London, 
of  late  date,  in  which  he  says  :  — 

*'  For  years  the  teachers  of  the  country  have  been  ])ointing  out  the  defects 
of  the  system  of  payment  by  results  as  applied  to  children,  and  have  shown 
how  destructive  the  system  i?  to  the  best  development  of  the  intelligence  of 
the  children  in  our  elenientjiry  schools.  The  National  Union  of  Elementary 
Teachers,  which  comprises  14,000  of  the  most  earnest  teachers  in  the  country, 
have  tried  every  possible  means  to  get  this  system  changed.  Petitions  have 
been  sent  to  the  Houses  of  Parliament,  IVcsldents  and  Vice-Presidents  of  the 
Committee  of  Council  have  been  approached,  members  of  Parliament  have 
heew  interviewed,  public  meetings  have  been  held,  literature  on  the  subject  has 
been  spread  broadcast  through  the  land,  evidence  has  been  given  before  the 
Ro3'al  Commission  on  Education,  and  yet  the  wretched  system  seems  as  vigor- 


1888.]  MISCELLANY.  129 

ous  as  ever.  It  is  exceedingly  ungenerous  to  make  a  cast-iron,  irrational  sys- 
tem, compel  the  teachers  to  work  in  it,  and  then  turn  round  and  say  the  teach- 
ers are  incapable.  The  teachers  of  the  country,  feeling  keenly  the  importance 
of  their  work,  and  realizing  intensely  the  truth  of  this  axiom,  ^  O'est  le  peuple 
qui  a  les  raeilleures  ecoles  qui  est  le  premier  peuple :  sUl  ne  Test  pas  aujourdhui, 
il  le  sera  demain '  have  done  all  they  could  through  their  organizations  to  bring 
about  a  better  state  of  things.  They  have  sent  some  of  their  number  to  study 
continental  systems,  and  their  representatives  have  come  to  the  same  conclusion 
that  Mr.  Matthew  Arnold  did  when  he  made  a  similar  Inquiry  on  behalf  of  the 
Government  —  viz.,  that  continental  systems  are  more  rational  than  ours.  De- 
velopment of  intelligence  Is  the  main  thing  considered,  and  not  the  securing 
of  accurate  but  mechanical  results.  The  teachers  of  England  and  Wales  are  so 
deadly  in  earnest  in  wishing  for  an  improved  educational  system  that  they  have 
agreed  to  raise  a  fund  to  try  and  place  a  practical  teacher  In  the  House  of  Com- 
mons, with  the  view  of  helping  to  influence  legislation  In  favor  of  a  more 
rational  scheme.'* 

Another  topic  which  this  writer  discusses  with  much  ability  is  the 
special  training  of  teachers.  His  ringing  words  should  have  great  weight, 
not  only  in  that  country^,  but  also  in  this  :  — 

^^  It  is  also  worth  while  considering  whether  the  State  Is  doing  sufficient  in 
the  training  of  teachers  for  our  elementary  schools.  There  are  a  number  of 
training  colleges  under  private  control,  but  subsidized  by  the  State.  Nearly 
fifty  per  cent,  of  our  teachers  never  enter  these  colleges.  Every  year  the 
Government,  b}'  means  of  an  examination,  admits  a  large  number  of  teachers 
who  have  never  been  to  college,  and  whose  educational  qualifications  cannot 
be  of  such  a  high  order  as  If  they  had  spent  two  or  more  years  In  special  study 
for  their  profession.  Many  managers  of  schools,  driven  by  the  poverty  of  the 
school  funds,  secure  these  teachers  at  a  lower  rate.  This  has  been  going  on  to 
such  an  extent  that  it  Is  exceedingly  difficult  to  place  the  trained  teachers  when 
they  leave  college.  In  fact,  the  better  you  are  qualified  for  your  work  educa- 
tionally the  more  dlfiicult  does  It  become  to  obtain  work.  On  the  Continent 
the  greatest  possible  care  Is  taken  to  train  teachers.  In  this  country  In  many 
cases  It  Is,  How  shall  we  secure  the  cheapest  teacher?  Thus,  there  are  3,000 
teachers  In  this  country  who  get  less  than  £50  a  year.  On  the  Continent  inspec- 
tors are  educators  cooperating  with  the  teachers.  Here  the  Inspectors  are 
merely  critics.  On  the  Continent  Inspectors  have  been  teachers ;  In  England 
they  are  gentlemen  of  birth  and  position,  who  have  never  entered  an  elementa- 
ry school  until  they  Inspect  one.  Many  of  them  are  amiable  and  accomplished 
gentlemen,  but  the  system  is  frequently  as  bad  for  them  as  the  teachers. 
They  are  grant  assessors  and  not  educators.  Reports  on  schools  by  men  who 
have  never  taught  must  necessarily  at  times  be  taken  cum  grano.  The  conten- 
tion of  the  teachers  for  a  long  time  has  been  this:  ^ Train  us  well  for  the 
work,  give  us  a  rational  system  and  fair-play,  and  we  will  make  the  education 
of  this  country  second  to  none  In  the  world.' " 

The  general  principles  of  education  are  the  same  in  both  countries. 
We  may  learn  some  practical  lessons  from  such  a  sharp  discussion  of 
these  important  topics.  Competent  teachers,  well  paid  in  schools  entirel}' 
free,  will  inevitably  produce  good  results.  But  the  moral  teaching  should 
have  a  high  place. 


130  ED  UCA  TIOX,  [October, 


REPORT  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES  COMMISSIONER 

OF  EDUCATION  FOR  1886-' 87, 

THE  annual  report  of  the  United  States  Commissioner  of  Education 
Is  the  most  comprehensive  work  of  the  kind  published  in  the 
world.  To  its  exhibit  of  home  conditions  a  summary  of  foreign  statis- 
tics is  added,  and  as  the  main  features  have  been  continued  for  above 
fifteen  years,  the  series  of  reports  forms  the  most  valuable  and  complete 
reference  book  upon  the  subject  treated  and  is  so  regarded  wherever  that 
subject  excites  attention.  Great  exertions  have  been  made  to  bring  the 
publication  as  near  as  |)ossible  to  the  date  of  the  information.  The 
report  for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1887,  is  alreadj'  in  print,  although  its 
general  circulation  must  be  deferred  for  some  time.  80  far  as  regards 
the  work  of  the  office,  greater  promptness  can  hardl}'  be  expected  in 
view  of  the  immense  amount  of  information  to  be  reduced  to  intelligent 
and  systematic  representation. 

STATE   SCHOOL    SYSTEMS. 

The  fullness  and  precision  of  the  statistical  exhibit  of  our  public  school 
systems  in  the  rei)ort  in  question  leave  no  chance  for  any  misunderstand- 
ing either  of  the  facts  or  of  their  bearings.  Perhaps  the  most  impress- 
ive lesson  to  be  drawn  from  them  is  the  fallacy*  of  totals  ;  it  is  certainl}'  to 
be  hoped  that  the  orators  who  love  to  conjure  with  these  deceptive  quan- 
tities will  heed  the  warnings  direct  and  indirect,  b}*  which  the  faithful 
statistician  has  endeavored  to  keep  his  figures  from  degenerating  into 
rhetorical  flourishes. 

For  example:  Table  17  shows  conclusively  that  the  increase  in  the 
school  population  of  the  United  States  during  the  last  decade  has  been 
surpassed  b}'  the  increase  in  public  school  enrolment,  and  that  the  latter 
has  been  greatly  exceeded  by  the  increase  in  expenditures.  Neverthe- 
less the  very  particulars  from  which  this  conclusion  is  derived  suggest 
the  possibility  of  decadence  in  the  most  flourishing  centres  of  the  sys- 
tem ;  for  while  there  has  been  an  absolute  increase  of  enrolment  in  every 
section,  when  enrolment  is  compared  with  the  i)opulation  six  to  fourteen 
years  of  age,  decrease  is  found  in  the  North  Atlantic,  the  North  Central 
and  the  Western  Divisions. 

The  table  indicated  is  indeed  one  of  the  most  valuable  contributions 
that  has  ever  been  made  to  the  statistics  of  education.  It  is  the  result 
of  a  searching  analysis  of  the  ten  years*  record  and  a  dispassionate  state- 


1888.]       BEPOBT  OF  U,  S.  COMMISSIONER  OF  EDUCATION.  131 


ment  of  what  is  thereby  disclosed.     The  following  brief  summary  it  is 
hoped  will  excite  in  every  reader  a  desire  to  know  the  full  particulars : 


■  Estimated  Popu- 
!    lation  6  to  14. 
!    Percentage  of 
I    Increase  in  ten 
:    years. 


North  Atlantic  Division 

South  Atlantic  Division.... 


South  Central  Division 
North  Central  Division 


Western  Division 


United  States 


Enrolment     Per-  Expenditure  Per> 


centage  of  in- 
crease in  ten 
years. 


centage  of  in- 
crease in  ten 
years. 


21.7 
50.4 
65.4 
51.1 
75.9 
41.1 


The  comparison  of  the  first  and  second  columns  in  the  foregoing  table 
gives  the  following  ratio  of  increase  or  of  decrease  in  the  number  of  chil- 
dren enrolled  to  ever}'  one  hundred  children  6  to  14  years  of  age. 

Per  Cent. 

North  Atlantic  Division Decrease,    9.3 

South  Atlantic  Division Increase,  25.3 

South  Central  Division Inirrease,  34.1 

North  Central  Division Decrease,    1.7 

Western  Division Decrease,   8.0 

The  United  States Increase,    1.6 

The  phenomenal  increase  in  school  enrolment  in  the  Southern  States 
is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  public  school  system  is  of  recent  adoption  in 
that  section.  As  stated  in  the  report,  '*The  actual  proiK)rtion  of  chil- 
dren enrolled  in  the  public  schools  is  still  at  the  present  time  less  in  the 
South  than  in  the  North.  If  the  extension  of  the  public  school  system 
in  the  South,  however,  should  continue  at  the  marvelous  and  unpre- 
cedented rate  it  has  exhibited  during  the  past  decade,  the  two  sections 
would  be  placed  nearly  on  an  equal  footing  in  this  respect  (though  not 
in  regard  to  length  of  school  term)." 

Such  continuance  is  of  course  dependent  upon  the  growth  in  material 
prosperity.  The  slight  decrease  in  the  expenditure  per  capita  of  enrol- 
ment in  the  two  Southern  divisions  shows  how  heavily*  the  school  burden 
already  presses  upon  the  tax  payers.  The  child  population  here,  it  must 
be  remembered,  bears  a  much  greater  ratio  to  the  adult  population  than 
in  the  North  and  West,  and  the  funds  for  educating  both  the  whites  and 
the  colored  people  are,  and  for  some  time  to  come  must  be,  supplied 
mainly  by  the  whites. 


132  EDUCATIOX.  [October, 

While  the  record  of  the  decade  has  been  thoroughly  and  impartially 
discussed  in  the  report  before  us,  the  information  for  the  current  year 
will  be  found  as  exhaustive  as  in  previous  reports.  We  note  in  passing 
that  the  total  public  school  enrolment,  as  made  up  from  the  latest  data 
attainable,  is  11,805,660.  In  respect  to  the  proportion  of  children  en- 
rolled, the  North  Central  States  take  the  lead,  having  121  pupils  in  the 
public  schools  for  every  one  hundred  children  6  to  14  years  of  age.  In 
the  South  Atlantic  States  the  corresponding  ratio  is  89  and  in  the  South 
Central  States,  79. 

The  total  average  attendance  for  the  United  States  is  7,571,416. 
This  is  emphatically  one  of  the  totals  which  has  little  meaning  apart 
fh)m  the  particulars  on  account  of  the  varying  average  of  the  several 
States  and  the  causes  of  such  variance.  As  compared  with  1885-86, 
the  greatest  increase  in  average  attendance  is  obser>'able  in  the  South. 
It  is  not  only  remarkably  large,  but  exceeds  the  increase  in  enrolment,  a 
very  satisfactory  evidence  of  the  growing  appreciation  of  public  schools  in 
southern  communities.  The  total  amount  expended  for  common  schools 
in  the  United  States  during  the  year  1886-87,  was  •115,103,886.  This 
it  is  stated  was  equivalent  "to  an  average  expenditure  of  81.99  per 
capita  of  total  population  ;  $10.27  per  capita  of  (X)pulation  6  to  14  years 
of  age,  and  $15.40  per  capita  of  average  attendance.  The  schools  were 
kept  open  a  moan  length  of  135  da^'s  so  that  each  dollar  expended  fur- 
nished about  nine  days'  schooling  on  an  average. 

PRIVATE    INSTITUTIONS    FOR    SECONDARY   AND    SUPERIOR   INSTRUCTION. 

The  great  activity  at  the  present  time  in  all  classes  of  private  and 
endowed  institutions  gives  especial  interest  to  the  chapters  of  the  rei>ort 
in  which  these  are  treated.  It  is  indeed  a  fortunate  circumstance  that 
the  official  report  as  originally  developed  by  General  Eaton  included  in 
its  scope  all  scholastic  agencies.  Meagre  and  defective  and  incongruous 
as  the  information  supplied  by  individual  institutions  has  often  been,  the 
persistent  call  for  it  has  brought  about  a  fair  degree  of  order,  uniformity, 
and  significance  in  its  tabulation.  Many  a  private-venture  school  has 
been  saved  from  utter  confhsion  as  to  its  own  status  by  the  mere  act  of 
reporting,  while  the  relation  between  steady  patronage  and  unwavering 
standards  on  the  one  hand  and  financial  soundness  on  the  other  has  been 
demonstrated  in  the  continued  record  of  endowed  secondary  and  superior 
schools.  Eighteen  private  secondar}*  schools  for  boys  and  107  for  both 
sexes  report  endowment  funds  ranging  from  $1,500  to  $800,000,  twenty- 
one  of  the  number  being  above  850,000  each. 

There  are  eight  endowments  which  upon  a  five  per  cent,  investment 
would  vield  as  rich  an  income  as  the  fund  which  the  lamented  Edward 
Thwing  found  at  his  disi)osal  for  the  development  of  *'  Uppingham"  and 


1888.]       REPORT  OF  U.  S.  COMMISSIONER  OF  EDUCATIOX.  133 

seven,  whose  incomes  would  bear  comparison  with  those  of  the  famous 
"  nine  public  schools  of  England." 

The  varied  outcome  of  these  endowments  is  well  shown  in  the  Com- 
missioner's report  by  the  classification  of  pupils  with  respect  to  certain 
leading  studies.  Of  the  seven  schools  having  largest  endowments,  one 
is  essentially  "classical";  one,  essentially  ''modern";  one  has  an 
English  division  and  a  classical  division  about  equal  in  vigor,  while  io 
the  remaining  four,  the  division  is  between  a  classical  course  and  a  sci- 
entific course  with  French  and  German.  These  are  free  schools  in  the 
highest  scholastic  sense  of  the  word. 

The  representation  of  the  superior  institutions  of  learning  in  the  United 
States  forms  as  usual  one  of  the  most  impressive  features  of  the  annual 
report.  Under  this  general  head  arc  included  colleges,  schools  of  sci- 
ence, professional  schools,  and  universities.  The  experiment  made  in 
1885-'86  of  giving  separate  tabulation  to  the  foundations  particularly 
distinguished  by  university  features,  or  which  have  been  organized  and 
maintained  as  State  universities,  is  here  carried  into  full  effect.  This  is 
an  arrangement  of  double  advantage ;  it  facilitates  the  study  of  the 
foundations  specified  and  prevents  the  reduplication  of  particulars. 

The  comparative  view  of  the  undergraduate  work  of  colleges,  Table  46, 
shows  that  for  the  country  at  large,  sixty  per  cent,  of  college  students 
are  in  degree  courses,  the  remainder  being  in  normal,  business,  partial, 
and  special  courses.  Of  the  students  in  degree  courses,  sixty-two  per 
cent,  are  in  the  classical  course ;  twenty-two  per  cent,  in  the  scientific 
course ;  eight  per  cent,  in  combined  classical  and  scientific  courses  ;  and 
eight  per  cent,  in  other  first  degree  courses.  With  the  present  status  of 
the  work  thus  clearly  defined,  it  will  be  comparatively  easy  in  the  fUture 
to  measure  the  force  and  rapidity  of  the  movement  away  fh)m  the  tra- 
ditional curriculum. 

The  statistical  exhibit  includes  also  the  results  of  an  important  study, 
showing  the  ratio  of  attendance  upon  colleges  and  scientific  schools  as 
compared  with  population  in  1875-76  and  in  1885-*86. 

The  populations  have  been  estimated  f^om  the  data  fhmished  by  the 
census  of  1870  and  of  1880,  and  the  attendance  from  the  reports  of  the 
office.     Students  in  preparatory  courses  have  not  been  included. 

As  regards  the  institutions  involved  in  the  discussion,  there  was  a 
decrease  of  nine  in  the  number  of  colleges  from  1875-76  to  1885-'86, 
and  an  increase  of  ten  in  the  number  of  scientific  schools.  The  attend- 
ance upon  the  smaller  number  of  colleges  in  1885-86  exceeded  the 
attendance  in  1875-'76  by  7,072,  or  twenty-seven  per  cent. ;  the  attend- 
ance upon  both  colleges  and  scientific  schools  increased  by  8,950,  or 
twenty-eight  per  cent. ;  whilst  the  increase  in  the  estimated  population 


184  EDUCATIOX,  [October, 

was  11,355,972,  or  twenty-five  per  cent.  In  other  words,  as  compared 
with  the  increase  of  population,  college  attendance  showed  the  slight 
excess  of  1.52  per  cent.,  and  attendance  upon  both  colleges  and  scien- 
tific schools  an  excess  equivalent  to  2.4  per  cent. 

The  statistics  are  given  in  full  for  each  State  in  the  table  before  us, 
and  are  placed  in  comparison  with  a  similar  showing  published  in  Doc- 
tor Bow's  review  in  1857. 

ALASKA. 

The  limits  of  this  article  preclude  further  attention  to  the  details  of 
the  Commissioner's  report.  In  his  general  statement  Colonel  Dawson 
presents  the  results  of  his  personal  inspection  of  the  educational  wants 
and  prospects  of  Alaska,  tc^ether  with  an  interesting  account  of  its 
physical  and  social  aspects. 

The  plan  devised  by  him  for  the  establishment  and  conduct  of  Alaskan 
schools  and  adopted  by  Secretary  Lamar  is  given  in  Chapter  III.  of  the 
current  report.  This,  with  the  Commissioner's  tour  of  observation,  has 
inspired  new  hope  io  the  devoted  friends  of  education  in  that  distant 
Territory.  a.  t.  s 


THE  TEACHER* S  INDEPENDENT  STUDY  OF 

HISTORY. 

THE  successAil  teacher  of  history,  doubtless,  should  do  much  origi- 
nal investigation.  He  who  receives  the  statements  of  the  ordi- 
nary school  textbook  and  relies  implicitly  upon  them  without  fhrther 
study  and  a  carefbl  comparison  of  authors  and  authorities  will  scarcely 
be  expected  to  awaken  much  enthusiasm  in  the  minds  of  his  pupils  in 
the  study,  or  to  stimulate  in  their  minds  an}'  great  degree  of  interest  in 
the  investigation  of  the  annals  of  the  past  for  the  purpose  of  determin- 
ing what  is  truth.  The  great  good  that  will  come  f^om  the  discussion 
of  Mr.  Travis's  teaching  concerning  Tetzel's  indulgences  will  be  a  truer 
and  more  just  appreciation  of  the  real  facts  of  the  history  of  the  reforma- 
tion by  the  whole  community. 

But  it  is  the  duty  of  the  teacher  to  study  with  care  and  to  weigh  with 
accurate  appreciation  the  various  data  upon  which  the  verdict  of  history 
is  made  up.  Especially  is  this  true  of  the  history  of  our  country.  No 
nation  of  the  wide  world  has  more  romance  connected  with  its  past  record 
than  the  United  States  of  America.  No  section  of  the  whole  earth  has 
more  marvelous  adventures  bound  up  in  its  history  than  North  America. 
In  the  records  of  no  other  nation  in  modern  times,  or  ancient,  can  be 


I 


1888.]  THE  TEACHERS  STUDY  OF  HISTORY.  135 

found  more  true  heroism,  more  skillful  diplomacy,  a  wiser  statesmanship, 
or  more  rapid  and  astonishing  progress. 

Until  recently  it  has  been  more  difficult  than  is  desirable  to  get  at  the 
sources  of  information  sufficiently  to  enable  the  ordinary  teacher  to  make 
up  his  mind  intelligently  in  reference  to  some  of  the  great  questions  that 
have  agitated  our  country  in  the  past.     It  is  not  a  little  remarkable  that     * 
the  best  history  of  our  American  Revolution  was  written  by  an  Italian.'^ 

Another  of  the  most  accurate  and  reliable  histories  of  this  eventful 
period  was  written  from  Roxbury,  Mass.,  in  a  series  of  letters  to  friends 
in  Great  Britain,  by  an  English  clergyman,  during  the  progress  of  the 
war.^ 

The  origin  and  development  of  our  Federal  Constitution  is  a  study  of 
the  most  vivid  interest  and  of  the  first  importance,  but  how  few  have 
access  to  the  necessary  books,  or  even  know  what  they  are.  I  have  no 
hesitation  in  saying  that  every  teacher  of  our  government  ought  to  have 
at  his  side  a  copy  of  "  Towle's  Analysis  of  the  Constitution,"  of  '*  P^Ui- 
ott's  Debates  "  on  the  Federal  Constitution,  in  five  volumes,  and  a  copy 
of  the  Revised  Statutes  of  the  United  States. 

It  is,  however,  only  of  late  that  the  most  valuable  work  for  all  teach- 
ers and  students  of  the  history  of  our  country  has  been  placed  before  the 
public.     Indeed,  it  is  not  yet  completed.     Six  volumes  are  now  out,  the 
first  and  the  eighth  yet  remaining  to  be  published.     I  refer  to  Justin  t^ 
Winsor's  '*  Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  America. "^ 

The  seventh  volume  of  this  most  valuable  work  is  just  published,  and 
forms  part  second  of  the  history  of  the  United  States.  It  treats  of  (1) 
The  Political  Struggle  and  Relations  with  Europe,  by  Edward  J.  Lowell, 
(2)  The  Peace  Negotiations  (1782-3)  by  Hon.  John  Jay,  (3)  The  Con- 
federation, by  the  Editor,  (4)  The  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  by 
George  Ticknor  Curtis,  (5)  The  History  of  Political  Parties,  by  Pro- 
fessor Alexaader  Johnston,  (6)  The  Wars  of  the  United  States,  by 
James  Russell  Foley,  and  (7)  The  Diplomacy  of  the  United  States,  by 
Pres.  James  B.  Angell.  Each  one  of  these  divisions  of  the  work  is  sup- 
plemented by  editorial  notes  or  a  critical  essay  upon  sources  of  informa- 
tion, by  the  editor,  and  in  an  appendix  the  editor  and  Professor  Chan- 
ning  discuss  The  Territorial  Acquisitions  and  Divisions. 

1  History  of  the  War  of  the  Independence  of  the  United  States  of  America.  By  Charles 
Botta.  Translated  from  the  Italian  by  George  Alexander  Otis.  PhUadelphia :  Printed 
for  the  Translator.    1820.    SvoIh.    Octavo.    Scarce. 

*  The  History  of  the  Bise,  Progress,  and  Establishment  of  the  Independence  of  the 
United  States  of  America;  Including  an  account  of  the  late  war  and  of  the  Thirteen 
Colonies,  ftom  their  origin  to  that  period.  By  William  Gordon,  D.  D.  New  York: 
Printed  by  Hodge,  Allen  &  Campbell,  and  sold  at  their  respective  bookstores.  1789. 
3  volumes.    Scarce. 

>  Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  America,  edited  by  Justin  Winsor,  Librarian  of 
Harvard  University.  Eight  volumes.  Boston:  Houghton,  MifHin  &  Co.  Vol.YII.  The 
United  Stetes  of  North  America.    Part  IE.    Pp.  610.    Price,  $5JM)  a  volume.  • 


136  EDUCATION.  [October, 

Altogether  this  volume  probably  sheds  more  light  upon  the  important 
portions  of  our  history  than  any  other  within  my  knowledge.  It  is  im- 
mensely enriched  by  the  editor's  almost  exhaustless  references  to  authori- 
ties. As  an  illustration,  on  opening  to  a  single  page  relating  to  the 
wars  of  the  United  States,  more  than  eighty  references  to  historical  au- 
thorities are  found,  many  of  them  referring  not  merely  to  the  book  but 
the  page.  Probably  these  references  to  authorities  arc  more  exhaustive 
than  can  be  found  elsewhere.  Still  another  feature  of  great  value  is  the 
almost  endless  illustrations  by  copies  of  maps  and  engravings,  and  these 
from  almost  all  sorts  of  sources ;  e.  g.,  from  old  books,  newspapers, 
manuscripts,  foreign  sources,  and  in  all  respects  exhibiting  a  familiarity 
with  original  sources  of  information  startlingly  surprising. 

Perhaps  the  most  exhaustive  and  valuable  of  the  many  excellent  papers 
of  this  volume  is  that  by  Hon.  John  Jay  upon  '*  The  Peace  Negotiations 
of  1782-3." 

It  may  be  doubted  whether  any  treat}"  of  peace  was  ever  signed  by 
the  representatives  of  two  nations  involving  greater  interests,  or  sur- 
rounded with  greater  difficulties  and  exhibiting  greater  diplomatic 
skill.  The  distinguished  men  who  represented  our  government  in  this 
transaction  were  John  Adams,  John  Jay,  and  Benjamin  Franklin.  The 
question  whether  the  proper  balance  of  credit  to  the  three  has  been  pre- 
served, we  may  not  yet  be  able  to  determine.  Some  will  be  disposed  to 
believe  that  Franklin's  giant  intellect,  entire  familiarity  with  the  subject 
in  hand,  and  his  long  acquaintance  with  the  peculiarities  of  the  French 
and  the  Spanish  would  incline  him  to  seize  upon  their  covert  plans  against 
our  interests  more  readily  and  with  more  tenacity  than  Mr.  Jay  exhibits 
to  us  in  this  article.  Indeed,  many  previous  accounts  have  given  more 
credit  to  Doctor  Franklin  than  is  here  done.  It  would  seem,  perhaps, 
as  is  indicated  by  Theodore  Lyman  in  his  first  volume  on  ^^The  Diplo- 
macy of  the  United  States,"  pp.  118-123,  that  Doctor  Franklin  earlier 
came  to  see  the  true  position  of  France  and  Spain  in  regard  to  our  west- 
ern boundaries  than  Mr.  Jay  indicates.  Mr.  Lyman  gives,  page  121, 
the  incident  of  Jay's  breaking  his  pipe  as  having  reference  to  the  begin- 
ning of  the  understanding  between  Franklin  and  Jay  that  they  should 
treat  with  Mr.  Oswold  concerning  the  boundaries  without  the  knowledge 
of  the  French  government,  and  that  this  proposition  came  from  Doctor 
Franklin. 

At  all  events,  this  discussion  of  the  treaty  of  peace  is  a  masterly  pre- 
sentation of  the  facts  of  that  important  matter,  and  displays  in  a  singu- 
larly clear  manner  the  distinguished  ability  of  our  diplomatists.  I  cannot 
do  less  than  to  commend  most  heartily  this  book  to  the  careful  study  of 
all  teachers  and  students  of  the  history  of  our  country. 

W.   A.    MOWRT. 


1888.] 


BIBLIOORAPHT. 


137 


BIBLIOGRAPHT  OF   CURRENT  PERIODICAL    LIT- 
ERATURE   UPON  EDUCATION. 


The  following  bibliography  of  current  periodical  literature  includes  articles  upon 
education  and  other  subjects  calculated  to  interest  teachers.  Only  articles  from  peri- 
odicals not  nominally  educational  are  mentioned.  Articles  of  special  importance  to 
teachers  will,  as  a  rule,  be  mentioned  in  notes. 


AeschyluR,  The  Prometheus  of. 
Part  II.  William  Cranston  Lawton. 
Atlantic  Monthly^  September. 

Alcohol  Habit,  Increase  of  the.  Dr. 
E.  C.  Spitzka.     Forum,  September. 

America,  Some  Recent  Crititiism  of. 
Theodore  Roosevelt.  Murray* s  Maga- 
zine, September. 

Animal  and  Plant  Lore.  II.  Mrs. 
Fanny  D.  Bergen.  Popular  Science 
Monthly,  September. 

Arnold,  Matthew,  The  Poetry  of. 
Miss  Vida  D.  Scudder.  Andover  Be- 
view,  September. 

A  valuable  criticism. 

Art.  A  Letter  to  a  Young  Gentle- 
man who  Proposes  to  Embrace  the  Ca- 
reer of  Art.  Robert  Louis  Stevenson. 
A  Letter  to  the  Same  Young  Gentle- 
man. Will.  H.  Low.  Scribner's,  Sep- 
tember. 

Art  Education.  W.  J.  Stillman. 
Century,  September. 

An  ''  Open  Letter." 

Art,  The  American  School  of.  J. 
Duraud.  New  Princeton  Beview,  Sep- 
tember. 

Association,  Proceedings  of  the 
American.     Science,  August  31. 

A  report  in  the  Physics  Section  con- 
tains many  recommendations  in  re- 
gard to  the  teaching  of  Physics. 

Astronomy.  Sidereal,  Old  and  New. 
II.  Edwards.  Holden.  Century,  Sep- 
tember. 

Australian  Lesson,  An.  Edward 
Pulsford.  Nineteenth  Century,  Sep- 
tember. 

Belief  and  Conduct.  Leslie  Stephen. 
Nineteenth  Century,  September. 

Bologna  University,  The  Centenary 
of.  Professor  Holland.  Macmillan's, 
September. 

Boston  Mobs  before  the  Revolution. 
Andrew  Preston  Peabody.  Atlantic, 
September. 

Byron.  Professor  C.  T.  Winches- 
ter.   Methodist  Beview^  September. 


Chamisso  ais  Naturforscher,  Adel- 
bert  von.  E.  du  Bois-Reymond. 
Deutsche  Bundschau,  September. 

Chaucer  and  the  Italian  Renaissance. 
Francis  Turner  Palgrove.  Nineteenth 
Century,  September. 

Children,  The  Rights  of.  Mary  C. 
Tabor.  Contemporary  Beview,  Sep- 
tember. 

A  forcible  argument  for  better  laws 
in  England  for  the  protection  of  chil- 
dren. The  writer  says :  *'  Under  re- 
cent legislation,  a  horse  or  dog  has 
better  legal  safeguards  against  his 
owner's  neglect  or  cruelty,  than  can 
be  claimed  for  the  little  child  who  is 
born  into  the  ^  custody  *  of  drunken, 
dissolute,  or  brutal  parents." 

China:  A  New  Departure.  R.  S. 
Gundry.  Westminster  Beview,  Sep- 
tember. 

An  account  of  the  memorial  of  the 
present  Cabinet  of  China  advising  the 
introduction  of  ^^Mathematics"  into 
the  competitive  examinations,  with  an 
examination  of  the  claim  that  Western 
science  had  its  root  in  Chinese  astron- 
omy. 

Cincinnati,  A  Literary  Symposium 
on.  M.  F.  Force,  W.  H.  Venable,  et 
al.  New  England  Magazine,  Septem- 
ber. 

College  Fraternities.  John  Addison 
Porter.     Century,  September. 

Collegiate  Education,  Modem.  Cen- 
tury, September. 

Common  School  Education*  Prob- 
lems in.    Andover  Beview,  September. 

An  editorial  discussion  of  the  report 
of  the  Royal  Commission  which  has 
recently  examined  the  workings  of 
public  and  private  schools  in  England. 

Compromise.  Is  there  ^^  No  Reason 
for  a  Compromise? "  Rev.  Patrick  F. 
McSweeney.  Catholic  World,  Septem- 
ber. 

Answer  to  an  article  in  the  Christian 


138 


EDUCATIOX. 


[October. 


Union  in  regard  to  religion  in  the  pub- 
lic pchools. 

Conscience,  The  New.  II.  D.  Lloyd. 
North  American  Reviexc^  September. 

An  appeal  for  the  laborer. 

Continental  Cougreps.  First  Year  of 
the.  John  Fiske.  Atlantic  Monthly^ 
September. 

Cooperative  Stores  for  Ireland.  Hor- 
ace Curzon  Plunkett.  Nineteenth  Cen- 
tury, September. 

Democracy,  President  Eliot  on 
American.     Our  Day^  August. 

From  Phi  Beta  Kappa  Address,  Har- 
vard University,  June  29,  1888. 

Descartes.  Prof.  J.  P.  Gordy.  Meth- 
odist Review  J  September. 

DiHlcctique  sociale,  I>a  (fin).  G. 
Tarde.    Revue  Philosophiqne^  August. 

Dichtung,  Eine  Geschichte  der 
roiniftchen.  Ivo  Bruns.  Preussische 
JahrbUcher^  August. 

A  review  of  the  first  volume  of  Otto 
Ribbeck*s  Geschichte. 

Drawbaugh,  Daniel.  H.  C.  Merwin. 
Atlantic  Monthly^  September. 

Eighteenth  Century  Abbe,  An.  E. 
Lynn  Linton.  Fortnightly  Review^ 
September. 

Empfindung.  Ueber  Begriff  und 
Elgenschaften  der  Empfindung.  I. 
A.  Weinong.  VierteljahrsschrQt  fur 
Wissenschaftliche  Philosophies  Drittes 
Heft. 

Etat,  'L,  moderne  et  scs  fonctions. 
I.  Paul  Ijcroy-Beaulieu.  Revue  des 
Deux  Mondes^  15  August. 

Explanation:  A  Ix)gica1  Study. 
Borden  P.  Bowne.  Methodist  Review^ 
September. 

Eye-Mindedness  and  Ear-Minded- 
ness.  Prof.  Joseph  Jastrou.  Popular 
Science  Monthly^  September. 

Suggestive  to  teachers. 

Factory  Life,  Studies  of:  Among 
the  Women.  Lillie  B.  Chace  Wyman. 
Atlantic  Monthly y  September. 

Fiction,  The  Fall  of.  Fortnightly 
Review^  September. 

Finalite,  La,  com  me  propricte  des 
^I6ments  psychiques.  Fr.  Paulhan. 
Revue  Philosphique^  August. 

Forestry  School  in  Spain,  The.  Na- 
ture^  September  6. 

Geldstrofe,  Die.  Amtsrichter 
Schmdlder.  Preussische  Johrbucher^ 
August. 

Geography.  Applied  Geography. 
J.  Scott  Keltie.  Contemporary  Review^ 
September. 

Points  out  some  of  the  ways  in 
which  geographical  knowledge  may 
be  applied  with  practical  results. 


Gladstone-Ingersoll  Controversy, 
The:  The  Church  its  Own  Witness. 
Cardinal  Manning.  North  American 
RerietCy  September. 

Greeki»,  'J'he  Modern.  'lliomaB  D. 
Seymour.     tScribner's^  September. 

ilygieue.  La  dys[>ep8ie  des  gens 
d'  esprit.  M.  Jalva.  Revue  Scifntif- 
iquf^  18  August. 

Immigration,  Control  of.  III.  Prof. 
Kichmond  M.  Smith.  Political  Science 
Quarterly,  September. 

Individuality  in  Teaching.  Century^ 
September. 

Industrial  Idea  in  Education,  The. 
Charles  M.  Carter.  Century ^  Septem- 
ber. 

Contains  an  account  of  the  method 
employed  in  manual  exercises  at  Quin- 
cy,  Mass. 

Jesuitirtm  and  our  Public  Schools. 
Prof.  L.  T.  Townsend.  Our  Day ^  Au- 
gust. 

Knights  of  Labor,  The.  Francis  A. 
Walker.  New  Princeton  Review^  Sep- 
tember. 

Korperschonheit,  Bemerkungen 
iil>er.  Fr.  Merkel.  Deutsche  Rund- 
schauy  September. 

Kunsthandwerk,  Das  deutsche,  auf 
der  nationalen  Ausstellung  zu  MUn- 
chen,  1888.  II.  E.  von  Berlepsch. 
Unsere  Zeit^  Neuntes  Heft. 

I^ndwirthschaft,  Zwichenhandel, 
und  Consum.  Heinrich  Adler.  Un- 
sere Zeity  Neuntes  Heft. 

Literary  Anodynes.  Andrew  Long. 
A>ir  Princeton  Review^  September. 

Literary  Immortality.  Prof.  J.  R. 
Seeley.  Contemporary  Review^  Sep- 
tember. 

Marriage.  Mona  Caird.  Westmin- 
ster Review. 

Marriage  Rejection  and  Marriage 
Reform.  Elizabeth  Rachel  Chapman. 
Westminster  Review,  September. 

Master.  An  Old.  Woodrow  Wilson. 
New  Princeton  Review.  September. 

A  study  of  Adam  Smith. 

Medical  School  and  University,  Some 
of  the  Advantages  of  the  Union  of. 
William  H.  Welch,  M.  D.  Yale  Re- 
view, September. 

Memories  of  Some  Contemporaries. 
Hugh  McCullo<;h.  Scribner^s^  Septem- 
ber. 

Mental  Science.  The  Effect  of  Prac- 
tice upon  Reading.  /Science^  Septem- 
ber 7. 

Mental  Traits  in  the  Poultry  Yard. 
Benjamin  Karr.  Popular  Science 
Monthly^  September. 

Metaphysique.    La  haute  m^tftphys- 


1888.] 


BIBLIOGRAPHY. 


139 


ique  con  temporal  De.  E.  Clay  et  Tol- 
stoi. La  morale  neobouddhique,  la 
carite  absolue.  Renouvier.  Critique 
PhUosophique^  Jul)'. 

Military  Genius.  General  Wolseley. 
Fortnightly  Beview^  September. 

Millet,  Jean-Fran9ois.  Mrs.  Henry 
Ady.     Nineteenth  Century^  September. 

Moglichkeit.  Ueber  den  Begriffder 
objectiven  Mogliohkeit  und  einlge  An- 
wendungen  desselben.  II.  J.  V. 
Kries.  Vierteljahrsschrift  fur  Wissen- 
•schoftliche  Philosophies  Drittes  Heft. 

More,  Henry,  The  Platonlst.  Ar- 
thur Benson.  Contemporary  Beview^ 
September. 

Music,  The  Place  of  Music  in  Cul- 
ture. J.  F.  Rowbotham.  National 
Beview.  September. 

Neuthomismus,  Der,  und  die  neuere 
Wissenschaft.  K.  Eucken.  Philo- 
^ophische  Monatshefte^  Heft^  u.  10. 

Nom.  Remarques  sur  V  Evolution 
logique  des  differentes  categories  du 
nom.  Paul  Regnaud.  Bevue  Philo- 
^ophique,  August. 

Opera.  Can  a  National  School  of 
Opera  Exist?  Florence  Lane-Fox.  Na- 
tional Beview^  September. 

Painters.  Boston  Painters  and 
Paintings.  III.  Wm.  Howe  Downes. 
Atlantic  Monthly^  September, 

Papier,  Le.  Ses  Materiaux  et  ses 
Emplois.  Edouard  Lullin.  Biblio- 
theque  Universelle  et  Bevue  Suifise^  Au- 
gust. 

Pensee,  L'organlsme  et  la  (fin).  J. 
Oardair.  Philosophie  Chreienne^  Au- 
gust. 

Pessimism  and  Recent  Victorian 
Poetry.  Henry  F.  Randolph.  New 
Princeton  Beview^  September. 

Pessimisme  Phllosophicjue,  Le,  et 
V  optimisme  Chretien.  Leo  Quesnel. 
Bihliotheque  Universelle  et  Bevue 
Suisse^  September. 

Pontes  contemporains  de  la  France. 
Iveeonte  de  Lisle.  Edouard  Rod.  Bih- 
liotheque Universelle  et  Bevue  Suisse^ 
September. 

Progress  from  Poverty.  Edward 
Atkinson.    Forum^  September. 

Psychologic.  Somnambulisme  pro- 
voque  a  distance.  M.  Dufay.  Bevue 
JScientidque^  25  August. 

Psychologic  der  Komlk.  II.  Th. 
Lipps.  Philosophische  Monatshefte^ 
Heft  9  u.  10. 

Psychology,  The  New.  J.  H.  Hys- 
lop.  New  Princeton  Beview^  September. 

Public  Schools.  What  Shall  The 
Public  Schools  Teach?  Prof .  H.  H. 
Boyesen.    Forum^  September. 


It  is  the  writer's  "  conviction  that 
our  public-school  system  will  sooner 
or  later  have  to  be  radically  remod- 
eled.^' It  is  academic.  It  should  be 
industrial.  ^^It  kindles  an  ambition 
in  them  which,  in  nine  cases  out  of 
ten.  is  destined  to  be  disappointed,  and 
engenders,  as  a  consequence,  discon- 
tent and  disaffection  toward  the  state 
which  fails  to  satisfy  the  expectations 
it  has  aided  in  arousing.'* 

Punjab  University,  The.  Moulvi 
Abd-ur-rashtd.  Asiatic  Quarterly  Be- 
vieWj  July. 

Puritanism.  The  Historic  Forces 
which  gave  rise  to  Puritanism.  Will- 
iam L.  Kingsley. 

Rabelais,  sa  vie  et  son  OBuvre.  Paul 
Stapfer.  II.  Bihliotheque  Universelle 
et  Bevue  Suisse^  August. 
•  Raumfrage,  Zur.  I.  G.  Heymans. 
Vierteljahrsschri/t  fur  Wissensch<{fU 
liche  Philosophies  Drittes  Heft. 

Redstart,  Home  Life  of  the.  Olive 
Thorne  Miller.  Atlantic  Monthly^ 
September. 

Many  teachers  may  find  this  delight- 
ful sketch  of  bird  life  valuable  In  their 
reading  classes. 

Religion's  Gain  from  Science.  Dr. 
T.  T.  Munger.    Forum^  September. 

A  valuable  article.  The  writer 
maintains:  that  ^^ science  has  deep- 
ened reverence  " ;  that  it  "  has  taught 
religion  to  think  according  to  cause 
and  effect " ;  that  it  *•  has  delivered  re- 
ligion from  its  heaviest  incubus,  su- 
perstition " ;  that  it  ^^  has  put  religion 
upon  the  track  of  the  important  truth 
that  moral  laws  are  natural  laws"; 
that  it  ^Ms  delivering  religion  from 
the  miserable  habit  of  defending  doc- 
trines and  supposed  truths  because  of 
their  apparent  usefulness." 

Rhetorical  Pessimism.  Prof.  C.  C. 
Everett.     Forum^  September. 

Roman  Catholic  Parochial  Schools. 
Joseph  Cook.     Our  Day^  August. 

Prelude  to  a  Boston  Monday  Lec- 
ture. 

School  Attendance  in  the  United 
States.     Science^  August  24. 

From  the  report  (now  In  press)  of 
the  Commissioner  of  Education. 

Sensation,  The  Objective  Cause  of. 
III.  The  Sense  of  Smell.  Prof.  John 
Berry  Haycroft.    Brain^  July. 

Shakespeare's  Wisdom  of  Life. 
Prof.  E.  Dowden.  Fortnightly  Beview, 
September. 

Sill,  Edward  Rowland.  Elizabeth 
Stuart  Phelps.      Century^  September. 

Simplicity  as  a  Test  of  Truth.    Her- 


140 


EDUCATION. 


[October, 


bert  Patnam.     Unitarian  Beviete^  Sep- 
tember. 

Social  and  Political  Mirages.  James 
PartOD.     Forum^  September. 

Social  Discontent,  Causes  of.  F.  D. 
HuDtinffton.    Forum^  September. 

Socialism  through  American  Spec- 
tacles. Gen.  Lloyd  S.  Bryce.  iV7ne- 
teenth  Century^  September. 

Socialisme  d*  Auguste  BlanquI,  Le. 
(suite  et  fln;.  F.  Pillon.  Critique 
Fhilo8ophiqtte^  August. 

Spanish  Novel,  The  Modern.  Paul 
Sylvester.  National  Beview^  Septem- 
ber. 

States,  Inequality  of  the.  William 
A.  Dunning.  Political  Science  Quar- 
terly^ September. 

State  Socialism.  John  Rae.  Con- 
temporary Beview^  September. 

Stigmatization.  lie  v.  Richard  Wheats 
ley.      Popular  Science  Monthly^  Sep- 
tember. 

Story-Telling  in  the  East.  Profess- 
or I^yce.  National  Beview^  Septem- 
ber. 

Technical  College.  The  Glasgow 
and  West  of  Scotland  Technical  Col- 
lege. Henry  Dyer.  Nature,  August 
30. 

Technical  Education,  Lord  Arm- 
strong and.  Sir  Lyon  PI  ay  fair.  JVtn«- 
teenth  Century^  September. 

Tolstoi.  Count  Tolstoi's  Life  and 
Works.  Westminster  Beview,  Septem- 
ber. 

Trusts,  Economic  Aspects  of. 
Greorge  Gunton.  Political  Science 
Quarterly,  September. 

University  and  the  Bible,  The.  T. 
T.  Munger.     Century,  Septembf^r. 

An  argument  for  biblical  instruction 
in  the  colleges. 

Uppingham.  An  Ancient  School 
worked  on  Modern  Ideas.  George  R. 
Parkin.     Century,  September. 


*^  Justice,  then,  which  means  ade- 
quate individual  training  for  each  boy, 
is  the  central  idea  of  Uppingham,  and 
all  the  arrangements  and  inachinerv 
of  the  school  are  directed  to  this  eiid.^* 

Volante.  Quelques  remarques  sur 
la  theorie  de  la  volante,  de  M.  W. 
James.  Renouvier.  Critique  Philo- 
sophique,  August. 

Wales,  A  Week  in.  Julia  C.  R. 
Dorr.    Atlantic  Monthly,  September. 

West,  Studies  of  the  Great  West. 
III.  Memphis  and  Little  Rock. 
Charles  Dudley  Warner.  Harper^s, 
September. 

Mr.  Warner  gives  account  of  edu- 
cational institutions  in  places  that  he 
visits,  and  sometimes  makes  valuable 
suggestions.  In  regard  to  education 
of  the  colored  people,  he  says: 
"  Whatever  may  be  the  opinion  about 
the  propriety  of  attaching  industrial 
training  to  public  schools  generally, 
there  is  no  doubt  that  this  sort  of 
training  is  indispensable  to  the  colored 
people  of  the  South,  whose  children 
do  not  at  present  receive  the  needed 
domestic  training  at  home,  and  whose 
education  must  contribute  to  their 
ability  to  earn  a  living." 

Wieland's  "Goldener  Spiegel." 
Gustav  Breucker.  Preussische  Jahr- 
hiicher,  August. 

Women,  The  Social  Status  of,  in  In- 
dia. L.  R.  de  Fonblanque.  Fort- 
nightly Beview,  September. 

Women  who  go  to  College.  Arthur 
Gilman.     Century^  September. 

Work-Girl's  Diary,  Pages  from  a. 
Miss  Beatrice  Potter.  Nineteenth  Cen- 
tury^ September. 

Writing  Machines  for  the  Blind. 
Arthur  Good.  Popular  Science  Month- 
ly, September. 


1888.]  AMONG  THE  BPOKS.  141 


AMONG    THE  BOOKS. 

Live  Topics  in  Education.  No.  1.  Ought  Textbooks  to  be  supplied  flnra- 
tuitously  to  all  Children  in  the  Public  Schools.  By  Uomer  B.  Sprague.  Chi- 
cago :    8.  R.  VVinchell  &  Co.    Price,  10  cents. 

Colonel  Sprague  gave  an  address  ten  years  ago  upon  this  topic  before  the 
Massachusetts  Teachers'  Association,  and  another  last  July  before  the  National 
Educational  Association.  They  arc  both  in  this  little  pamphlet.  The  address 
at  San  Francisco  has  the  ring  of  a  polished  orator  and  a  sound  educator. 

A  History  of  the  United  States  and  its  People.  For  the  Use  of 
Schools.  By  Edward  Eggleston.  New  York:  D.  Appleton  &  Co.  1888. 
Pp.  398. 

The  schools  owe  much  to  the  publishers  for  the  attractiveness  of  textbooks. 
It  is  a  question  whether  we  are  not  putting  upon  them  too  lavish  a  finish, 
and  spending  too  much  money  in  their  make-up.  But  it  is  certain  that  some 
of  them  are  simply  sumptuous.  Among  such  must  surely  be  reckoned 
this  new  applicant  for  the  favor  of  the  public.  Text  and  type,  illustrations 
and  colored  plates,  maps  and  portraits,  paper  and  printing  —  all  are  superb. 

But  it  is  in  the  author^s  work  after  all,  that  the  book  excels.  In  clearness  of 
style  and  vivacious  interest  it  is  superior,  yet  the  chief  charm  of  the  book  is 
in  its  contents.  The  great  facts  upon  which  our  success  as  a  nation  has  de- 
pended form  the  skeleton,  but  the  flesh  and  blood  are  the  graphic  portrayal  of 
the  manners  and  habits  and  customs  of  the  people,  so  skilfully  and  enticingly 
displayed.  The  arrangement  of  topics  so  as  to  keep  the  student^s  attention 
and  exhibit  cause  and  effect  and  the  progress  of  civilization  is  admirable.  The 
history  and  development  of  civilization  are  kept  constantly  before  the  pupil. 
The  invention  of  the  steamboat,  railroads,  the  telegraph,  the  telephone,  the 
growth  and  expansion  of  our  country,  the  increase  in  the  comfort  of  our  peo- 
ple, the  uses  of  labor-saving  machinery,  all  are  topics  so  admirably  brought 
out  as  to  interest  and  instruct  the  pupil  to  a  far  greater  extent  than  would  be 
possible  with  the  most  graphic  accounts  of  the  battles  of  Palo  Alto  and  Cerro 
Gordo.  It  is  eminently  a  teaching  book  and  its  maps  are  numerous,  well  exe- 
cuted and  admirably  calculated  to  give  ^^  a  geographical  body  to  an  historical 
Boul.^'  The  illustrations  are  part  and  parcel  of  the  teaching  apparatus.  Illus- 
trations of  cojstumes,  manners.  Implements,  arms,  jewels,  vehicles,  and  inven- 
tions are  valuable  in  proportion  to  their  truthfulness.  Doubtless  these  have 
cost  the  author  quite  as  much  labor  and  study  and  research  as  the  text  itself. 
The  study  of  our  institutions,  our  government,  the  Constitution,  Is  made  promi- 
nent. The  biographical  sketches  placed  In  separate  type  in  the  body  of  the 
page  are  vastly  more  important  and  useful  than  if  put  in  a  subordinate  posi- 
tion at  the  bottom  of  the  page.  This  book  is  strongly  to  be  commended  to  all 
teachers  of  American  history. 

The  Congregational  Year  Book.  1888.  Congregational  Publishing  So- 
ciety. 

This  large  octavo,  containing  403  pages,  is  full  of  what  Robert  B.  Thomas's 


142  EDUCATION.  [October, 

Almanac  used  to  call  (as  read  by  an  old  farmer  )  '*  New,  Useful,  and  Everlast- 
ing (entertaining)  Matter/'  It  gives  an  account  of  over  four  thousand  churches, 
and  ministers,  with  nearly  half  a  million  members,  representing  more  than  two 
hundred  and  fifty  thousand  families.  It  is  a  handy  bdols  to  have  around  the 
house. 

Potter's  New  Elementary  Geography.  Designed  for  Primary  and  In- 
termediate Classes.  By  Eliza  II.  Morton.  Teachers' edition.  126  pp..  Quarto. 
Philadelphia :    John  £.  Potter  &  Co.    1888. 

Of  making  new  geographies  there  ^^seemeth  to  be  no  end.*'  This  one 
is  another  ^^new  departure."  It  has  a  teacher's  edition  and  a  pupil's  edition. 
The  teacher's  edition  tells  ^^Just  what  objects  to  employ  in  connection  with 
each  lesson,"  by  which  to  illustrate  that  specific  lesson.  The  teacher  is 
evidently  to  do  much  of  the  preliminary  work  in  getting  the  pupil  interested 
in  the  subject.  The  physical  side  is  made  prominent.  ^^  The  pupil  is  taught 
to  outline  each  lesson  by  topics  and  to  recite  from  the  same.  This  gives  em- 
ployment and  increases  the  power  of  thought." 

Cassell  &  Co.  have  lately  published  in  their  National  Library  Series  the  fol- 
lowing books:  No.  122.  Coriolanus.  By  William  Shakespeare.  No.  123. 
Areopagitica.  Letter  on  Education,  Sonnets  and  Psalms,  by  John  Milton. 
No.  124.  Essays  on  Goethe.  By  Thomas  Carlyle.  No.  125.  King  Richard  II. 
By  William  Shakespeare.  No.  126.  Plato's  Crito  and  Phaedo.  Dialogues  of 
Socrates  before  his  deatli.  No.  127.  The  Victories  of  Love,  and  other  Poems. 
By  Coventry  Patmore.  No.  128.  First  Part  of  King  Henry  IV.  By  William 
Shakespeare.  No.  129.  The  Old  English  Baron.  By  Clara  Reeve.  No.  130. 
The  Diary  of  Samuel  Pepys,  from  November,  1668,  to  end  of  Diary.  No.  131. 
Plutarch's  Lives  of  Pyrrhus,  Camillus,  Pelopidas,  and  Marcellus.  No.  132. 
Essays  and  Tales.  By  Joseph  Addison.  No.  133.  Lives  of  the  English 
Poets,  Addison,  Savage,  Swift.  By  Samuel  Johnson,  LL.  D.  No.  134.  Sec- 
ond Part  of  King  Henry  IV.  By  William  Shakespeare.  No.  135.  Essays  and 
Tales.  By  Richard  Steele.  No.  136.  Marmion;  A  Tale  of  Flodden  Field.  By 
Sir  Walter  Scott.  No.  138.  The  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor.  By  William 
Shakespeare.  These  volumes  are  10  cents  a  number,  and  the  subscription 
price  per  year  is  $5.00. 

My  Aunt's  Matchmaking,  and  other  stories  by  popular  authors.  CasselTs 
"  Rainbow  Series,"  New  York ;  Cassell  &  Co.  For  sale  by  De Wolfe,  Fiske 
&  Co.    Price,  25  cents. 

This  book  under  the  title  of  ^*  My  Aunt's  Matchmaking,''  contains  sixteen 
interesting,  bright  and  crisp  stories.  ITie  book  is  one  which  will  be  valued  as 
a  recreation  for  many  weary  moments,  and  can  be  picked  up  and  a  story  read 
at  any  time.  The  stories  are  wholesome  as  well  as  attractive.  They  are  writ- 
ten by  popular  authors  and  well  deserve  a  place  in  such  a  book  and  such  a 
series  of  '*  original  novels  "  as  are  found  in  the  "  Rainbow  Series." 

Semi-Centennial  Celebration  op  Mt.  IIolyoke  Seminary,  South  Had- 
ley,  Mass.  1837-1887.  Edited  by  Mrs.  Sarah  Locke  Stow,  of  '59.  Published 
by  the  Seminary.    1888.    Pp.  155. 

Mount  Holyoke  Seminary,  or  college,  which  is  to  be,  is  a  noble  institution, 
and  has  been  in  many  ways  specially  fortunate.  If  one  wishes  to  know  what 
the  higher  education  has  accomplished  for  American  women,  let  him  read  this 


1888.]  AMONG  THE  BOOKS.  143 

interesting  account  of  what  Mt.  Holyoke  has  done  in  fifty  years.  The  hi(>tory 
of  education  in  America  would  be  far  from  complete  without  important  refer- 
ences to  what  this  volume  treats  of.  Above  all,  the  reader  will  be  surprised, 
whoever  he  is,  at  the  long  list  of  distinguished  women  who  have  graduated 
at  this  institution.  The  young  women  of  today  are  to  be  congratulated  upon 
their  educational  advantages,  so  far  superior  to  what  wasofiered  their  grand- 
mothers fifty  years  ago.  But  one  is  tempted  to  ask  the  question,  Is  woman 
yet  equal  before  the  law,  in  social  life  and  educational  opportunities^  to  man? 

Physical  Development  ;  or  the  Laws  Governing  the  Human  System. 
By  Nathan  Allen,  M.  D.,  LL.  D.    Pp.  348.     Boston :    Lee  &  Shepard.    1888. 

Doctor  Allen  has  won  a  high  reputation  as  a  writer  upon  the  proper  devel- 
opment of  the  human  body  and  the  laws  that  govern  the  human  system. 
Among  the  man}'  good  things  in  this  book  the  attention  of  teachers  should  be 
called  to  the  following  chapters :  ^^  Early  Education,^'  ^'  Education  of  Girls,** 
*'True  Basis  of  Education,"  "College  Sports,"  and  '*The  New  England  Fam- 
ily." Doctor  Allen  wisely  says,  '*One  of  the  chief  causes  of  failure  in  educa- 
tion is  the  want  of  fixed  principles  as  guides,*'  and  discusses  elaborately  the 
injuries  that  result  from  "treating  all  children  as  though  their  organizations 
were  precisely  alike."  , 

Talks  on  Psychology  Applied  to  Teaching.  For  Teachers  and  Normal 
Institutes.  By  A.  L.  Welch,  LL.  D.,  Ex-President  of  Iowa  Agricultural  Col- 
lege.   New  York  and  Chicago :    E.  L.  Kellogg  &  Co.    Price,  60  cents. 

This  little  book  of  one  hundred  and  thirty-six  pages  solely  aims  to  help  the 
teacher  in  the  active  work  of  the  schoolroom.  Most  works  on  mental  science 
simply  propose  to  aid  in  getting  some  knowledge  of  the  subject  as  a  science, 
and  do  not  aim  at  practical  teaching.  We  feel  certain  this  book  has  a  mission 
among  the  elementary  teachers.  The  questions  that  follow  each  chapter  will 
prove  of  real  service.  The  type  is  large,  and  printing  and  binding  (cloth) 
plain  but  elegant. 

Lays  of  Ancient  Rome.  By  T.  B.  Macaulay.  Edited  with  notes  by  Wil- 
liam J.  Kolfe,  litt.  d.,  and  John  C.  Rolfe,  Ph.  D.  New  York:  Harper  ifc 
Brothers.     1888.     Pp.  199. 

Few  poems  are  so  well  adapted  for  school  study,  especially  for  the  study  of 
boys,  as  the  **  Lays  of  Rome."  The  full  notes  of  the  editors  will  be  found  of 
great  value  to  the  schools.  They  are  eminently  accurate,  critical,  scholarly 
and  of  the  highest  practical  type. 

Aristotle  and  the  Christian  Church.  An  Essay.  By  Brother  Azarlas. 
London :    Kegan  Paul,  Trench  &  Co.    1888.     Pp.  141. 

This  essay  was  read  at  the  Concord  School  of  Philosophy  in  1887.  It  discu<»se8 
the  relation  of  this  great  philosopher  to  the  Christian  church.  It  shows  very 
clearly  how,  and  in  what,  Christianity  rises  higher  than  philosophy.  "Specu- 
lation may  console  a  few  philosophers,  but  the  soothing  hand  of  Christian 
charity,  nerved  by  the  love  of  God  and  of  man  ♦  ♦  ♦  ♦  can  revive  expiring 
hopes,  calm  the  troubled  mind,  and  raise  a  soul  out  of  despondency"  into 
individual  perfection  and  sanctification. 

Civics  for  Young  Americans,  or  First  Lessons  in  Government.  By 
William  N.  Gritfln,  A.  M.     New  York :     A.  Lovell  &  Co.     1888.     Pp.  119. 

It  is  an  interesting  and  gratifying  fact  that  so  many  books  are  now  being 


144  EDUCATION.  [October, 

placed  before  the  American  public  designed  to  maice  us  more  familiar  with  the 
principles  of  our  government,  and  especially  for  use  in  the  suhools.  Mr.  Grif- 
fin is  a  successful  teacher  of  experience,  and  in  this  little  book  he  gives.  In 
plain  and  simple  language,  easy  to  be  understood  by  school  children,  an  inter- 
esting account  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  our  national  government. 

GiNX  &  Co.,  Boston,  are  beating  their  own  record  in  the  number  and  quality 

of  new  liDoks  issued  for  both  teachers  and  the  schools.    We  have  lately  received 

from  this  enterprising  hou^e  the  following:  — 

Introduction  to  the  Study  of  the  Middle  Ages.  From  the  Battle  of 
Adrianople  to  the  death  of  Charlemagne  (a.  d.,  378-814).  By  Ephraim  Emer- 
ton,  Professor  of  History  in  Harvard  University. 

'iliis  work  gives  in  simple  narrative  form,  an  account  of  the  settlement  of 
the  Germanic  peoples  on  Roman  soil,  the  gradual  rise  of  the  Prankish  suprem- 
acy, the  growth  of  the  Christian  Church  and  its  expression  in  the  monastic 
life  and  in  the  Koman  Papacy,  and  finally  the  culmination  of  all  in  the  Empire 
of  Charlemagne.  The  text  is  supplemented  by  maps,  lists  of  works  for  refer- 
ence, accounts  of  the  contemporaneous  material  on  which  the  narrative  is 
based,  and  suggestions  to  teachers  upon  topics  and  methods  of  special  study. 
It  will  be  of  great  service  to  teachers  of  history. 

CiGSAR*s  Army.  A  study  of  the  military  art  of  the  Romans  in  the  last  days 
of  the  Republic.  By  Harry  Pratt  Judson,  Professor  of  History,  University  of 
Minnesota.    Price,  91-10. 

This  work  will  prove  useful  to  students  of  Caesar,  and  to  those  interested  in 
military  science.  Each  point  is  presented  in  the  light  of  the  established  facts 
and  of  the  inferences  of  leading  specialists,  and  is  illustrated  by  comparison 
with  parallel  military  method:)  in  modern  armies.  There  is  also  a  large  num- 
ber of  cuts  and  diagrams.  In  this  way  a  clear  picture  of  a  Roman  army  is 
presented  so  that  the  evolutions  of  Ca)«^r*s  wars  may  have  a  definite  and  intel- 
ligible meaning.  Professor  Judson  has  evidently  devoted  a  greac  deal  of  time 
to  the  study  of  this  subject. 

Ancient  History  for  Colleges  and  High  Schools.  By  William  F.  Al- 
len and  P.  V.  N.  Myers.     1888.     Pp.  601).    31.25. 

This  is  a  beautiful  book,  finely  illustrated  by  maps  and  numerous  cuts,  throw- 
ing light  upon  the  various  parts  of  the  history  treated.  The  treatment  is  suf- 
ficiently full  and  appears  to  be  accurate. 

Entrance  Examination  Paters.    Compiled  by  Dr.  John  S.  White,  Head 

Master  of  tiie  Berkeley  School  of  New  York  City.  Price  to  teachers,  post 
paid,  91.25. 

These  papers  contain  analyzed  sets  of   recent  examinations  presented  by 

Harvard,  Yale,  Columbia,  and  Princeton  Colleges;  together  with  suggestions 

regarding  preparation  for  their  respective  examinations.    The  book  is  evidently 

intended,  not  merely  for  the  use  of  the  teacher,  but  also  quite  as  much  for  the 

pupil.     It  will  thus  be  found  suitable  as  a  textbook  in  the  upper  classes  of  all 

schools  that  prepare  for  college. 

I.ESSONS  IN  English,  adapted  to  the  study  of  American  Classics.  A  text- 
bonk  for  High  Schools  and  Academies,  liy  Sara  E.  H.  l^ockwoud.  1888. 
Pp.403.     Price,  ai. 25. 

Here  is  presented  to  the  American  teacher  one  of  the  best  books  for  practi- 
cal use  in  schools  as  an  introduction  to  the  study  and  use  of  good  literature. 
It  is  a  complete  textbook  on  rhetoric,  composition  writing,  and  the  history  of 
English  literature,     it  has  grown  out  of  the  best  work  in  the  schoolroom  and 


1888.]  AMONG  THE  BOOKS.  146 

Is  written  by  one  who  knows  both  how  to  teach  and  how  to  write.    Let  every 

teacher  of  this  subject  get  a  copy  of  this  boolc. 

Bench  Work  ik  Wood.  A  Course  of  Study  and  Practice,  designed  for  the 
use  of  schools  and  colleges.    By  W.  F.  M.  Goss.    Pp.  161.    Price,  75  cents. 

The  constantly  increasing  interest  in  manual  training  has  made  necessary 

new  textbootcs  upon  the  use  of  tools.    This  little  book  by  Professsor  Goss,  of 

Perdue  University,  has  grown  out  of  his  own  experience  and  needs  in  the 

class  room  and  at  the  bench.    The  book  is  well  written,  admirably  illustrated, 

and  will  prove  of  great  utility. 

Political  Science  Quarterly.  Edited  by  the  Faculty  of  Political  Sci- 
ence of  Columbia  College.  Vol.  3,  No.  3.  September,  1888.  Pp.  164.  Single 
copies,  75  cents ;  price  per  year,  $3.00. 

This  number  contains  five  valuable  articles,  including  an  interesting  histori- 
cal article  by  S.  6.  Fisher,  on  ^^  The  Suspension  of  Habeas  Corpus  during  the 
War  of  the  Rebellion.  This  article  discusses  the  right  of  the  President  to 
suspend  the  Habeas  Corpus  privilege,  and  will  be  found  a  valuable  discussion 
to  all  teachers  of  the  United  States  Constitution. 

Glnn  &  Co.  have  added  three  valuable  volumes  to  their  series  of  **  Classics 
for  Children."  They  are  "Arabian  Nights,"  edited  by  Edward  Everett  Hale, 
pp.  366,  price,  50  cents;  "Benjamin  Franklin*s  Autobiography,"  edited  for 
school  use  with  notes  and  a  continuation  of  his  life  by  D.  H.  Montgomery, 
pp.  311,  price,  50  cents;  and  ^^  Selections  from  Kuskln,  on  Reading  and  other 
subjects,^'  by  Edwin  Ginn,  with  notes  and  a  sketch  of  Ruskin's  life,  by  D.  H. 
M..  pp.  148.  These  books  are  remarkably  cheap,  well  printed,  well  edited,  and 
should  have  an  extended  use. 

Among  the  most  enterprising  and  successful  publishers  of  school  books  for 
teachers  are  D.  C.  Heath  &  Co.,  Boston.  Like  Ginn  &  Co.,  with  whom  Mr. 
Heath  was  formerly  associated,  this  young  firm  are  outdoing  themselves  the 
present  season  in  the  number  and  quality  of  books  issued.  From  among  those 
recently  published  we  find  the  following  upon  our  table:  — 

Seaside  and  Wayside.  No.  2.  By  Julia  McNair  Wright.  Illustrated. 
Pp.  175. 

This  second  number  in  the  series  of  ^^  Nature  Readers  ^'  takes  the  little  ones 

along  the  seaside  and  by  the  wayside,  soniAimes  upon  the  hills,  sometimes 

upon  the  marshes,  sometimes  upon  the  white,  hard  beach.    It  tells  the  children 

of  the  ant,  the  worm,  the  fly,  the  beetle,  the  barnacle,  the  starfish,  and  the 

dragon-fly.    ITiese  stories  are  well  written,  interesting,  and  of  great  value  to 

the  children.    The  b4||k  is  beautiful,  well  printed,  and  well  illustrated. 

Exercises  in  Enoush  Accidence,  Syntax,  and  Style.  By  H.  I.  Strang, 
Ontario. 

This  book  consists  of  a  great  variety  of  exercises  in  English  for  criticism 
and  correction.  Its  design  is  to  drill  the  pupils  orall}-  as  well  as  in  writing  in 
correct  forms  of  speech,  culling  their  attention  tu  common  errors  and  enlist- 
ing both  ear  and  eye  in  the  cause  of  good  English.  The  book  contains  nearly 
fifC}'  exercises  and  several  thousand  quotations. 

Another  of  Mr.  Heath's  republications  is  entitled  Composition  and  Rhet- 
oric by  Practice,  with  exercises  adapted  for  use  in  High  Schools  and  Col- 
leges.   By  William  Williams  B.  A.     Pp.  238. 

This  is,  on  the  face  of  it,  a  practical  book ;  not  that  it  excludes  theory,  but 
that  it  gives  prominence  to  practice.     It  combines  with  the  theory  much  prac- 


146  EDUCATION.  [October, 

tical  work  by  the  pupil,  well  arranged  and  systematized  with  safficient  explana- 
tion for  the  clear  understanding  of  what  is  needful  and  what  is  aimed  at. 

Ten  Years  of  Massachusetts.    By  Raymond  L.  Bridgham.    Pp.  1:27. 

This  singular  little  book  discusses  in  a  trenchant  manner  such  subjects  as 
•»  Public  Administration,"  **  Public  Morals,"  ''  Religious  Advance,"  **  Educa- 
tion," ^^  Society."  The  treatment  of  these  various  subjects  is  brief  and  pointed. 
The  author  sums  up  the  progress  made  in  the  Commonwealth  during  the  last 
ten  years  and  points  out  its  dangers.  His  conclusion  is,  that  *^  with  these  dan- 
gers to  its  children  and  to  its  adults,  it  promises  to  be  in  the  future  the  chief 
concern  and  pressing  problem  of  the  State  how  to  raise  men." 

Selected  PoKMS  FROM  Premieres  et  Nouvelles  Meditations.  Edited 
by  George  O.  Curme,  A.  M.,  Iowa.    Pp.  179.    Price,  75  cents. 

A  capital  selection  of  French  poems  for  school  reading,  with  full  notes  and  a 

very  interesting  biographical  sketch  of  M.  Lamartine. 

CoLLOQi'iA  Latina.  Adapted  to  the  beglnner*s  books  of  Jones,  Leighton, 
Collar  and  Daniell.  By  Benjamin  L.  D*Ooge,  M.  A.,  Michigan  Normal  School. 
Pp.  81.    Price,  30  cents. 

The  aim  of  this  book  is  twofold,  first  to  inspire  enthusiasm  at  a  time  when  it 
is  most  needed,  and  second,  to  insure  increased  thoroughness.  The  plan  of 
the  book  is  to  present  to  the  pupil  Latin  sentences  under  the  guise  of  question 
and  answer  in  such  a  way  as  constantly  to  increase  the  pupil*s  vocabulary  and 
his  knowledge  of  Latin  construction.  All  needed  help  is  given  by  means  of 
notes  and  questions,  llie  book  is  original  in  design  and  will  surely  prove  suc- 
cessful in  practice. 

The  Civil  Service  Question  Book.  Syracuse :  C.  W.  Bardeen.  1888. 
Pp.  282.    Price,  $1.60. 

The  extension  of  the  Civil  Service  System  till  it  has  become  the  only  avenue 
of  entrance  to  more  than  forty  thousand  positions,  has  made  necessary  a  col- 
lection of  questions  that  shall  enable  the  candidate  to  judge  beforehand  of  his 
fitness  to  enter  its  examinations.  None  of  the  many  *^  Question  Books  "  hith- 
erto published  serves  this  purpose.  This  book  will  be  found  throughout  some- 
thing more  than  a  4;ollection  of  questions.  The  four  hundred  classified  exer- 
cises in  English  Syntax  will  pr<^e  a  profitable  drill  for  any  one,  and  the  tables 
in  American  History  and  in  Civil  Government  are  of  value  in  every  school. 
This  book  Is  an  adequate  preparation  for  Civil  Service  examinations  held  any- 
where in  this  country. 

Ix)ngmans'  School  Geography.  By  George  C.  ClAholm.  M.  A.,  Fellow 
of  the  Koyal  Geographical  and  Statistical  Societies.  London :  Longmans, 
Green  &  Co. 

This  book  undoubtedly  embodies  a  greater  variety  and  larger  amount  of  relia- 
ble information  relating  to  the  geography  of  the  whole  world  than  can  else- 
where be  found  in  the  same  space.  It  is  a  most  valuable  reference  book  for 
every  teacher  of  geography,  and  contains  just  the  Information  which  every 
wide-awake  teacher  needs  to  supplement  the  material  usually  found  in  the  text- 
books. Especially  does  it  give  valuable  information  concerning  the  relations 
of  our  country  to  Europe.  For  example:  *'From  one-half  to  two-thirds  of  the 
wheat,  fiour,  maize,  raw  cotton,  and  live  cattle,  and  nearly  four-fifths  of  the 
meat  imported  into  the  United  Kingdom  came  from  the  United  States.^'  We 
commend  tliis  book  to  the  careful  attention  of  our  American  teachers. 


1888.]  AMONG  THE  BOOKS.  147 

Longmans'  School  Grammar.  By  David  Salmon.  London  and  New  York : 
Longmans,  Green  &  Co.    1888.    Pp.  264. 

Several  prominent  writers  have  lately  made  comparisons  between  the  meth- 
ods of  education  in  this  country  and  in  Europe,  not  always  altogether  in  our 
favor.  If  they  are  correct,  it  were  well  for  our  teachers  to  examine  carefully 
foreign  textbooks,  and  if  our  ambitious  authors  before  taking  up  their  pens 
would  give  critical  study  to  the  textbooks  of  Great  Britain,  it  wQuld  doubtless 
be  for  our  beneflt.  Longmans^  School  Grammar  is  not  an  old-fashioned  gram- 
mar, but  it  is  a  grammar^  and  it  embodies  the  latest  principles  of  teaching  and 
the  truest  methods  of  presentation.  The  parts  of  speech  are  first  considered 
with  an  immense  amount  of  practice.  Classiflcatlon  and  Inflection  constitute 
Part  2.  Part  3  treats  of  the  Analysis  of  Sentences,  and  Part  4  of  History  and 
Derivation.     Longmans'  New  York  ofllce  is  at  15  E.  16th  Street. 

Numbers  Symbolized;  an  Elementary  Algebra.  By  David  M.  Sensenig, 
M.  S.,  Professor  of  Mathematics,  State  Normal  School,  West  Chester,  Pa. 
New  York,  Boston  and  Chicago :    D.  Appleton  &  Co.    1888.    Pp.  315. 

Some  of  the  special  features  of  this  new  applicant  for  the  teacher's  favor 
may  be  mentioned :  ^^  Easy  transition  from  the  elementary  forms  of  reason- 
ing to  pure  mathematical  demonstration.'*  A  large  number  of  carefully  se- 
lected and  appropriate  examples,  both  for  oral  and  written  work.  A  fairly 
extensive  treatment  of  factoring;  an  early  introduction  of  the  equation,  and  a 
frequent  return  to  it.  The  explanations  of  algebraic  subtraction,  or  the  subject 
of  minus  quantities,  is  a  noticeable  feature.  It  would  be  a  very  dull  pupil  who 
would  not  be  able  to  understand,  ^^Tell  which  of  the  following  quantities  are 
positive  and  which  negative :  John  earns  910,  spends  $8,  Ands  ^9,  loses  $12, 
gives  a  poor  man  $5,  receives  a  reward  of  $6."  The  above  features  are  of  such 
importance  that  the  book  will  be  found  well  worthy  of  a  careful  examination 
by  any  wide-awake  teacher  of  Algebra. 

Academic  Algebra,  with  numerous  examples;  College  Algebra,  with 
numerous  examples.  By  Edward  A.  Bowser,  LL.  D.,  Professor  of  Mathemat- 
ics and  Engineering  In  Rutger's  College.  New  York :  D.  Van  Nostrand,  Pub- 
lisher, 23  Murray,  and  27  Warren  Streets.     1888. 

Doctor  Bowser,  in  these  two  volumes,  makes  a  valuable  addition  to  his  list 
of  Mathematical  Textbooks.  His  treatises  in  the  higher  mathematics  are 
somewhat  well  known,  and  the  appearance  of  these  new  books  indicates  that 
teachers  will  very  soon  have  a  better  acquaintance  with  his  methods. 
Among  the  features  flrst  noticed  might  be  mentioned  (1)  A  chapter  of  equa- 
tions and  problems  introduced  before  the  subject  of  factoring,  in  order  that 
the  student  may  ^^  see  and  feel  that  he  can  use  his  knowledge  to  some  practical 
end."  (2)  The  attention  given  to  factoring,  with  the  special  idea  that  *'  the 
student^s  flrst  thought  on  looking  at  an  equation  shall  be :  can  it  be  resolved 
into  factors."  (3)  The  large  number  of  examples,  carefully  graded,  and  de- 
signed to  give  the  teacher  a  chance  to  prevent  the  use  of  a  student's  note-book 
'*  key."  (4)  The  two  books  could  be  used  in  the  same  class,  if  it  were  of  any 
advantage  to  do  so,  when,  perhaps,  some  wished  to  pursue  the  course  farther, 
while  others  must  stop  with  the  elementary  part,  the  wordjng  being  exactly 
the  same  in  the  two,  the  dilference  being  simply  in  the  amount  of  ground  cov- 
ered. The  question  does  arise,  however,  whether  the  same  explanations  are 
required  for  academic  as  for  college  pupils.  The  publishers  are  making  no 
mistake  in  presenting  this  series  to  the  educational  world. 


148  EDUCATION.  [October, 

Descriptive  Geombtrt.  By  Lewis  Faunce,  AAsIstant  Professor  of  Descrip- 
tive Geometry  and  Drawing  in  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology. 
Boston :    Gin'n  &  Co.    1888.    Price,  31.35.    Pp.  54,  with  16  plates. 

This  will  be  found  to  be  a  practical  book.  This  is  the  especial  feature;  many 
practical  problems  are  given,  and  the  principles  of  Descriptive  Geometry  are 
applied.  The  design  is  to  furnish  a  work  for  draughtsmen  as  well  as  for  stu- 
dents. 

« 

Chemical  Problems.  By  J.  P.  Grabfleld,  Ph.  D.,  and  P.  S.  Burns,  B.  S., 
Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology,  Boston,  Mass.  Boston:  D.  C.  Heath 
&Co.    1888. 

The  title  of  the  work  indicates  the  contents.    Problems  in  Volumetric  and 

Gravimetric  computations  and  percentage  composition,  atomic  weights  (three 

methods),  reaction,  thermo-chemlstry,  etc.,  take  up  the  largest  part  of  the 

book,  while  the  rest  of  the  space  presents  what  teachers  need,  a  quite  complete 

list  of  ^^  Tech."  examinations  in  chemistry.    It  ought  to  be  in  the  hands  of 

every  teacher  of  chemistr}'. 

Popular  Physics.  By  J.  Dorman  Steele,  Ph.  D.,  F.  G.  S.,  author  of  "  Four- 
teen Weeks'  Series  "  in  Natural  Science.  Pp.  380.  New  York  and  Chicago : 
A.  S.  Barnes  &  Co. 

Teachers  need  no  introduction  to  the  ^^  Fourteen  Weeks'  Series,'"  and  all  that 
can  be  said  here  must  be  to  speak  of  the  revision  of  the  ^^  Fourteen  Weeks  in 
Natural  Philosophy."'  For  this  purpose,  a  few  lines  are  taken  from  the  Pub- 
lisher's Preface:  ^* Shortly  before  his  death,  finding  his  health  too  feeble  to 
permit  of  extra  labor,  the  author  requested  Dr.  W.  Le  C.  Stevens,  Professor 
of  Physics  in  the  Packer  Collegiate  Institute,  Brooklyn,  to  revise  the  textbook 
in  Physics,  as  important  advances  in  this  department  of  science  had  been  made 
since  the  issue  of  the  edition  of  1878.  In  performing  thia  work,  Professor 
Stevens  has  endeavored  to  impose  the  least  possible  modification  upon  the 
peculiar  style  of  the  author.  Nevertheless,  every  chapter  has  received  some 
alterations  and  slight  enlargement."  This  book  will  receive,  as  it  deserves,  a 
very  extended  sale.  Its  statements  are  remarkably  clear,  and  the  book  in  the 
hands  of  the  average  High  school  teacher,  for  use  with  the  average  class  of 
boys  and  girls,  will  give  great  satisfaction. 

GiNN  &  Company  have  issued  a  very  neat  and  attractive  catalogue  and  an- 
nouncement of  their  various  and  important  publications.  This  enterprising 
house  are  publishing  for  teachers  and  the  schools,  almost  daily,  new  books  of 
rare  value,  and  their  prices  are  remarkably  low.  Their  '*  Classics  for  Children  " 
hold  a  high  place  as  supplementary  readers.  Good  literature  is  the  great  ne- 
cessity for  the  public  schools. 

The  Massachusetts  Society  for  Promoting  Good  Citizenship  has  ju<t  issued  a 
report  of  great  value,  upon  *•  Works  on  Civil  Government.*'  It  gives  a  descrip- 
tive li:st  of  such  works  as  are  fitted  for  school  use.  It  m  ly  be  had  by  address- 
ing Kdwiu  D.  Mead,  71  Pinckney  Street,  Boston. 

The  Eighth  Annual  Report  of  the  Superintendent  of  Public  Schools,  Boston, 
has  some  interesting  chapters,  which  are  well  worth  a  careful  peiusal,  especially 
Mr.  Seaver's  remarks  upon  Courses  of  Study  and  Promotions. 


AMONG  THE  BOOKS. 


AMONG  THE  BOOKS. 


Tbe  folloniDj;  five  volumes  are  pub-  ' 
llohed  Id  Caaeell's  "  Sunshine  Series," 
Issued  weekly  by  CaSHell  &  Co.,  104 
and  108  Fourth  Avenue,  New  York, 
and  for  siile  In  Busion  by  Clarbe  &  . 
Carruth.  Price  RO  cents  each. 
The  Brown  Stone  Bov.    By  William  ' 

Henry  Bishop. 

This  book  contains  eight  stories  de- 
Ruriplive  of  queer  people,  or  taughnble 
Incidents  or  situations.  The  stories 
are  out  of  the  ordinnry  run  and  are 
written  Id  an  Interesting;  and  attrac- 
tive Myle. 
Bewitched:  A  Tale.    By  Louis  Pen- 

This  tale  of  the  South  haK  an  appro- 
priate title,  and  has  for  eharacters  the 
native  Southerner,  the  Spaniard,  and 
the  Nf);ro,  plHylng  on  their  supersti- 
tion" and  well  portraying  their  peculi- 
arities. Though  right  triumphs  In  the 
end.  It  is  only  by  force  of  might  and 
happy  uoincidences.  Two  shorter  arti- 
cles, '*  Arladoe  in  the  Wire  Grass,"  and 
"'ilie  Story  of  Black  Dan,"  are  ap- 
pended. 
No.   19  State  Street.     By   David 

Orahnm  Adee. 

Afew  words  taken  from  the  Prologue 
may  set  befure  the  reader  the  nature, 
at  least,  of  the  story.  '*  The  indorse- 
meot  ran  as  follows :  '  Full  Statement 
of  the  Mysterious  Discoveries  and  Ex- 
periences At  No.  is  State  Street,  in  the 
city  iif  New  York.'  Under  this  strange 
inscription  was  the  date  '  February  28, 
1IM5.'  At  the  foot  of  the  document, 
which  seemed  to  my  hasty  scrutiny  to 
cODtain  a  bulky  consecutive  recital, 
was  inscribed  the  signature,  'John 
Andrew  Cross,'  in  full.  It  is  this 
quaintly-told  tale,  so  startliug  and 
pecniiar,  which,  without  apology,  is 


herein  laid  before  the  reader,   with 
the  single  suggestion, —  was  John  A. 
Cross  ever  crnzyF" 
Madame  Silva.    Bv  M.  G.  McClel- 
land, author  of  '•  Oblivion,"  "  Prin- 
cess," and  "Jean  Montelth."    Pp. 
320. 

This  story,  like  so  many  modern  sto- 
ries, is  t.  peering  into  the  mysteries  of 
what  may  be  called,  for  lack  of  a  better 
word,  meeroerism.  It  is  an  account 
of  an  attempt  to  overcome  tbe  tnes- 
meric  Influence  that  enchained  a  wife, 
and  to  make  her  what  a  wife  ought  to 
be,  "  a  creature  to  love,  and  be  loved 
by ;  to  be  companion,  friend,  lover, 
comrade,  conscience,  aspiration,  lit- 
erally part  and  parcel  of  her  husband's 
being."  Bound  with  this  story,  Is  t, 
shorter  one,  entitled  "The  Ghost  of 
Dred  Power." 


This  novel  is  not  trashy,  vulgar,  or 
injurious.  It  is  written  ih  an  Interesting 
Btyleand  gives  some  very  good  descrip- 
tions o(  human  character. 

AQNE3  SuRRiAOE.  By  Edwln  Laa- 
aettlr  Bvnner.  Tlcknor  >>  Paper  Se- 
ries." Boston  :Tlcknor  A  Co.  Price, 
GO  cents. 

This  work  is  undoubtedly  one  of  the 
best  portrayals  of  New  England  coloni- 
al life  to  be  found  In  the  form  at  a  nov- 
el. I^tudents  of  early  Americanhlstory 
are  familiar  with  the  romantic  story 
upon  which  the  book  is  founded,  and 
will  recognize  many  of  the  events  as 
well-known  historical  facta.  The  au- 
thor has  given  a  very  striking  and 
clear  picture  of  New  Enghind  life, 
I  of  the  quaint  buildings,  narrow 
I  streets  and  lanes,  of  the  spirit  and 
of  the  people  of  a  hundred 


150 


EDUCATION. 


[October, 


and  fifty  yearn  ago.  Very  fascinating 
are  the  descriptions  of  the  Puritan 
towns. 

Saint  Peter  and  Tom:  or,  Two 
Unlikely  Heroes.  By  Belle  S. 
Cra^in.  Pp.196.  Price,  «1.00.  Bos- 
ton and  Ciiica^o:  Congregational 
Sunday-School  and  Publishing  Soci- 
ety. 

It  is  not  necessary  to  read  these  two 
boys^  stories  to  Itnow  something  about 
them.  The  titles  and  the  name  of  the 
publishers  would  inform  any  discern- 
ing reader  that  the  book  was  designed 
for  Sunday-School  Libraries.  l*erhaps 
this  is  not  a  recommendation  to  most 
readers,  still  it  ought  to  be.  This 
boolc  seems  to  belie  the  accusations  so 
commonly  made  against  stories  of  this 
class,  and  is  very  readable.  The 
two  boys  are  not  saints, —  Peter,  too 
flery-tempered ;  Tom,  too  dull, —  but 
they  won  places  for  themselves, 
both  in  the  good  opinions  and  in  the 
hearts  of  all  their  friends.  It  is  a 
very  boys'  book,  both  to  be  appreciated 
by  them  and  to  do  them  good. 

Incidents  in  a  Busy  Life.  An  Au- 
tobiography by  Asa  BuUard.  Bos- 
ton and  Chiciigo:  Congregational 
Sunday-School  and  Publishing  So- 
ciety.   1888.    Pp.  235. 

Xo  Sunday-school  worker  can  be 
found  who  does  not  know  of  the  ven- 
erable Asa  Bullard,  and  few  who  are 
not  aware  of  the  great  good  that  he 
has  done  for  the  young.  There  could 
be  no  more  fitting  time  for  the  publi- 
cation of  his  memoirs  than  the  pres- 
ent, Just  after  his  death,  and  while  so 
many  Sunday-schools  are  contributing 
to  the  ^*  Asa  Bullard  Memorial  Fund '' ; 
no  more  fitting  publishers  than  the 


Congregational  Sanday-School  and 
Publishing  Society,  and  all  would 
prefer  that  the  life  should  be  written 
by  Mr.  Bullard  himself.  All  will  be 
pleased  to  find  the  autobiography  pre- 
cedcHi  by  an  introduction  by  Dr.  Mc- 
Konzle  of  Cambridge,  and  followed 
by  the  memorial  address  of  M.  C. 
Hazard  of  Dorchester. 

Cookery  for  Beginners.  By  Mari- 
on Harland.  Boston:  D.  Lothrop 
Co.    Price,  75  cents. 

Any  boi>k  from  the  pen  of  Marion 
Harland,  and  particularly  one  on  the 
subject  of  cookery,  is  aiways  welcome 
to  the  American  housewife.  This 
book  is  perfectly  adapted  to  the  needs 
of  those  Just  begluning  to  learn  this 
valuable  art,  and  will  be  found  full  of 
useful  suggestions  to  those  who  are 
experts  in  this  line.  It  contains  just 
such  instruction  as  every  young  house- 
wife requires  when  she  finds  herself 
obliged  to  depend  upon  her  own  re- 
sources. 

Looking  Backward.  By  Edward 
Bellamy.  Ticknor  '*  Paper  Series." 
Boston :  Ticknor  &  Co.  Price,  50 
cents. 

This  startling  book  has  aroused  in- 
tense interest  among  the  people  at 
large,  and  is  read  far  and  near.  It  is 
a  book  which  thoughtful  and  serious- 
minded  people  are  now  reading  and 
discussing.  It  is,  in  reality,  a  long 
look  ahead,  given  under  the  fascinating 
aspect  of  a  backward  look  from  the 
year  2000,  A.  D.  ITie  social  system 
of  the  present  century  is  compared 
with  that  of  the  year  2000.  People 
interested  in  the  labor  question  will 
particularly  enjoy  this  book. 


GbUeTATIOR 

DEVOTED  TO  THE    SCIENCE,  ART,  PHILOSOPHY,  AND 

LITERATURE  OF  EDUCATION. 


Vol.   IX.  NOVEMBER,    1888.  No.   3. 

HOW  THE  FATHERS  BUILDED  IN  OHIO. 

BY  JAMES  H.  FAIRCHILD,  D.  D.,  PRESIDENT  OBEKLIN  COLLEGE. 

THE  first  movement  toward  the  establishment  of  a  college  within 
the  limits  of  our  State  was  made  by  the  Ohio  Land  Company^ 
organized  in  Boston  for  the  purpose  of  purchasing  lands  in  the 
Western  Territory  belonging  to  the  United  States,  and  of  pro- 
moting a  settlement  in  that  country.  In  their  contract  with  the 
general  government  in  1787,  it  was  provided  that  two  townshipa 
of  land  should  be  donated  by  the  government  for  the  establishment 
of  a  higher  institution  of  learning,  and  its  permanent  endowment. 
This  land  was  selected  and  definitely  set  apart  to  its  uses  in  1795^ 
eight  years  after  the  grant  was  made.  Seven  years  later,  in  1802^ 
an  act  was  passed  by  the  territorial  legislature  establishing  the 
"American  Western  University,"  in  the  town  of  Athens.  The 
following  year  the  State  government  was  organized,  and,  in  1804, 
the  legislature  of  Ohio  passed  an  act  changing  the  name  of  the 
institution  to  ''Ohio  University,"  and  defining  its  object  to  be 
"  the  instruction  of  youth  in  all  the  various  branches  of  the  liberal 
arts  and  sciences,  the  promotion  of  good  education,  virtue,  religion, 
and  morality,  and  conferring  all  the  degrees  and  literary  honors 
granted  in  similar  institutions."  In  1809,  twenty-one  years  after 
the  grant  was  made  by  the  general  government,  the  first  college 
instruction  was  given  in  the  University  of  Ohio,  and  six  years 
later,  in  1815,  the  first  degrees  were  conferred.  Thus,  almost  a 
generation  had  passed  before  the  hopes  of  the  far-seeing  men  of 
the  Ohio  Company  were  realized.     The  task  of  settling  the  new 


152  ED  VGA  TION.  [N  ovember , 

country  in  those  early  years  involved  many  more  pressing  labors 
than  that  of  organizing  and  carrying  forward  a  university.  The 
forest,  the  wild  beasts,  and  the  savages  must  first  be  looked  after. 
The  land  and  the  charters  must  bide  their  time. 

In  the  same  year,  1787,  in  which  the  Ohio  Company  made  their 
purchase  and  secured  their  grant  from  the  general  government,  in 
the  south-eastern  portion  of  the  State,  John  Cleves  Symmes,  chief- 
justice  of  New  Jersey,  descended  the  Ohio  River  as  far  as  the 
great  falls  at  Louisville,  and  was  attracted  by  the  fine  country  in 
the  neighborhood  of  what  was  afterward  Cincinnati.  He  con- 
tracted for  the  purchase  of  a  million  of  acres  from  the  general 
government,  and  in  connection  with  the  purchase  provided  for  the 
grant  of  a  township  of  land  for  the  support  of  an  academy  or  col- 
lege. This  township  was  not  finally  selected  and  located  until 
1803.  A  grammar  school  was  opened  upon  the  site  of  the  con- 
templated college  in  1818,  but  the  Miami  University  was  not 
organized  until  six  years  later,  in  1824.  Thus,  the  Miami  Uni- 
versity at  Oxford,  like  the  Ohio  University  at  Athens,  was  founded 
upon  a  grant  of  land  given  by  the  general  government,  and  in- 
tended as  a  permanent  endowment.  In  this  way  the  southern 
part  of  the  State  was  provided,  in  the  earliest  times,  with  its  higher 
educational  institutions. 

In  1824  the  Theological  Seminary  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal 
Church  at  Gambier,  in  the  central  part  of  the  State,  was  chartered 
by  the  legislature,  and  in  1826,  two  years  later,  by  a  second  act, 
the  professors  of  the  Seminary  were  empowered  to  act  as  the  fac- 
ulty of  a  college,  under  the  name  and  style  of  the  '"  president  and 
professors  of  Kenyon  College."  Two  weeks  after  the  date  of  the 
act  incorporating  Kenyon  College,  a  charter  was  granted  by  the 
legislature  to  "Western  Reserve  College,"  at  Hudson,  in  the  north- 
ern part  of  the  State.  No  other  college  charters  were  granted 
until  1832,  when  such  a  charter  was  granted  to  the  "Granville 
Literary  and  Theological  Institution,"  afterwards  called  Granville 
College,  and  later,  Denison  University.  Oberlin  College  received 
its  charter  in  1834 ;  Marietta  College  in  1835.  Thus,  within  thirty- 
three  years  from  the  organization  of  the  State,  we  find  seven  col- 
leges in  existence,  well  distributed  over  the  State.  This  would 
seem  a  reasonable,  or  at  least  a  sufficient  number,  even  for  a  State 
as  large  as  Ohio ;  and  some  of  these  seemed  to  crowd  upon  each 
other.     Oberlin  and  Hudson  were  scarcely  sixty  miles  apart;  Ma- 


1888. J  HOW  THE  FATHERS  BUILDED.  153 

rietta  and  Athens  about  the  same  distance,  and  Granville  and 
Gambier  only  forty  miles.  But  the  good  people  of  the  State  were 
not  able  to  content  themselves  with  seven  colleges.  These  col- 
leges were  organized  and  managed  by  religious  men,  with  special 
reference  to  a  supply  of  preachers  and  pastors  for  the  people,  but 
not  with  any  exclusive  purpose  of  this  kind.  Their  doors  were 
freely  open  to  all  students  without  any  discrimination,  and  no 
religious  tests  were  provided,  in  their  charters  or  articles  of  asso- 
ciation, for  trustees  or  faculty.  Kenyon  College  was  an  exception 
to  this  statement,  being  the  outgrowth  of  the  Theological  Sem- 
inary of  the  "Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  the  Diocese  of 
Ohio."  Granville  College,  although  ''the  child  of  the  Ohio  Bap- 
tist Education  Society,"  was  at  the  first  without  any  denomina- 
tional limitation  as  to  its  management,  but  such  limitations  have 
been  supplied  in  later  years.  But  the  remaining  five,  although 
free  from  any  denominational,  or  even  religious  character,  so  far 
as  charters  and  constitutions  were  concerned,  were  as  a  matter  of 
fact  under  the  controlling  influence  of  certain  denominations 
of  Christians. 

The  Ohio  and  Miami  Universities  were  organized  under  Presby- 
terian auspices,  and  were  thus  controlled  for  many  years.  Western 
Reserve,  and  Oberlin,  and  Marietta,  in  a  similar  way  sprung  from 
the  Presbyterian  and  Congregational  churches,  in  the  days  of  what 
was  known  as  the  "Plan  of  Union."  Yet,  I  suppose  that  not  one 
of  these  five  institutions  has  ever  had,  in  constitution  or  by-law, 
any  religious  test  for  trustees,  or  faculty,  or  students.  But  their 
origin  and  history  brought  them  denominational  support,  and  the 
denominations  which  sustained  them  received  in  return  the  benefit. 
This  was  an  inevitable  result.  As  other  denominations  attained 
a  larger  growth  in  the  State,  it  was  natural  that  they  should  feel 
the  need  of  such  advantages,  and  should  found  for  themselves  in- 
stitutions of  higher  education,  where  their  children  should  be 
trained  for  the  ministry  of  their  churches,  and  for  the  learned  pro- 
fessions generally. 

Thus,  I  believe,  all  our  colleges  founded  since  1835,  have  come 
into  existence  under  the  impulse  of  denominational  interest  and 
need,  except  as  local  enterprise  or  individual  ambition  has  operated 
here  and  there.  The  Ohio  State  University,  founded  on  the  Con- 
gressional land  grant  of  1862,  and  organized  and  controlled  by  the 
General  Assembly  of  the  State,  is,  of  course,  excepted  in  this  state- 


154  EDUCATION.  [November, 

ment.  But  these  institutions,  while  under  denominational  influ- 
ence and  control,  cannot  be  regarded  as  sectarian,  in  any  narrow 
sense.  Their  doors  are  freely  open  to  students  of  all  religious 
connections  and  of  none,  and  the  religious  instruction  and  influ- 
ence brought  to  bear  are  rarely,  if  ever,  characterized  by  sectarian 
narrowness.  It  would  seem  wiser,  from  a  theoretical  point  of  view, 
that  the  general  interest  should  have  been  concentrated  upon  a 
smaller  number  of  colleges,  instead  of  being  divided  among  twenty 
or  more.  It  is  easy  to  imagine  that  by  such  concentration  a  great 
institution  might  have  arisen,  of  wide  and  commanding  influence, 
but,  practically,  such  concentration  was  impossible.  The  time  for 
State  universities  had  not  arrived,  and  thus  Oliio  has  today  its 
twenty  or  more  colleges,  all  doing,  more  or  less  successfully,  the 
work  of  higher  education.  There  is  no  occasion  to  look  back  with 
regret  upon  this  apparent  division  of  strength;  what  was  possible, 
and  in  that  sense  what  was  best,  was  done.  It  is  not  clear  that 
the  people  of  Ohio  have  suffered  in  comparison  with  more  recent 
States  in  the  absence  of  a  State  university.  There  is  ho  evidence 
that  a  more  imposing  central  school  would  have  accomplished 
more  for  good  education,  morality,  and  religion  among  the  people ; 
and  this  is  the  real  test  of  what  is  best,  in  all  arrangements  for 
education.  The  American  idea  is  diffusion  rather  than  concen- 
tration. A  great  cathedral,  centrally  placed,  would  be  imposing; 
but  a  thousand  churches  gathering  their  worshippers  in  every 
neighborhood  would  be  more  useful.  At  all  events  the  educational 
machinery  of  the  State  cannot  be  reconstructed ;  we  must  do  the 
best  we  can  with  what  we  have,  and  that  will  not  be  doing  badly. 
It  is  not  improbable  that  the  number  of  our  colleges  may  be  re- 
duced upon  the  principle  of  "the  struggle  for  existence  and  the 
survival  of  the  fittest,"  but  there  is  no  occasion  to  hasten  such  a 
result. 

The  work  of  establishing  and  sustaining  these  colleges,  in  the 
comparative  poverty  of  the  people  before  the  development  of  the 
resources  of  the  State,  has  not  been  small.  Each  college  has  gath- 
ered about  itself  its  benefactors  and  patrons,  and  the  work  involved 
years,  and  in  some  cases  generations,  of  self-denying  labor,  on  the 
part  of  trustees,  and  faculty,  and  friends.  Back  of  every  one  of 
these  institutions  lies  a  history  of  patient  toil  and  self-sacrifice 
which  constitutes  a  precious  endowment.  It  does  not  appear  in 
the  statistical  tables  of  the  State  Commissioner,  but  it  counts  in 


1888.]  HOW  OUB  FATHERS  BUILDED.  155 

the  forces  which  form  the  character  of  the  people,  and  build  up 
the  State.  The  means  for  building  and  endowing  these  schools 
have  come,  in  general,  from  the  friends  interested  in  each  special 
enterprise.  In  a  few  instances  help  has  been  obtained  from  the 
older  East,  and  in  two  instances,  at  least,  —  Kenyon  and  Oberlin, — 
from  over  the  water.  With  the  exception  of  the  three  schools 
which  are  called  State  institutions,  all  that  the  State  government 
has  done  for  these  colleges  is  to  give  them  their  charters,  and,  with 
some  limitation,  to  abstain  from  taxing  their  grounds,  their  build- 
ings, and  their  endowments.  In  the  case  of  the  three  State  schools, 
the  State  government  became  the  trustee  of  the  land  grants  from 
the  general  government  upon  which  the  institutions  were  founded. 
In  the  two  earliest  cases  the  administration  of  this  trust  has  been 
matter  of  considerable  criticism.  In  later  y^ars  some  appropria- 
tions have  been  made  by  the  State  as  a  measure  of  compensation 
for  unsuccessful  administration  of  the  trust.  Moderate  appropria- 
tions have  also  been  made  in  recent  years  for  the  support  of  the 
Ohio  State  University  founded  on  the  Congressional  land  grant 
of  1852.  With  these  exceptions  the  colleges  of  Ohio  have  re- 
ceived no  help  from  the  State.  I  mention  this  as  an  historical  fact, 
and  not  as  a  matter  of  complaint.  It  is  probable  that  nothing  bet- 
ter, in  this  direction,  could  have  been  done.  The  relations  of  the 
State  to  the  higher  institutions  of  learning  in  this  country  are 
still  in  process  of  development. 

The  higher  education  of  the  young  women  of  Ohio,  was  at  first 
provided  for  in  the  establishment  of  "  female  seminaries,"  after  the 
model  of  similar  institutions  in  the  older  states.  The  schools  at 
Granville,  at  Steubenville,  at  Cincinnati,  at  Oxford,  and  at  Paines- 
ville  were  among  the  earliest  of  these,  which  still  hold  on  their 
way,  doing  their  good  work.  At  the  establishment  of  Oberlin 
College  the  i^lan  of  co-education  was  introduced,  and  young  women 
entered  upon  the  collegiate  course  in  1837,  and  received  the  de- 
gree of  A.  B.  in  1841,  —  the  first  instance,  in  this  country,  of  de- 
grees being  conferred  upon  young  women.  Since  that  time  the 
method  of  co-education  has  been  introduced  into  most  of  the  col- 
leges and  universities  of  the  State,  and  into  a  large  majority  of 
those  of  the  newer  states  of  the  West.  The  system  has  gone 
eastward  as  far  as  Boston,  and  is  even  making  headway  among 
the  institutions  of  the  Old  World.  If  there  is  merit  in  the  sys- 
tem, Ohio  may  properly  claim  the  honor  of  its  introduction.     The 


156  EDUCATION.  '  [November, 

large  majority  of  the  young  women  of  Ohio,  now  in  a  course  of 
higher  education,  are  pursuing  it  under  co-educational  arrange- 
ments. 

The  general  course  of  study  in  the  earlier  colleges  of  Ohio  was 
the  same  essentially  as  that  found  in  the  colleges  of  the  older 
States.  Yale,  Harvard,  Dartmouth,  and  Princeton  were  the  mod- 
els after  which  our  college  took  form.  It  was  thought  necessary 
that  a  student  should  be  able  to  pass  from  his  college  in  Ohio  to 
one  of  the  eastern  colleges,  entering  ad  euruJem^  and  this  was  often 
accomplished.  The  material  of  the  regular  curriculum  was  the 
Latin  and  Greek  classics,  Mathematics,  involving  Physics  and 
Astronomy,  Chemistry  and  a  touch  of  Natural  Science,  Psychology, 
Ethics,  and  English  Literature,  with  a  limited  packing  of  History 
and  other  specialties.  It  was  a  good  solid  course,  and  it  may  very 
reasonably  be  questioned  whether  anything  better  has  been  discov- 
ered in  our  day.  These  studies  are  still  the  backbone  in  every 
well-ordered  college,  but  the  modern  languages  and  the  newer 
sciences  have  come  in  to  claim  their  share  of  attention,  and  the 
old  college  course  has  become  greatly  diversified  with  optionals 
and  electives.  The  colleges  of  Ohio  have,  according  to  their 
means,  given  the  new  ideas  a  hospitable  reception,  and  the  Ohio 
youth  will  not  be  obliged  to  go  to  Harvard  to  find  a  course  suited 
to  his  natural  gifts  and  aspirations.  Meanwhile  let  us  not  forget 
that  to  multiply  courses  and  electives  is  not  the  same  thing  as  to 
elevate  and  improve  the  education  of  the  individual  student.  The 
final  test  of  all  this  multiplication  of  studies  is  found  in  the  effect 
upon  personal  character  and  equipment.  The  college  may  be 
greatly  enlarged  and  enriched  in  its  furnishment  for  every  branch 
of  educational  work,  while  the  pupil  in  his  personal  work  experi- 
ences no  corresponding  advantage. 

The  colleges  of  Ohio  have  not  beeh  behind  in  introducing  the 
new  methods  of  instruction,  involving  laboratory  work  for  the 
student  in  the  sciences,  and  such  use  of  the  library  as  is  a  training 
for  original  investigation.  Every  improvement  of  this  kind  in- 
volves more  extensive  apparatus  and  increased  endowments,  and 
brings  a  new  test  to  the  feebler  colleges,  that  are  already  struggling 
to  maintain  their  position  in  the  sisterhood.  There  is  always 
ground  to  apprehend  that  an  improvement  of  this  kind  will,  in  the 
fresh  interest  excited,  be  carried  beyond  reason ;  and  that  it  will 
prove  simply  a  premature  attempt  to  transform  the  college  into  a 


1888.]  HOW  OUB  FATHEBS  BUILDED.  157 

university,  employing  post-graduate  methods  where  they  do  not 
belong.  The  watchful  interest  of  the  guardians  of  education  will 
check  the  tendency  in  due  time. 

A  movement  in  the  direction  of  industrial  education  or  manual 
training  is  indicated  in  the  attitude  of  the  public  mind ;  and  we 
shall  doubtless  soon  be  called  to  consider  to  what  extent  such 
training  can  be  introduced  into  our  system  of  college  work.  The 
experiment  of  what  was  known  in  its  day  as  the  manual  labor 
system  was  tried  in  several  of  the  earlier  Ohio  colleges,  and  was 
universally  found  impracticable.  The  idea  in  this  experiment  was 
to  furnish  the  pupil  with  profitable  employment,  to  which  he  should 
devote  from  two  to  four  hours  daily,  thus  securing  wholesome  exer- 
cise, as  well  as  useful  training  in  some  manual  employment,  and 
by  the  profits  of  his  labor  defraying  a  considerable  portion  of  the 
expense  of  his  education.  The  idea  was  very  inviting,  but  it 
proved  utterly  impracticable.  No  method  could  be  devised  by 
which  the  labor  of  an  average  company  of  students,  working  two 
or  three  hours  a  day,  could  be  made  profitable.  A  student,  for  his 
two  hours'  work,  requires  even  more  supervision  than  an  ordinary 
laborer  for  his  ten  hours.  His  heart,  too,  is  where  his  treasure  is, 
with  his  studies,  and  there  can  be  no  successful  labor  which  does 
not  command  the  mind  as  well  as  the  body.  Still  again,  the  plant 
required  to  supply  labor  to  a  given  number  of  students  cannot  be 
essentially  less  than  for  the  same  number  of  regular  laborers.  The 
idea  of  securing  any  product  by  such  fitful  labor  which  shall  com- 
pete in  the  market  with  the  product  of  labor  under  ordinary  con- 
ditions, is  manifestly  preposterous.  Such  was  the  result  of  every 
experiment  of  manual  labor  in  connection  with  the  college.  It 
proved  the  most  expensive  department  of  the  college,  and  the  help 
afforded  to  the  student  was  a  very  costly  gift  of  the  college.  It 
would  be  a  moderate  statement  to  say  that  if  the  student  were 
employed  in  farm  work,  which  is  the  most  obvious  method  of  em- 
ploying student  labor,  every  bushel  of  grain  produced  would  cost 
twice  the  market  price.  The  product  of  the  shop,  or  the  manu- 
factory, would  be  even  more  costly.  From  a  somewhat  extended 
experience  and  observation  in  efforts  of  this  kind,  I  have  been  led 
to  believe  that  whatever  is  paid  to  students  for  their  labor  in  our 
modern  agricultural  colleges  is  essentially  the  gift  of  the  college, 
and  the  true  conception  would  be  to  regard  the  labor  as  a  part  of 
the  student's  insti-uction,  for  which  he  should  no  more  receive 


158  EDUCATION,  [November, 

compensation  than  for  his  work  in  the  laboratory,  or  the  observa- 
tory. This,  I  think,  is  the  view  and  the  practice  in  some  of  our 
agricultural  colleges,  but  not  in  all.  The  modern  idea  of  manual 
training  for  the  student  involves  no  thought  of  profit  from  the 
labor  or  of  compensation  for  it.  It  is  to  be  a  part  of  the  student's 
education  for  which  the  college  is  to  provide,  as  for  his  other  in- 
struction. It  is  thought  that  such  training,  regularly  pursued, 
will  afford  the  student  needed  and  pleasant  exercise,  more  inviting 
even  than  the  ball-ground  or  the  gymnasium,  giving  him  at  the 
same  time  a  familiarity  with  tools,  and  \vith  various  manual  opera- 
tions, and  an  experience  of  work  in  some  of  its  forms,  which  no 
educated  man  can  afford  to  be  without.  The  view  seems  to  have 
reason  in  it,  and  experiments  in  this  direction  liave  already  been 
made  which  are  thought  to  prove  the  practicability  of  the  scheme. 
It  would  not  be  strange  if  twenty  years  from  now  our  colleges 
should  generally  be  furnished  with  appliances  for  extending  in 
this  direction  the  culture  afforded  to  their  students.  Such  culture 
is  desirable ;  it  ought  not  to  be  unattainable. 

The  problem  of  the  connection  hettreen  the  public  high  school  and 
the  college  has  .thus  far  been  but  imperfectly  solved.  When  the 
fii'st  colleges  of  Ohio  were  established,  there  was  no  body  of  stu- 
dents prepared  to  enter  upon  proper  college  work.  Each  college 
found  itself  compelled  to  prepare  its  own  students.  Hence  the 
preparatory  departments  of  most  of  our  colleges  are  older  than 
the  colleges  themselves ;  or  rather  the  colleges  began  with  the  pre- 
paratory work,  and  have  never  reached  the  point  where  they  could 
lay  this  work  aside.  It  is  an  interesting  inquiry  whether  we  are 
approaching  such  a  result.  Are  there  indications  that  our  colleges 
will  soon  be  able  to  excuse  themselves  from  this  preparatory  work, 
and  give  their  entire  energies  to  their  own  proper  duties?  It  is 
generally  conceded  that  such  a  result  is  desirable ;  yet  if  a  definite 
line  of  division  be  drawn  between  the  two  departments,  each  being 
provided  with  its  own  board  of  instructors,  the  coexistence  of  the 
two  departments  could  scarcely  be  harmful.  In  some  of  our  col- 
leges this  division  has  been  scrupulously  maintained;  but  with  our 
narrow  endowments  there  is  a  constant  temptation  to  load  the 
college  professor  with  preparatory  work.  This  danger  being 
guarded  against,  there  are  some  manifest  advantages  in  the  ar- 
rangement which  so  generally  exists.  Perhai)s  the  most  promi- 
nent of  these  is  the  force  exerted  by  the  college   to  draw  the 


1888.]  HOW  OUB  FATHEBS  BUILDED.  159 

preparatory  student  on  to  the  higher  course.  He  is  in  danger  of 
resting  content  with  the  preliminary  course,  or  of  finding  in  the 
academy  or  high  school  a  course  which  shall  satisfy  liis  aspirations. 
If  the  statistics  were  gathered  in  our  most  prosperous  colleges 
having  a  preparatory  school  comiected,  it  would  be  found  that  a 
considerable  portion  of  those  who  at  length  complete  a  successful 
course,  entered  the  preparatory  school  with  no  thought  beyond  a 
year  or  two  of  elementary  study.  The  presence  of  the  college 
elevated  their  ideal  of  an  education,  and  led  them  on  to  its  attain- 
ment. But  this  advantage  and  various  others  which  might  be 
named  would  not  be  sufficient  to  justify  these  preparatory  depart- 
ments in  the  colleges,  if  the  same  work  could  be  as  well  done  in 
the  high  school,  which  for  the  most  part  has  taken  the  place  of  the 
academy  of  the  last  generation.  It  does  not  seem  desirable  to 
take  the  youth  away  from  their  homes  at  so  early  an  age  as  the 
beginning  of  their  special  preparation  for  college.  It  would  be 
better  that  the  three  years  of  their  preparatory  study  should  be 
spent  at  home,  if  their  preparation  could  be  thus  secured.  A  few 
of  our  high  schools  meet  this  demand,  and  have  done  so  for  years, 
but  there  does  not  seem  to  be  progress  in  that  direction.  There 
is,  I  think,  more  prospect  that  the  colleges,  in  giving  a  greater 
variety  of  courses,  will  more  nearly  adjust  themselves  to  the  work 
of  the  liigh  schools.  The  pupil  will  find  his  Latin  and  German 
preparation  in  the  high  school,  with  a  good  provision  of  elemen- 
tary mathematics,  and  the  college  will  give  him  his  Greek  and 
French,  by  retaining  so  much  of  their  preparatory  work  as  shall 
serve  this  piu-pose.  By  some  such  adjustment  the  old-time  chasm 
may  be  closed,  and  the  preparatory  work  in  connection  with  the 
college  mostly  dispensed  with. 

The  question,  how  the  American  college,  as  it  has  been  and  is, 
shall  adjust  itself  to  the  American  University  which  is  coming  to 
be,  is  soon  to  press  upon  us.  As  some  of  our  academies  grew  into 
colleges  by  a  natural  evolution,  so  some  of  our  colleges  are  grow- 
ing into  universities,  or  rather  are  taking  on  university  work  in 
addition  to  their  original  college  work.  There  is  no  supreme  au- 
thority to  determine  where  this  university  work  shall  be  under- 
taken. The  determination  must  depend  upon  inward  impulses, 
and  outward  favoring  conditions.  The  danger  that  there  will  be 
a  waste  of  effort  in  this  attempt  at  expansion  is  doubtless  some- 
what pressing.     It  is  more  difficult  to  justify  a  large  number  of 


leO  EDUCATIOy.  [No¥ember, 

universities  than  of  colleges,  and  a  good  college  will  prove  more 
useful  than  a  poor  university.  Let  us  hasten  slowly.  The  prob- 
lem before  us  of  harmonizing  the  university  and  the  college  is  a 
new  one.  The  American  college  does  not  correspond  with  any 
institution  of  the  Old  World.  It  is  Avider  in  its  aims  and  in  its 
work  than  the  great  public  schools  of  England  or  of  Germany. 
It  furnishes  somewhat  of  the  culture  which  in  those  countries  is 
provided  at  the  university.  We  can  scarcely  afford  to  cut  down 
our  colleges  to  make  room  for  the  Old  World  university,  nor 
would  it  be  wise  to  multiply  universities  in  this  country  to  dupli- 
cate the  work  already  done  by  the  colleges.  The  work  of  the 
American  university  will  doubtless  be  to  take  the  college  gradu- 
ate, with  such  equipment  as  he  has,  and  provide  him  with  such 
special  study  and  education  as  shall  fit  him  for  the  higher  pursuits 
of  science  and  of  literature,  in  all  their  branches,  and  for  the  dif- 
ferent learned  professions.  Where  the  college  shall  end  and  the 
university  begin,  those  will  better  understand  who  shall  gather  at 
the  next  centennial. 


PRIMARY  AND   SECONDARY  SCHOOLS  OF 

HOLLAND, 

BY   L.   A.   STAGER.   POLYTECHNIC    INSTITUTE,  BROOKLYN,  N.  Y. 

MTH.  ZOBRIST,  Professeur  ^  T  dcole  cantonale,  ^  Porren- 
•  truy,  Switzerland,  who  spent  about  ten  years  as  teacher 
in  Holland  l)efore  accepting  a  call  to  his  present  position  in  his 
native  country,  recently  addressed  a  teachers'  meeting  on  the 
Primary  and  Secondary  Schools  of  Holland.  His  '*  Rapport "  is 
full  of  interesting  points  to  any  teacher.  Permit  me,  therefore, 
to  give  you  a  short  abstract  of  what  struck  me  as  being  of  especial 
value  to  American  educatoi-s. 

Professor  Zobrist  chose  the  schools  of  Holland  for  his  subject, 
because  he  thinks  the  contrast  between  the  schools  of  this  little 
Dutch-speaking  country  and  those  of  his  own  so  great,  and  be- 
cause comparison  is  more  interesting  when  the  things  compared 
present  less  resemblance. 

The  fii-st  school  in  Holland  was  founded  in  1290,  in  Dordrecht^ 
by  one  Count  Floris.     Lay-instructors  were  appointed  by  the  civil 


1888.]     PRIMARY  AND  SECONDARY  SCHOOLS  OF  HOLLAND,  161 

authorities  and  received,  besides  free  lodgings,  a  fixed  salary. 
They  were  paid  also  for  moving  from  one  school  to  another,  and  re- 
ceived small  fees  from  their  students,  and  earned  sometimes  a 
spare  penny  by  doing  other  little  jobs  in  their  leisure  time.  The 
thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries  were  rather  backward.  The  stu- 
dents whose  ages  were  from  six  to  eighteen,  enjoyed  mostly  annoy- 
ing the  quiet  citizens  of  those  good  old  times.  Punishments 
were  cruel  and  corporal.  Children  found  doing  wrong  in  the 
streets  were  brought  to  school  to  receive  chastisement,  though 
the  parents  often  were  dissatisfied,  and  took  revenge  upon  the 
poor  teacher.  In  those  olden  times,  when  the  remainder  of 
Europe  knew  but  a  few  Convent  schools,  Holland  boasted  of  insti- 
tutions of  greatest  fame.  1384  Cele  founded  one  at  ZwoUe,. 
which  had  sometimes  over  one  thousand  pupils ;  1498  about  twen- 
ty-one hundred  students  went  to  school  at  Deventer  under  Hegius. 
In  the  sixteenth  century  the  public  schools  were  not  numerous 
enough,  and  private  schools  were  opened.  Besides  the  mother- 
tongue,  writing,  reading,  arithmetic,  and  French  were  taught  at 
those  schools.  The  girls  were  taught  to  write,  to  read,  and  some- 
times to  sing.  The  teachers  were,  however,  too  often  ignorant^ 
and  the  sons  of  the  school  janitors. 

A  certain  Valcoogh,  among  others,  wrote  a  remarkable  book  in 
which  he  ridicules  those  schoolmasters,  and  speaks  against  cor- 
poral punishment,  and  states  that  the  teachers  ought  to  get  better 
pay.  From  1600  to  1800  the  school  is,  as  of  the  past,  but  the  hum- 
ble servant  of  the  church.  1619  the  national  synod  decides  on 
the  branches  to  be  taught.  They  are :  Religion,  printed  and  writ- 
ten texts,  the  psalms  of  David,  and  a  little  arithmetic.  School- 
time  from  8  to  11  A.  m.,  and  1  to  4  p.  M.  Wednesday  and  Satur- 
day P.  M.,  the  students  are  free.  In  the  great  primary  schools 
the  following  was  taught  during  the  week :  Sunday, — sermon,  the 
creed,  the  ten  Commandments,  the  Lord's  prayer,  singing  of 
psalms,  and  the  catechism.  The  teacher  had  to  accompany  the 
students  to  church,  and  had  to  watch  them  there.  He  had  free 
lodging,  and,  according  to  the  law,  was  to  be  well  paid,  also,  for 
the  lessons  he  gave  to  the  poor.  The  church  had  the  superin- 
tendence of  all  schools.  In  spite  of  this  fine  programme  the 
pupils  of  the  sixteenth  century  were  not  better  educated  than 
those  of  the  fifteenth.  After  leaving  school,  the  gii-ls  would 
learn  household  duties,  but   the   boys  would   linger   about  and 


162  EDUCATION.  [November, 

finish  their  education  very  often  in  the  streets,  where  they  fought 
with  each  other,  because  playing  was  little  known  at  this  epoch. 
The  teachers  were  badly  paid,  and  the  law  a  dead  letter.  Old 
teachers,  however,  received  a  small  pension.  The  schoolrooms 
were  low  and  small,  cellar  like,  or  garrets,  fitted  up  with  old 
broken  chairs  and  tables.  The  teacher  sat  upon  a  high  cliair, 
vested  in  a  long  black  garment,  held  together  by  a  cord  around 
the  hips.  He  wore  a  turban.  The  classes  were  noisy,  and  the 
sole  interruption  was  produced  by  the  heavy  slapping  of  the  chair 
with  the  rod  the  teacher  always  held  in  his  hand.  The  latter 
never  explained  anything,  and  all  the  pupils  had  to  do  was  to 
read  and  to  recite.  The  pupils  were  expected  to  follow  all  orders 
blindly.  In  1630  the  government  wished  to  oblige  all  parents  to 
send  their  cliildren  to  school,  and  thirty  cents  had  to  be  paid  as  an 
annual  school  fee,  for  each  child,  whether  he  went  to  school  or 
not.  In  the  cities  the  Latin  schools  were  in  no  way  different  from 
the  primary  schools,  since  they  accepted  their  pupils  at  the  age  of 
eight  years.  The  books  in  those  schools  were  printed  two  col- 
umns, in  Latin  on  one  side,  in  Dutch  on  the  other.  Besides  these 
two  kinds  of  schools  there  were  also  French  schools,  where 
French  was  taught  in  addition  to  the  other  branches.  In  the 
seventeenth  century  these  latter  schools  were  so  hea\dly  fre- 
quented, that  the  Latin  schools,  too,  had  to  introduce  French. 
The  ladies  also  studied  the  languages  at  those  times,  and  many 
knew  Latin,  Greek,  German,  English,  or  Hebrew,  besides  Dutch. 
All  public  functionaries  had  to  know  French,  and  toward  the  end 
of  1700  it  was  good  style  to  have  a  French  tutor  for  the  children. 
During  the  seventeenth  century  German  schools  were  very  few  in 
number,  but  English  book-keeping,  geography,  nautical  instruc- 
tion, geometry,  and  surveying,  were  taught  in  the  larger  city 
schools.  Another  institution  which  reflects  very  favorably  upon 
the  Dutch  of  these  times,  was  the  Free  City  Schools  for  the  poor. 
The  first  one  of  the  kind  was  established  in  Flessing,  1586. 

The  eighteenth  century  brought  little  change  to  the  established 
order.  The  country  schools  were  open  only  in  winter.  The  pu- 
pils had  to  bring  their  own  wood;  the  country  school  teachers 
received  in  this  century  about  sixty  doUai's  a  year  and  free  lodg- 
ings, and  could,  besides,  earn  some  little  money  by  doing  other 
work  in  the  leisure  hours.  An  old  teacher  received  a  pension  and 
his  widow  was  often  allowed  to  di^aw  her  dead  husband's  salary 


1888.]     PBIMABT  AND  SECOND ABY  SCHOOLS  OF  HOLLAND.         163 

and  have  the  work  done  by  an  under-paid  assistant.  1750  the 
first  "  helping  banks  for  widows  "  were  established  by  the  govern- 
ment. When  a  position  was  to  be  filled,  it  was  natiiral  that  many 
competitors  would  offer  themselves,  and  they  all  took  part  in  an 
examination.  This  latter  was  held  in  church,  after  the  service, 
and  in  presence  of  all  church-members.  It  was  very  often  long 
and  difiicult,  and  mostly  about  religion,  singing,  and  arithmetic, 
in  which  latter  exercises  the  crowd  was  deeply  interested. 

In  this  same  time  falls  the  founding  of  the  first  schools  for 
little  children.  In  the  cities  these  schools  for  the  little  ones  were 
kept  by  French  or  Dutch  lady-teachers,  who  taught  the  alaphabet, 
the  Sunday  sermon,  or  the  ten  Commandments  to  children  of  the 
age  of  three  or  four.  In  the  villages  the  wives  of  the  school- 
masters would  take  charge  of  the  little  ones.  Thus  the  Kinder- 
garten, as  you  see,  is  nothing  so  very  new. 

In  the  eighteenth  century  the  Society  of  Public  Usefulness  which 
was  founded  at  Edam,  and  which  in  the  shortest  time  spread  its 
useful  branches  over  the  whole  country,  gave  a  new  impulse  to  the 
teaching  of  primary  schools.  It  created  so-called  Model  or  Nor- 
mal Schools,  and  had  excellent  schoolbooks,  and  readers  written 
and  compiled  by  the  most  learned  men.  But,  as  in  politics,  a  new 
era  was  prep.aring  itself  ako  for  the  schools  about  this  time,  and 
the  wisest  men  wished  for  a  radical  change  in  the  plan  of  instruc- 
tion, without  being  exactly  aware  of  what  they  really  wanted. 
They  had  a  presentiment  of  a  revolution,  and  every  one  desired 
it.  '89  finally  brought  this  unknown,  and  for  a  long  time  wished- 
for  remedy.  The  old  state  of  things  was  upset.  The  new  minis- 
ter of  public  instruction,  assisted  by  the  Society  of  PubUc  Useful- 
ness, worked  out  a  law  by  which  every  community  was  obliged  to 
provide  for  sufficient  schoolrooms  for  all  its  children.  The  poorer 
communities  would  receive  assistance  from  the  government,  in 
order  to  be  able  to  pay  the  teacher's  salary  and  lodging.  With  a 
great  deal  of  common  sense,  the  legislator  ordered,  that  the  chil- 
dren of  all  believers.  Catholic,  Protestant,  Hebrew,  should  go  to  the 
same  classes,  and  that  their  beliefs  should  be  respected.  Thus 
religious  teaching  was  excluded  from  the  school,  and  was  in 
charge  of  the  divines  of  the  different  religious  bodies.  Thirty- 
five  inspectors  had  to  watch  the  execution  of  this  ordinance. 

In  1805,  this  law  was  replaced  by  the  one  which  remained  up  to 
1858.    In  every  large  city  the  inspector  received  a  board  of  assist- 


164  EDUCATION.  [November, 

«nts.  Henceforth  nobody  was  allowed  to  teach  or  to  open  a 
school,  who  had  not  received  the  special  permission  to  do  so,  or 
who  was  not  in  the  possession  of  a  diploma. 

These  diplomas  were  of  four  kinds.  In  order  to  obtain  the 
fourth  the  three  R's  were  required  and  a  certain  aptitude  for 
teaching;  for  the  third,  grammar  and  pedagogj'  in  addition  were 
required;  for  the  second,  geography  and  history;  for  the  first 
natural  science  and  mathematics.  Only  the  first  and  second 
diplomas  were  admitted  all  over  the  kingdom. 

The  schools  which  received  aid  from  the  government  were 
named  the  public  schools.  In  classes  of  more  than  sixty,  the 
teacher  was  seconded  by  an  assistant  teacher  of  the  third  or  fourth 
^ade  (diploma).     For  the  ladies  there  was  but  one  diploma. 

Corporal  punishment  was  not  prohibited,  but  the  teachers  were 
advised  to  use  it  soberly  and  with  precaution,  and  were  obliged 
to  inform  the  board  every  time  they  had  to  resort  to  beating  a 
•child. 

The  teacher  had  the  sole  right  to  sell  school  material;  book- 
sellers and  stationers  gave  him  ten  per  cent.,  and  thus  he  was  en- 
abled to  enlarge  his  sometimes  very  small  salary,  for  the  law  pro- 
vided only  for  a  maximum  of  salary,  but  never  spoke  of  any 
minimum,  while  the  authorities  more  generally  held  fast  to  the 
latter. 

On  the  whole,  the  French  domination  was  a  misfortune  for  Hol- 
land. It  filled  the  heads  of  the  people  with  wrong  ideas  of 
liberty,  equality,  and  fraternity,  emptied  the  public  treasury  and 
the  purses  of  the  people  and  left  no  other  equality  but  that  of 
misery  and  of  the  hatred  of  all  that  was  French.  No  wonder  that 
the  Dutch  were  among  the  foremost  in  1815,  in  Waterloo,  to  con- 
tribute to  Napoleon's  downfall. 

Free  again,  the  kingdom  of  the  Netherlands  took  up  its  old 
school  law  anew.  But,  wanting  to  introduce  it  in  Belgium,  it  met 
with  such  ignorance,  opposition,  and  prejudice,  that  it  would  lead 
us  too  far  to  enumerate  all  these  difficulties  which  the  govern- 
ment of  William  I.  encountered,  though  it  would  prove  again  the 
excellence  of  the  old  law.  But  in  spite  of  the  opposition  of  the 
patricians,  the  Dutch  government  had  built,  from  1817  to  1828, 
1146  schools  and  founded  several  normal  schools,  so  that  Belgium? 
which  under  the  French  rule  had  but  a  few  schools  for  the  patric- 
ians, in  1829  had  4046.     But  this  result  made  the  partisans  of 


1888.]    PBIMABT  AND  SECONDARY  SCHOOLS  OF  HOLLAND.         165 

ignorance,  who  were  encouraged  by  the  French,  very  uneasy,  and 
they  planned  a  great  revolution.  Belgium  regained  her  independ- 
ence with  her  sweet  ignorance,  and  today  she  has  not  entirely 
recovered  from  her  fall.  Holland,  on  the  contrary,  marched 
always  ahead,  changed  her  laws  as  the  necessity  of  the  day  would 
require  it,  and  today  she  is  one  of  the  most  advanced  countries 
in  this  respect.  In  1820  the  teachers  constituted  a  society,  meet- 
ing once  a  year,  and  publishing  a  well-written  journal.  They 
established  a  savings  bank  and  a  fund  for  the  widows. 

The  law  of  1857  fixed  the  salary  of  teachers  at  800  francs,  with 
house  and  all  accessories ;  the  assistant  received  400  francs. 

In  the  lower  primarj^  schools,  grammar,  writing,  arithmetic,  a 
little  practical  geometry,  geography,  history,  natural  sciences,  and 
singing  is  taught.  In  the  higher  primary  schools,  German,  French, 
English,  mathematics,  agriculture,  drawing,  gymnastics,  and,  for 
the  girls,  needlework,  were  added.  This  programme,  which  was 
slightly  changed  in  1878,  is  still  followed.  Manual  training  for 
the  boys  is  not  compulsory,  and  religious  instruction  is  entirely 
abandoned  to  the  clergy  of  the  different  religious  bodies. 

In  1863,  a  part  of  the  higher  primary  schools  were  changed 
into  secondary  schools. 

At  the  present  time,  primary  instruction  is  given  by  the  teach- 
ers and  their  assistants.  There  are  now  but  two  kinds  of  diplo- 
mas. In  order  to  obtain  the  one  for  assistant  teacher,  the  candi- 
date must  have  successfully  passed  the  normal  school  course,  and 
be  eighteen  years  of  age.  For  the  diploma  as  teacher,  he  must 
be  twenty-three  years  old,  and  must  have  taught  under  a  teacher 
for  at  least  three  years.  The  examinations  for  the  assistants  cor- 
respond to  the  examination  required  of  the  Swiss  teachers  on 
leaving  the  normal  school.  The  examination  for  the  teacher's 
diploma  is,  of  course,  much  more  difficult,  and  the  knowledge  of 
a  second  modern  language  is  generally  required.  The  examina- 
tions for  the  lady  teachers  differ  very  little  from  those  of  the 
gentlemen. 

This  last  law  of  1878  changed  the  body  of  teachers  consider- 
ably; but,  while  it  makes  larger  demands,  it  gives  also  larger 
salaries  than  our  Swiss  teachers  get. 

In  the  larger  cities  like  Amsterdam,  Rotterdam,  the  Hague, 
they  vary  from  3600  francs  to  4000  francs,  besides  a  dwelling 
apartment.     In  Leyden,  Utrecht,  Deventer,  2600  to  3600  francs, 


160  EDUCATIOX,  [November, 

with  apartment.  In  the  smaller  cities  and  towns,  the  teacher  gets 
from  2000  francs  to  2600  francs,  with  house  and  garden.  The 
assistant  from  1000  to  1500  francs,  of  course  without  dwelling 
place. 

For  many  years  already  there  is  such  an  abundance  of  teachers 
that  the  owner  of  a  simple  diploma,  who  knows  but  one  modern 
language  has  no  chance  to  be  placed  at  the  head  of  any  school, 
and  must  remain  simple  assistant  for  a  life  time. 

Materially,  the  position  of  a  school-teacher  in  Holland  is  a  very 
enviable  one,  only  he  does  not  enjoy  so  much  consideration  as 
is  the  case  in  Switzerland.  His  wife  has  no  right  to  the  title  of 
"Mevrouw"  (madam),  she  is  simply  called  "JufFrouw"  (Miss), 
like  the  wife  of  a  peasant.  As  a  rule,  when  the  people  speak  of 
the  schoolmaster,  they  call  him  by  the  name  of  "  de  school-vos  '* 
(the  school-fox),  and  according  to  a  Dutch  saying,  ninety-nine  out 
of  one  hundred  teachers  are  fook. 

It  is  probable  that  these  flatteries  are  remnants  of  former  centu- 
ries, when  the  schoolmaster  was  a  little  '*  funny,"  and  the  terror 
of  the  youths.  He  was  saturated  with  pride,  thought  he  knew 
everytliing,  and  even  amidst  a  large  crowd  was  easily  recog- 
nizable by  his  gestures,  bearing,  walk,  and  talk. 

As  to  the  school-houses,  what  difference  we  perceive !  No  more 
cellars  and  garrets,  but  palaces  I  In  the  villages,  the  schoolhouse 
is  a  building  with  large,  green  entrance  doors,  and  windows  of  no 
common  height,  protected  by  blinds.  All  classrooms  are  on  the 
first  story ;  therefore  no  stairs  to  climb.  The  noise  made  by  the 
scholars  mounting  and  coming  down  is  thus  abolished,  and  in  case 
of  fire,  the  work  of  saving  offers  no  diflBculties.  The  school  fur- 
niture is  the  best  of  its  kind,  the  walls  ornamented  with  maps  and 
drawings ;  but  rarely  will  you  find  a  desk  or  table  for  the  master, 
who  is  required  to  be  on  his  feet  constantly.  With  much  com- 
mon sense  the  Dutch  pretend  that  a  desk  is  only  a  couch  for  the 
instructors. 

While  teaching,  the  master  has  no  book  in  his  hand,  he  must 
know  everything  by  heart,  like  his  pupils.  The  way  of  teaching 
is  more  animated,  and  the  lesson  never  sinks  down  to  mere  read- 
ing. On  this  point  the  examiners  exercise  a  very  severe  observ- 
ance. 

The  programme  of  studies  is  about  the  same  as  with  us,  only 
more  attention  is  paid  to  arithmetic  and  mental  calculus.     This 


1888.]     PRIMAET  AND  SECONDARY  SCHOOLS  OF  HOLLAND.  167 

latter  branch  especially  is  the  object  of  particular  attention. 
Nowhere  have  I  found  examples  in  arithmetic  better  calculated  to 
develop  reasoning  than  in  Holland. 

In  villages  situated  near  the  sea,  the  teacher  must  also  give  in- 
struction in  nautical  science  and  maritime  geography. 

Drawing,  too,  receives  particular  attention,  but  they  draw  more 
from  nature  than  with  us,  and  the  collections  of  casts  and  models 
of  papier-mach<3  and  wire  are  very  extensive.  The  Dutch,  as  a 
rule,  do  not  like  to  draw  from  copies,  and  call  it  childish  work. 

Calisthenics,  on  the  contrary,  are  not  liked  by  the  country 
school  teachei^s,  because  they  represent  an  increase  of  work.  The 
teachers  are  opposed  to  it,  as  were  our  teachers  twenty  years 
ago,  and  as  they  still  are  to  manual  training. 

In  the  Netherlands  manual  training  is  facultative,  the  lessons 
are  given  Wednesday  and  Saturday  afternoons  (half  holidays), 
by  teachers  who  received  special  training  at  the  Central  School  of 
Amsterdam,  or  by  artisans  appointed  by  the  board. 

The  results  are,  however,  not  brilliant.  The  director  of  a  large 
primary  school,  formerly  an  ardent  advocate  of  manual  training, 
expresses  himself  as  follows :  — 

'*  Manual  training  is  no  longer  in  favor  with  us,  except  in  smaller 
places,  where  a  great  champion  of  this  new  branch  yet  succeeds 
in  keeping  up  an  artificial  enthusiasm  for  it,  but  it  will  never  be- 
come stable  in  the  kingdom.  After  a  trial  of  three  years  we  had 
to  give  it  up.  The  only  ones  profiting  by  it  were  the  teachers,  to 
whom  the  government  increased  the  salary  largely." 

A  few  steps  from  the  schoolhouse,  and  in  the  same  enclosure, 
is  a  pretty  little  one-story  villa,  with  six  or  eight  rooms,  large 
windows,  and  green  blinds.  Tliis  is  the  dwelling  given  to  every 
teacher  by  the  government.  There  he  lives  like  a  landlord.  The 
main  work  is  done  by  the  assistant;  the  teacher  giving  only  those 
lessons  he  likes  best  and  watehing  the  work  of  his  subordinates. 

In  the  cities  the  primary  schools  are  great  structures,  admirably 
managed;  the  teachers,  who  cannot  be  accommodated  within, 
receive  large  indemnities. 

All  cliildren  must  go  to  school  from  twelve  to  fourteen  years, 
and  pay  a  yearly  sum  of  from  six  to  twelve  francs.  The  poor  pay 
nothing.  In  the  cities  there  are  special  schools  for  those,  called 
"  Schools  for  the  Poor  I " 

As  was  already  mentioned,  the  law  of  1805  excluded  all  religion 


168  EDUCATION.  [November, 

from  the  schools,  and  everybody  was  glad  of  it  and  satisfied. 
About  ten  years  ago  some  High  Church  Protestants,  however,  tried 
to  have  this  law  changed,  and  demanded  in  loud  voices  the  rein- 
troduction  of  the  Bible  into  the  classrooms.  They  found,  of 
course,  adlierents  enough,  but  the  government  could  not  consider 
their  wishes.  The  school  must  remaui  neutral  in  a  country  where 
so  many  forms  of  worship  prevail.  What  did  the  people  now? 
They  went  begging  from  house  to  house  for  funds  to  erect  schools 
according  to  their  wishes.  At  the  beginning  they  succeeded  but 
too  well,  but  today  the  funds  are  lacking  and  the  parents  who  saw 
that  their  children  did  not  become  any  better  in  this  famous  school 
with  the  Bible,  stopj>ed  paying  their  contributions,  and  sent  their 
childi'en  again  into  the  public  schools. 

Afraid  of  a  financial  collapse,  these  worthies  petitioned  the 
Chambei-s  last  spring  to  reintroduce  religious  instruction  into 
tho  primary  schools.  They  have  made  some  headway  since,  but, 
at  this  moment,  no  one  can  as  yet  foi-see  the  issue  of  this  cam- 
paign in  which  orthodox  ProtesUints  and  Catholics  join  hands. 

So  much  for  the  primary  schools  in  Holland.  The  secondary 
schools  are  not  inferior,  and  are  of  two  kinds:  the  properly  so- 
called  secondary  schools  and  the  gymnasium.  I  pass  over  the  com- 
mercial or  business  colleges,  as  well  as  over  the  agricultural  and 
marine  schools,  etc.,  which  are  special  schools  not  found  in  Switz- 
erland. I  shall  not  speak  either  of  the  private  institute,  for- 
merly very  well  patronized  by  the  patricians  because  of  the  instruc- 
tion given  there  in  the  modern  languages,  the  calculus,  and 
religion,  and  which  became  a  source  of  great  income  to  their 
owners.  Year  by  year,  however,  their  number  decreases,  and 
very  soon  all  that  remains  of  them  will  be  —  un  souvenir. 

The  secondary  schools  or  "hoogere  burgensehoolen "  are  nu- 
merous, there  are  some  in  every  town.  Some  have  five,  others  only 
three  classes.  All  of  them  are  phaced  in  real  palaces,  and  their 
students  are  admitted  at  the  age  of  twelve. 

What  strikes  one  most  on  looking  over  the  programme  of  a  sec- 
ondjiry  school,  is  the  absence  of  instruction  in  religion  and  sing- 
ing, while  daily  lessons  are  given  in  both  in  our  schools  of  the 
same  grade.  The  modern  languages,  too,  play  a  more  important 
part  than  in  our  schools,  for  boys  and  girls  must  study  Dutch, 
French,  German,  and  English,  while  with  us  only  French  and 
German  are  required,  and  sometimes  English.      We  Swiss  also 


1888.]     PBIMART  AND  SECONDARY  SCHOOLS  OF  HOLLAND. 


169 


think  that  we  give  our  young  people  the  best  instruction  to  be- 
come '*free  citizens,"  and  still,  in  the  Canton  of  Berne,  for  ex- 
ample, political  economy  and  civil  laws  are  not  taught,  which  lack 
is  incomprehensible.  In  these  points  we  can  learn  another  lesson 
from  Holland,  which  gives  two  hours  of  instruction  to  each 
branch  mentioned. 

Strange  to  say,  with  us  these  things  are  taught  in  the  primary 
schools  but  neglected  in  the  secondary  schools.  We  may  say 
here,  however,  that  this  will  be  changed  with  the  plan  of  instruc- 
tion now  under  consideration  before  the  Executive  Council  of  the 
Canton  of  Berne. 

PLAN  OF  STUDIES  FOR  THE  SFX^ONDARY  SCHOOLS  WITH  FIVE  CLASSED. 


STUDIES.                                               CLASSES :          I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

Mathematics, 

6 

6 

7 

5 

2 

Mechanics, 

— 

— 

— 

2 

3 

Natural  history, 

— 

— 

2 

2 

4 

Botany  and  Zoology, 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

Geology  and  Mineralogy, 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Chemistry, 

— 

— 

2 

2 

2 

Practical  Chemistry, 

— 

— 

— 

— 

2 

Technology, 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Cosmography, 

— 

— 

— 

1 

1 

Civil  laws, 

— 

— 

— 

1 

1 

Political  Economy, 

— 

— 

— 

1 

1 

Geography, 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

History, 

3 

3 

3 

2 

2 

Dutch  language  and  literature, 

4 

3 

3 

2 

2 

French        '•          "            " 

4 

5 

3 

2 

2 

English       ''          "            '* 

— 

4 

3 

2 

2 

German       "          »'            " 

4 

4 

3 

2 

2 

Bookkeeping. 

— 

— 

— 

1 

1 

Drawing  (Free-hand), 

3 

3 

2 

2 

1 

"        (Mechanical), 

— 

— 

— 

2 

2 

Caligraphy, 

2 

— 

— 

— 

— 

Calisthenics, 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

32 


34 


34 


34 


36 


Total  of  weekly  hours : 

These  studies  are  all  compulsory  for  all  students.  The  lessons 
are  given  Mondays,  Tuesdays,  Thursdays,  and  Fridays,  from  9 
to  noon,  and  1  to  4  P.  M. ;  on  Wednesdays  and  Saturdays  from 
9  A.  M.  to  1  p.  M.  During  these  two  afternoons,  the  students  of 
the  four  lower  classes  are  free,  but  those  of  the  fifth  or  highest 
class  have  to  follow  a  course  in  practical  chemistry  from  2  to  4 
p.  M.     Calisthenics  are  given  out  of  the  regular  school  hours. 


170  EDUCATION.  [November, 

A  part  of  the  last  half  of  the  third  year  is  given  up  to  a  general 
review  of  what  has  been  taught  during  the  first  three  years. 
The  Dutch  gj^mnasium  has  a  pro-gjinnasium  of  four  classes,  and 
a  higher  gymnasium  of  six  classes.  Students  are  admitted  at  the 
age  of  twelve.     The  compulsory  studies  are  the  following: 


STUDIES   TAUGHT. 

CLAS^SKS  : 

I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

Latin, 

8 

6 

^ 
< 

7 

7 

8 

Greek, 

— 

1 

6 

8 

7 

8 

Hebrew  (for  the  ITieology), 

— 

— 

2 

2 

Dutch  language  and  literature. 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

1 

French,       "          " 

(( 

4 

4 

2 

2 

I 

I 

English,      "          " 

(k 

3 

3 

2 

1 

German.      *'          " 

(k 

3 

2 

2 

2 

1 

History  and  civics. 

4 

3 

3 

2 

2 

3 

Mathematics, 

4 

3 

3 

3 

5 

5 

Physics, 

— 

— 

— 

2 

2 

Chemistry, 

— 

— 

1 

1 

Geography, 

3 

2 

2 

I 

1 

1 

Natural  History, 

2 

— 

— 

2 

2 

Calisthenics, 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

As  this  plan  shows,  the  languages  have  the  most  prominent 
place,  the  mathematics  ccnning  second.  It  is  forbidden  to  let  more 
than  twenty-four  pupils  enter  the  same  class,  for  fifty  students 
three  parallel  classes  have  to  be  formed. 

This  plan  having  been  carried  out  for  a  number  of  years  pro- 
voked a  great  deal  of  discontent  among  the  parents,  who  thought 
their  sons  overworked.  The  matter  was  investigated,  and  from 
January  1st,  next,  the  maximum  numlx^r  of  weekly  lessons  will  be 
reduced  to  thirty,  the  minimum  for  the  future  jurists  and  physi- 
cians is  fixed  at  twenty-six  hours  per  week  in  the  fifth  and  sixth 
classes. 

The  time  allotted  to  Greek  and  Latin  is  very  properly  reduced. 
For  the  diploma  of  maturity  (A.  B.)  dramatic  Greek  prose,  and 
the  more  difficult  Latin  prose  and  poetry  is  no  longer  required. 
The  director  luvs,  however,  the  right  to  demand  of  candidates 
coming  from  other  places  to  pjvss  in  these  requirement,  and  also 
in  cjise  he  doubts  the  ability  of  a  student.  The  study  of  math- 
ematics has  also  been  simplified,  but  the  natural  sciences  and 
chemistrv  have  received  more  attention. 

In  the  future  those  students  who  enter  ui)Ou  the  study  of  law, 
theology,  or  letters,  may  be  excused  from  the  study  of  mathemat- 
ics, natural  history,  and  chemistry  in  the  fifth  and  sixth  classes ; 


1888.]     PBIMABT  AND  SECOND ABY  SCHOOLS  OF  HOLLAND.         171 

those  preparing  for  medicine  or  sciences,  may  leave  off  Latin, 
Greek,  and  history. 

This  is  certainly  a  radical  reform;  and  still  Holland  is,  with 
Germany,  the  land  where  Greek  and  Latin  are  the  most  honored. 

Thus  is  the  Dutch  system  of  instruction,  showing  that  it  is  as 
excellent  as  ours  and  that  it  pays  even  more  attention  to  the 
study  of  languages  than  we  do. 

The  system  of  assistant  teachers  presents  great  advantages  too. 
When  a  young  teacher  leaves  the  normal  school,  he  enters  prac- 
tice under  the  management  of  an  experienced  teacher.  To  con- 
fide to  such  a  man,  only  eighteen  or  twenty  years  old,  the  entire 
school  of  a  town  or  village,  seems  to  me  as  daring  as  if  we  were 
to  promote  a  law  student  to  the  attorneyship,  without  his  having 
passed  any  time  in  an  office. 

Besides,  the  second  examination  which  an  assistant  has  to  pass 
in  order  to  become  independent  is  a  great  stimulant;  he  has  to 
study  a  good  deal  to  get  the  diploma,  and  the  lazy  one  remains 
assistant  for  ten  years  and  more.  After  this  time,  no  school  would 
any  more  employ  them,  and  their  chances  would  be  to  go  back  to 
the  plough  or  to  their  trade,  which  they  never  ought  to  have  left. 
Thanks  to  this  rigorous  organization,  the  Dutch  corps  of  instruc- 
tors forms  a  small  army  of  model  Elites. 

So  far  Professor  Zobrist.  I  might  add,  that  the  Swiss  schools  are, 
as  a  whole,  considered  of  the  very  best,  and  that  only  the  best  in 
New  England  and  other  states  can  compare  with  them.  The 
Swiss,  however,  are  not  conservative  in  those  matters,  and  the 
Republican  Government,  i.  e.,  the  people,  as  well  as  their  servants, 
the  teachers  and  other  school  officers,  do  their  best  in  constantly 
studying,  introducing,  and  advocating  the  latest  improvements. 
Might  we  not  follow  them? 


On  the  outside  of  a  humble  cottage,  appeared  the  following 
inscription :  "  A  seminary  for  young  ladies."  This  was,  perhaps, 
too  abstruse  for  the  villager,  as  underneath  was  added,  in  rude 
characters:  "Notey  beney — allso,  a  galls  skool."  More  com- 
prehensive was  the  curious  inscription  at  one  time  to  be  seen  over 
a  door  in  a  village  in  Somersetshire  :  "  Petticoats  mended ;  chil- 
dren taught  reading,  writing,  and  dancing;  grown-up  people 
taught  to  spin ;  roses  distilled  and  made  into  a  proper  resistance 
with  water ;  also  old  shoes  bought  and  sold." 

Chamber's  Journal. 


172  EDUCATION,  [Norember, 


THE    TEACHING    OF   MATHEMATICS,^ 

III. 

TEACHING   ALGEBRA   TO   BEGIXNEKS.  —  I. 
BY  JOHN  F.  CASEY,   ENGLISH  HIGH  SCHOOL,  BOSTON. 

IT  is  said  that  instructors  in  colleges  and  scientific  schools  find 
pupils,  as  they  come  to  them,  better  prepared  in  geometry 
than  in  algebra  or  arithmetic.  Probably  their  complaints  as  to 
deficiencies  in  preparation  in  mathematical  branches  increase  in 
inverse  ratio  to  the  order  in  which  these  branches  are  studied, 
being  least  severe  upon  the  acquirements  in  geometr}^  and  most 
upon  those  in  arithmetic. 

There  is  little  doubt  that,  with  the  same  pupils  and  the  same 
instruction,  better  results  can  be  obtained  in  geometry  than  in 
algebra,  and  perhaps  the  same  would  hold  true  in  regard  to  geom- 
etry and  arithmetic.  It  is,  however,  not  so  easy  to  compare  the 
two  latter,  as  they  are  not  usually  studied  at  the  same  time.  This 
may  be  because  geometrj^  is  in  itself  less  difficult  than  the  other 
two  studies,  or  because,  having  had  the  advantage  of  the  training 
and  drill  on  arithmetic  and  algebra,  pupils  come  to  the  study  of 
geometry  with  their  minds  better  prepared  to  accept  its  facts.  It 
is  very  probable  that  both  these  reasons  are  true.  Geometry  is 
more  objective,  the  figures  being  present  before  the  mind ;  the  eye, 
without  any  effort  on  the  part  of  the  pupil,  comes  to  the  assistance 
of  the  reasoning  power  and  shows  the  course  to  be  pursued. 

As  to  the  intrinsic  difficulty  of  the  tlii'ce  elementary  mathemati- 
cal branches,  geometry  is  the  least  difficult  and  algebra  the  most. 

That  so  important  a  study  as  algebiJi,  uninteresting  and  difficult 
to  many  minds,  is  often  made  more  difficult  by  poor  textbooks  and 
poor  instruction,  will  be  readily  admitted  by  all  who  have  any 
experience  in  teaching  this  subject.  Just  as  an  excellent  scholar 
may  not  be  a  good  teacher,  so  a  complete  and  systematic  treatise 
may  not  be  so  arranged  as  to  make  the  student's  progress  regular, 
gradual,  and  easy,  and  his  acquirements  complete. 

^Copyright,  1888,  by  Eastern  Educational  Bureau. 


1888. J  THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS,  173 

In  order  to  obtain  good  results  from  the  whole  class  in  any 
mathematical  study,  it  is  first  of  all  essential  that  some  attempt 
should  be  made  to  grade  according  to  mathematical  ability  and 
attainments.  The  effort  to  keep  with  the  class  a  few  backward 
pupils,  who  for  any  cause,  find  the  pace  too  fast  for  them,  often 
entails  upon  the  teacher  an  amount  of  work  which,  in  a  large 
school,  he  cannot  find  time  to  do.  Idleness,  inattention,  and  other 
causes  will  produce  in  a  short  time  such  a  variation  in  the  attain- 
ments of  a  well  graded  class  as  to  take  all  a  teacher's  spare  time 
to  keep  the  class  in  condition  to  receive  the  same  class  instruction. 
Dull  pupils  require  not  only  more  instruction,  but  also  instruction 
of  a  different  kind  from  that  given  to  the  brighter  scholars,  and 
the  brighter  pupils  lose  interest  in  the  repetition  and  constant  drill 
on  details  which  the  less  gifted  or  lazier  pupil  requires. 

If  for  the  benefit  of  the  able  pupils,  you  omit  this  drill  and 
detailed  explanation,  then  you  do  the  dull  pupil  an  injustice. 
Another  wrong,  perhaps  greater  than  that  of  forcing  them  beyond 
their  ability,  is  done  to  the  dull  pupils  by  considering  them  dunces 
and  treating  them  according  to  their  supposed  merits  and  neglect- 
ing them.  Either  course  generally  results  in  a  misunderstanding  on 
both  sides  and  consequent  poor  results.  An  attempt  to  regulate 
the  work  according  to  the  average  ability  of  the  class  is  at  best  a 
compromise  generally  unsatisfactory. 

Again,  as  part  of  mathematical  teaching  has  for  its  end  the 
training  of  the  mind  and  the  sharpening  of  the  wits  and  is  a  kind 
of  mental  gymnastics,  with  an  able  class  it  is  sometimes  desirable 
to  place  obstacles  in  the  way,  whereas  such  a  coui-se  would  only 
be  folly  with  a  class  who  find  the  smoothest  path  only  too  rugged. 

The  statement  that  the  dull  pupils  are  helped  and  encouraged 
by  the  bright  ones  is  often  incorrect.  Very  dull  pupils  are  dis- 
couraged by  seeing  able  scholars  do  well  with  little  effort  that 
which  they  are  unable  to  do  at  all,  or  only  poorly  with  great  effort. 
They  are  inclined  to  draw  the  conclusion  that  their  minds  are  dif- 
ferently constituted  and  accept  the  situation. 

This  grading  of  a  class  on  a  mathematical  basis  may  cause  some 
disturbance  in  the  teaching  of  other  branches,  as  the  best  mathema- 
ticians are  sometimes,  though  not  as  a  rule,  quite  poor  in  other 
departments. 

But  this  disturbance  is  not  sufficiently  great  to  offset  the  gain 
in  mathematics,  for  the  other  branches  of  study  are  not  so  pro- 


174  EDUCATION.  [November, 

gressive,  so  that  a  complete  understanding  of  any  particular  point 
does  not  depend  so  closely  upon  the  preceding. 

Another  more  serious  objection  to  grading  is  that  there  must 
necessarily  be  a  bottom  grade  and  that  pupils  as  well  as  parents 
may  object  to  a  class  made  up  of  the  poorest  material.  I  am  aware 
that  there  are  some  whose  views  I  cannot  but  respect  who  hold 
quite  different  opinions,  but,  speaking  from  the  standpoint  of  my 
experience  as  a  teacher  of  mathematics,  I  hold  that  the  grading 
should  be  made,  and  the  teaching  should  be  adapted  to  the  grade, 
and  that  such  pupils  as  object  should  be  convinced  by  satisfactory 
arguments  as  to  what  is  best  for  them,  or,  remaining  uncon- 
vinced, their  importunities  should  be  witlistood  even  at  the  risk  of 
losing  them  as  pupils. 

I  have  seen  the  following  methods  adopted  in  grading  a  class  of 
three  hundred  or  more  boys.  First,  the  class  divided  into  divis- 
ions of  about  forty  each,  in  such  a  manner  that  the  bottom  boy  in 
the  first  division  was  just  a  little  ahead  of  the  first  boy  of  division 
two,  and  so  on  through  the  class. 

Again,  forty  boys  in  one  division  taken  from  the  top  and  forty 
boys  in  another  taken  from  the  bottom,  while  the  rest  of  the  class 
was  divided  alphabetically,  without  regard  to  rank ;  and  thirdly, 
a  bottom  division  made  according  to  rank,  and  the  rest  of  the  class 
divided  alphabetically. 

While  the  first  arrangement  possesses  some  advantages,  such  as 
that  of  competition,  when  pupils  are  moved  from  one  division  to 
another  as  they  rise  or  fall  in  rank,  it  has  disadvantages  and  does 
not  seem  to  me  a  good  one.  The  second,  while  better  than  the 
first,  and  having  in  common  with  it  this  peculiarity,  that  there  is 
always  one  room  into  which  it  is  safe  to  introduce  visitors  and 
where  it  is  possible  to  make  a  favorable  im[)ression  as  to  the  qual- 
ity of  work  done  in  the  school,  yet  it,  in  practice,  does  not  seem  to 
me  so  good  as  the  third.  For  while  very  able  lx)ys  discourage 
rather  than  encourage  very  dull  ones,  yet  they  do  exert  a  stimu- 
lating influence  upon  a  fairly  good  division,  and  by  their  example 
and  assistance  raise  the  standard  of  the  quality  of  work  done  by 
the  whole  division.  So  all  the  divisions,  except  the  bottom,  stim- 
ulated by  the  presence  of  the  smart  Iniys  and  by  the  absence  of 
the  dull  ones,  are  fairly  good.  Neither,  under  the  third  arrange- 
ment, should  the  teacher  despair  of  his  bottom  division.  Excel- 
lent results  may  be  obtained,  only  the  nite  of  progress  must  be 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS,  175 

slow,  the  total  amount  accomplished  much  less  than  in  the  other 
divisions,  and  the  kind  of  work  done  and  the  kind  of  teaching 
must  be  specially  adapted  to  the  requirements  of  this  division.  A 
very  dull  pupil  will  do  a  great  amount  of  work  if  it  is  not  beyond 
his  comprehension,  and  a  very  lazy  one  often  finds  it  harder  to  do 
nothing  than  to  do  easy  work. 

It  is  impossible  to  get  mathematical  work  from  pupils  who  do 
not  understand  the  objects  to  be  obtained  or  the  means  for  obtain- 
ing them,  and  this  is  exactly  the  condition  in  which  a  pupil  finds 
himself  when  he  once  falls  behind  his  class. 

The  question  now  arises.  Is  there  such  a  difference  in  the  abili- 
ties and  acquirements  of  pupils  when  they  begin  the  study  of 
algebra  as  to  call  for  such  special  treatment?  My  experience  as 
teacher  of  mathematics  for  twenty  years,  most  of  that  time  in  a 
very  large  school,  leads  me  to  believe  that  there  is ;  that  with  all 
the  care  a  teacher  can  take,  at  the  end  of  three  months  from  the 
time  of  beginning  the  study  of  algebra,  about  one  pupil  in  five  is 
so  far  beyond  his  depth  that  a  great  part  of  the  class  instruction 
is  of  little  value  to  him,  and  that  the  farther  he  goes  the  farther 
he  drops  behind.  The  question  now  to  be  solved  by  the  teacher  is 
what  is  the  best  thing  to  be  done  with  such  pupils  ?  the  best  thing 
for  them,  for  the  teacher,  and  for  the  rest  of  the  class? 

The  best  thing  for  the  pupil  who  has  dropped  behind  his  class  is 
private  instruction,  which  will  adapt  itself  to  his  special  needs  and 
will  generally  soon  place  liim  in  condition  to  receive  class  instruc- 
tion with  the  rest  of  his  class.  But  in  a  large  school  where  there 
are  many  in  this  condition,  the  teacher  cannot  find  time  to  attend 
to  them  all  unless  they  are  classed  together  and  such  special  in- 
struction be  made  a  part  of  his  regular  work.  It  is  of  little  use 
to  detain  such  delinquent  pupils  and  require  them  to  study  after 
school.  They  do  not  know  how  to  study,  and  require  in  most  cases, 
not  driving,  but  encouragement  and  assistance  and  lessons  adapted 
to  their  ability.  The  questions  asked  by  such  pupils  not  only  show 
what  are  theii*  views  of  the  subject  under  consideration,  but  often 
when  carefully  considered  reveal  omissions  in  the  teaching.  How- 
ever foolish  they  may  appear,  they  should  never  be  treated  lightly. 

The  next  thing  to  be  considered  is,  what  is  the  best  order  of 
topics  and  the  best  method  of  presenting  them  to  a  class  of  begin- 
ners? 

That  order  is  the  best  which  the  mind  of  itself  follows  in  obtain- 


176  ED  UCA  TlOy,  [  Xo  veraber, 

ing  information ;  that  is  to  proceed  from  special  cases  to  generaliza- 
tions, from  the  simple  to  the  complex,  from  the  concrete  to  the 
abstract.  The  same  principles  should  be  applied  to  the  details  of 
any  particular  branch  that  we  are  forced  to  recognize  in  general 
between  the  different  branches.  And  when  any  method  is  followed 
which  does  not  make  the  complete  assimilation  of  any  one  step 
comparatively  easy,  while  it  thoroughly  prepares  the  way  for  more 
complex  consequences,  and  so  on  till  the  whole  subject  is  mastered, 
the  result  will  be  failure  and  perhaps  even  worse ;  for  the  pupil 
may  become  so  disgusted  as  to  be  unfit  for  teaching  of  a  better 
kind. 

Whenever  a  class  or  a  large  part  of  it,  does  not  clearly  under- 
stand at  any  particular  point  the  condition  of  affairs  and  the  way 
to  the  next  step,  or  when  most  of  the  pupils  in  it  cannot  be  induced, 
by  a  few  leading  questions  or  a  few  directions,  to  take  the  next 
step  and  reason  out  the  cause  for  it  and  the  effect  of  it,  then  that 
class  is  not  mature  enough  for  the  subject  being  studied  or  the 
subject  has  been  badly  placed  before  them  or  in  a  wrong  order. 
And  that  part  of  the  study  will  be  of  no  practical  use  to  any  ex- 
cept such  pupils  as  are  sufficiently  intelligent  or,  being  impelled 
by  special  motives,  are  sufficiently  diligent  to  search  out  the  bot- 
tom facts  by  their  own  ingenuity  and  efforts. 

For  the  first  few  months  the  textbook,  if  used  at  all,  should  l)e 
used  as  a  storehouse  of  problems,  simply  to  save  the  pupils  from 
copying  from  dictation ;  and  the  instruction  should  be  free  from 
all  definitions,  technical  terms,  and  rules.  I  would  not  even  un- 
dertake to  define  what  algebra  is  or  what  it  is  like.  Pupils  ought 
soon  to  find  out  what  it  is  like  and  to  be  able  to  make  their  own 
definition  as  soon  as  they  need  one.  Conventionalities,  of  course, 
must  be  explained  as  it  becomes  necessary  to  use  them. 

When  pupils  begin  the  study  of  algebra,  they  are  old  enough  to 
begin  to  lose  their  implicit  confidence  in  the  wisdom  of  their  eldei's 
and  to  goveiTi  their  actions  by  their  own  opinions ;  owing  to  want 
of  mature  judgment,  sufficient  knowledge,  and  often  to  bad  advice 
from  friends,^  these  opinions  are  frequently  far  from  correct. 
Especially  is  tliis  apt  to  be  the  case,  when  the  subject  of  those 
opinions  is  the  relative  values  of  different  branches  of  study. 

*NoTE.  —  I  once  received  a  letter  from  an  Intellij^ent  gentleman,  written  In  answer  to 
one  from  me,  notifying  him  that  his  son  was  doing  poorly  in  my  department,  in  which 
be  said  that  fifteen  per  cent,  was  all  he  expected  or  desired  his  son  tf)  get  In  algebra. 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS.  177 

It  is  difficult  for  a  teacher  to  arouse  enthusiasm  in  a  pupil  who 
has  made  up  his  mind  that  the  branch  which  is  being  studied  is  of 
no  benefit  to  him.  This  condition  of  mind  the  instructor  should 
strive  indirectly  to  change.  I  say  indirectly,  because  if  the  teacher 
can  so  illustrate  the  subject  that  the  pupil,  from  the  new  light  he 
has  on  it,  will  draw  the  conclusion  that  there  is  some  advantage 
even  to  him  in  learning  the  study,  he  will  accept  and  be  guided 
more  by  his  own  conclusions  than  by  direct  arguments  bearing  on 
the  subject. 

Algebra  furnishes  a  means  for  illustrating  and  generalizing  the 
processes  of  arithmetic  and  for  solving  more  readily  and  systemati- 
cally arithmetical  problems.  And  by  reference  to  arithmetic  a 
skilful  teacher  can  find  material  to  convince  the  doubter  that  alge- 
bra, aside  from  being  one  of  the  indispensable  steps  of  a  mathe- 
matical series,  has  practical  uses  in  itself. 

The  symbolism  of  algebra  has,  in  fact,  two  advantages :  first,  it 
abbreviates,  and  so  saves  time;  secondly,  it  systematizes  the  argu- 
ment, dividing  it  into  steps  which  are  exhibited  in  a  tabulated 
form  and  in  their  necessary  sequence.  The  advantages  of  such 
abbreviation  and  ariangement  will  appeal  to  the  pupil's  sense  of 
the  practical. 

Begin  algebra  with  the  solution  of  the  easiest  problems,  so  sim- 
ple that  any  student  can  readily  solve  them  by  the  aid  of  his 
knowledge  of  arithmetic  and  occasionally  a  little  guidance  from 
the  teacher. 

The  boy  who  can  see  that  if  two  pounds  of  sugar  cost  sixteen 
cents,  one  pound  must  cost  eight  cents,  is  prepared  to  make  and 
solve  an  algebraic  equation,  and  this  is  the  kind  of  algebraic  work 
with  which  he  should  begin.  But  we  must  not  be  surprised  if 
some  fail  to  make  and  solve  equations,  even  after  being  shown  how 
to  do  them. 

Even  the  simple  abbreviations  of  algebra  are  strange  to  the 
beginner,  and  it  is  not  impossible  that,  on  being  put  to  work  at 
solving  equations,  he  may  become  immediately  confused  amid  the 
difficulties  of  a  language  unknown  to  him.  The  easiest  problems 
when  looked  at  from  a  new  point  of  view  will  present  some  diffi- 
culty to  some  pupils,  and  in  all  mathematical  teaching  there  is  no 
more  common  error  than  a  failure  on  the  part  of  the  teacher  to 
lower  himself  to  the  pupil's  standpoint. 

Things  which  to  the  teacher  seem  to  be  intuitive,  may  have  been 


1 78  ED  UCA  TJOy.  [November, 

in 'his  own  case  acquired  only  by  study  and  as  the  result  of  good 
teaching,  and  he  must  remember  that  the  pupil  cannot  have  that 
light  on  any  new  subject,  simple  or  complex,  which  he  has.  It 
will  not  pay  to  neglect  the  most  elementary  steps  because  they 
seem  to  the  teacher  self-evident,  nor  to  neglect  the  dull  pupil  who 
fails  to  understand  explanations  after  hearing  them  once. 

Your  backward  pupil  is  probably  not  a  fool,  he  may  be  uninter- 
ested and  uninteresting,  dull,  idle,  and  inattentive,  but  with  proper 
handling  he  may  yet  enter  Harvard  College  with  credit.  So  much 
the  more  credit  then  for  awakening  his  dormant  energies.  Almost 
any  one  who  understands  his  subject  can  teach  bright  pupils,  but  it 
requires  experience,  method,  and  perhaps  talent  to  succeed  with 
dull  ones. 


T//£    TEACHING    OF  THE    ENGLISH  LANGUAGE 

AND  LITERATURE,'' 

II. 

METHODS   OF    8TUI)Y    IN    ENCiLLSH    LITERATURE.  —  II. 

BY  H.   £.   SHEPHERD,   LL.  D. 
PreHdent  of  CharleBton  College,  Charleiton,  S.  C. 

THE  same  faculty  of  discrimination  is  requisite  to  fix  the  rela- 
tive merits,  the  relative  greatness  of  authors.  The  classical 
and  the  commonplace  are  ofttimes  not  accurately  distinguished. 
Our  manuals  blend  all  in  an  indiscriminate  mass  of  names,  dates, 
and  details.  It  is  for  the  most  part  the  typical  authors  of  the 
leading  periods  in  our  literary  evolution  who  should  be  the  sub- 
jects of  special  treatment  in  our  ordinary  schemes  of  instruction, 
—  the  men  who  embody  the  purest  aspiration,  the  intensest  life 
of  an  age.  Cromwell,  for  example,  is  to  the  political  history  of 
the  first  half  of  the  seventeenth  century  the  correlate  of  Milton, 
viewed  from  the  standpoint  of  literary  development.  The  minor 
authors,  however  attractive  they  may  prove  from  the  attitude  of 
strictly  philological  study,  should  as  a  general  rule  be  reserved  for 
the  maturer  period  of  special  investigation. 

To  apply  our  theory  in  the  concrete  :     During  the  fourteenth  cen- 

*  Cop3'rigbt.  1888,  by  Eastern  Educational  Burean. 


1888.]  THE  TEACHIXO  OF  THE  ENGLISH  LANGUAGE,  179 

tury  Langley,  Wickliffe,  and  Chaucer  require  minute  study  as  illus- 
trating in  their  respective  spheres  the  deepest  and  purest  moral,  so- 
cial, and  intellectual  life  of  their  time,  and  the  two  last,  as  being  in 
large  measure  the  framers  and  fashioners  of  our  biblical  and  literary 
dialect.  The  fifteenth  century  may  be  passed  over  with  but  scant  re- 
gard by  the  student  of  literature,  though  from  the  philologist's  view- 
point it  has  much  to  commend  it.  The  Renaissance  in  Italy,  and 
its  gradual  diffusion  over  Europe,  its  naturalization  in  England, 
the  introduction  of  purely  Italian  influences,  as  seen  in  the  adop- 
tion of  blank  verse  and  the  sonnet  by  Surrey  and  Wyatt,  the 
various  translations  of  the  classics  that  tended  to  the  Latinizing 
of  the  vocabulary,  its  expansion  under  influences  already  pointed 
out.  The  development  of  the  drama,  the  classic  and  domestic  ele- 
ments which  contributed  to  its  growth,  the  MiiTor  for  Magistrates, 
a  work  of  extraordinary  vigor  and  beauty,  preluding  the  splendor 
of  the  incoming  era,  the  multiform  agencies  by  which  the  discord- 
ant and  unregulated  English  that  prevailed  at  the  beginning  of 
Elizabeth's  reign  was  transformed  into  the  rich  and  luxuriant 
speech  wliich  became  so  powerful  an  instrument  in  the  hands  of 
Marlowe  and  Shakespeare,  the  heroic  spirit  of  the  age  following  the 
English  Salamis,  its  decline  during  the  ignoble  reigns  of  the  two 
first  Stuarts.  The  expansion  of  the  critical  temper,  and  the  action 
of  that  temper  as  reflected  in  the  transition  to  our  Augustan 
epoch.  The  forces  that  moulded  it,  its  perfected  development 
under  the  guidance  of  Pope  and  Addison,  the  rise  of  periodical 
literature,  and  its  development  into  the  modern  novel  of  life  and 
character,  in  which  is  conserved  the  intellectual  force  formerly 
applied  in  the  production  of  the  drama,  the  rise  of  romanticism 
in  Europe  coincident  with  the  advent  of  the  first  French  revolu- 
tion, and  the  incoming  of  another  great  day  of  creative  power. 
The  era  of  Scott,  Wordsworth,  Coleridge,  Byron,  Shelley,  Keats, 
the  reversion  to  prose  under  the  leadership  of  Macaulay,  De  Quin- 
cey,  Carlyle,  and  Newman.  The  marked  expansion  of  physical 
science  and  scientific  literature,  and  the  tapplication  of  the  scientific 
spirit  in  all  forms  of  modern  activity,  the  ornate  school  of  art 
transmitted  from  Shelley  and  Keats,  and  elaborated  in  the  poetry 
of  Tennyson,  the  natural  type  of  Wordsworth,  as  preserved  in  a 
number  of  secondary  poets.  The  decline  of  artistic  prose  since 
the  death  of  Macaulay  and  De  Quincey.  The  resistless  advance 
of  the  Baconian  spirit  and  the  leveling  processes  of  modern  so- 


180  EDUCATIOX.  [November, 

ciety  as  traced  in  current  literature  —  such  are  some  of  the  spe- 
cific topics  in  a  thoroughly  defined  course  of  study,  assuming  it  to 
begin  with  the  age  of  Chaucer,  the  founder  of  our  literary  speech, 
•*'  the  finder  of  our  fair  language." 

The  outline  here  given  is  capable  of  indefinite  extension ;  it  is 
proposed  merely  to  suggest  and  invite  amplification  or  elaboration. 
Again,  it  should  be  the  constant  endeavor  of  the  t^aclier  to  infuse 
into  the  pupil  the  moral  and  aesthetic  culture,  which  it  is  the  high 
function  of  literary  training  to  impart.  Lexical  or  philological 
criticism,  verbal  details,  historical  and  comparative  grammar,  have 
their  recognized  position  as  well  as  tlieir  educative  power.  Still, 
the  literary  phase  of  study  should  not  be  confounded  with  them, 
or  subordinated  to  them.  Let  each  be  supreme  in  its  own  sphere, 
and  let  their  spheres  be  accurately  differentiated.  Tlie  relation  of 
times,  the  coincidence  of  events,  the  harmony  of  development,  as 
illustrated  in  the  evolution  of  literature,  will,  if  thoughtfully  in- 
terpreted and  expounded,  convey  many  lessons  of  moral,  as  well 
as  intellectual  wisdom,  by  sliowing  in  all  its  phases  the  reign  of 
law,  the  evidence  of  design,  the  unity  of  movement,  the  hand  of 
God. 

Illustration  after  illustration  may  be  cited  in  proof  of  this  gen- 
eral proposition.  Note  for  example,  the  concurrence  of  events  in 
various  critical  epoclis  of  history,  and  mark  with  what  exquisite 
harmony  the  great  moulding  influences  and  the  great  moulding 
agents,  all  come  in  their  fulness  of  time,  in  their  appointed  season, 
circumstances  and  causes  the  most  remote  and  unrelated,  when 
viewed  from  the  standpoint  of  tlie  casual  reader,  jiU  tending  to 
the  same  result.     To  select  at  random :  — 

Sir  Isaac  Newton  is  lx)rn  in  the  same  year  in  which  Galileo  dies, 
1642.  Richelieu,  the  great  apostle  of  absolutism  in  France,  dies  in 
1642,  and  the  civil  war  in  England,  which  was  a  struggle  against 
advancing  absolutism,  begins  in  1642.  Shakespeare  and  Galileo, 
representing  two  great  phases  of  intellectual  life,  the  dramatic  and 
the  philosophic,  are  born  in  1564.  Michael  Angelo  and  Calvin 
died  in  1564.  Raphael  and  T^uther  are  born  in  1488 ;  Pope,  the 
typical  poet  of  the  critical  age  in  England,  is  born  in  1688,  the 
year  of  the  Revolution,  which  was  itself  a  critical  or  regulative 
movement,  in  the  sphere  of  constitutional  growth.  Currier,  Goethe, 
and  Sir  Walter  Scott  all  die  in  the  same  year,  1832,  the  year  that 
saw  the  passage  of  the  great  lieform  liill.     Hallam,  De  Quincey, 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  ENGLISH  LANGUAGE.  181 

Irving,  Prescott,  and  Macaulay,  die  in  1859.  Milton  was  born  in 
1608,  the  year  in  which  appeared  John  Smith's  History  of  Vir- 
ginia, the  first  American  book.  Longfellow,  Whittier,  and  Agas- 
fiiz  were  born  in  the  same  year,  1807,  Tennyson  in  1810,  and  Poe 
in  1809.  Jeremy  Taylor  died  in  1667.  Tlie  first  edition  of  Para- 
dise Lost  appeared  in  1667.  Swift  was  born  in  the  same  year,  and 
Dryden's  Annus  Mirabilis  waii  published.  Addison  died  in  1719. 
De  Foe's  Robinson  Crusoe  appears  in  1719.  Longfellow,  Emei-son, 
and  Darwin  all  died  in  1882,  and  at  short  intervals.  Spenser,  and 
his  patron.  Sir  Walter  Kaleigh,  were  born  in  1552.  Cromwell  and 
Blake  were  born  in  1599,  the  death  year  of  Spenser.  Milton 
began  the  composition  of  Paradise  Lost  in  1658.  Cromwell,  liis 
"  chief  of  men,"  dies  in  this  year.  Ben  Jonson  dies  in  1637.  Mil- 
ton's Lycidas,  the  first  of  our  three  great  ''  In  Memoriam  "  poems, 
is  issued  in  1637.  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  was  executed  in  1618. 
The  Thirty  Ye\rs'  War  begin.s  in  1618  and  endi  in  1618,  the  year 
of  the  death  of  Charles  I .,  reckoning  by  the  ancient  calendar.  Dante 
was  born  in  1265.  Simon  de  Montfort  completed  the  formation  of 
the  English  Parliament  in  1265.  Burns  was  born  in  1759,  the 
year  of  the  capture  of  Quebec  by  Wolfe,  which  established  the 
supremacy  of  the  English  race  and  the  English  tongue  upon  this 
continent. 

The  list  is  capable  of  indefinite  extension,  but  these  exam- 
ples will  suffice  to  make  plam  the  general  proposition.  The 
typical  authors  of  each  period  should  be  illustrated  by  means  of 
judicious  and  discriminating  selections,  such  admirable  aids  as 
Ward's  English  Poets,  Morris's  Chaucer,  Palgrave's  Golden  Treas- 
ury, Minto's  or  Saintsbury's  Prose,  Mark  Pattison's  editions  of  the 
Satires  and  Epistles  of  Pope,  being  always  accessible  for  this  pur- 
pose. Adams's  Dictionary  of  English  Literature,  Morley's  First 
Sketch  of  English  Literature,  Masson's  Life  and  Times  of  John 
Milton,  Halliwell-Phillipps's  Outlines  of  a  Life  of  Shakespeare  will 
furnish  accurate  and  detailed  information  in  regard  to  every  point. 

Shairp's  Studies  in  Poetry,  Aspects  of  Poetry,  and  Poetic  Inter- 
pretation of  Nature,  are  entertaining  and  suggestive  in  the  high- 
est degree.  To  these  may  be  added  Morley's  English  Men  of 
Letters,  and  Brewer's  English  Studies.  As  a  means  of  illustrating 
the  relation  between  history  and  literature.  Bishop  Stubbs's  Lec- 
tures upon  Modern  and  Media3val  History,  especially  the  Lectures 
upon  Learnmg  and  Literature  at  the  Court  of  Henry  IL,  should 


182  EDUCATIOX.  [November, 

be  diligently  studied.  Valuable  suggestions  may  be  gathered  from 
Ten  Brink's  Early  English  Literature,  and  from  Freeman's  Nor- 
man Conquest  of  England,  Vol.  V.,  Chap.  XXV. 

Boswell,  Lockhart,  and  Trevelyan,  the  supreme  masters  of  En- 
glish biographical  style,  are  indispensable  in  any  consistent  scheme 
of  literary  instruction.  Let  the  •teacher  strive  in  every  possible 
way  to  render  the  study  of  English  literature  a  vital  quickening 
power;  not  a  merely  abstract  or  dissertative  procedure,  but  an 
effective  instrument  in  developing  aesthetic  taste  and  sensibility,  in 
expanding  and  ennobling  the  spiritual  as  well  as  the  mental  life. 

It  has  been  our  aim  in  these  papers,  briefly  to  indicate  some  of  the 
means  by  whose  discriminating  employment  this  high  and  holy  end 
may  be  accomplished.  After  all,  as  intimated  in  the  beginning, 
the  result  must  be  determined  by  the  inspiration  and  culture  of 
the  teacher,  rather  than  by  the  excellence  or  efficiency  of  the 
method.  The  fundamental  principles  of  the  Novum  Organum 
when  applied  in  the  region  of  the  mental  or  the  spiritual,  have 
resulted  in  blighting  empiricism  and  premature  decay.  The  po- 
tentialities of  English  lit<3rature  as  a  culture  study  and  a  disci- 
plinary power  are  practically  unlimited.  Let  us  consecrate  to  its 
teaching  the  most  expansive  and  aspiring  type  of  scholarship  that 
the  profession  in  this  country  has  thus  far  been  able  to  develop. 


THE    TEACHING    OF    THE   CLASSICAL 

LANGUAGES.^ 

in. 

THE   FIRST   YEAR   LS    LATIN. — II. 
BY  ADELINE  A.   KNIGHT. 

IT  will  be  very  well  for  teachers  of  Latin  to  write  above  the 
notes  and  helps  which  they  may  be  arranging  this  summer 
toward  next  winter's  laboi*s,  — 

Object  of  this  Brill, —  To  increase  their  resources  and  better 
their  enjoyment  of  life  by  the  command  of  the  Latin  language, 
the  vehicle  used  by  the  Romans  for  conveying  ideas.  The  end  in 
view  is,  of  course,  cont^ict  with  the  Roman  mind. 

Menttil  drill  Ls  not  an  es{)ecial  object ;  for  other  and  more  prac- 
tical matters  are  very  fit  for  discipline  —  scientific  cookery,  appren- 

1  Copyright,  1888,  Eastern  Educational  Bureau. 


1888.]  TEACHING  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  LANGUAGES,  183 

ticeship  to  first-class  dressmaking,  any  business  of  life  where  Heir 
Klesmer's  terrible  "musts"  apply.  To  study  Roman  ambitions 
and  aims,  and  the  Roman  modus  of  governing  the  world,  as  well 
as  by  discovering  what  Romans  of  different  generations  thought 
about  tliis  wonderful  life  of  ours,  and  how  this  earth  wliich  they, 
like  us,  were  permitted  to  love  and  to  leave  affected  them,  is  to 
grow  cultured  and  fitted  to  influence  our  small  worlds  to  think 
and  feel  with  us.  How  can  anybody  fail  to  dislike  Cicero  and 
Horace  for  brutal  illustrations  made  with  such  appalling  ease  until 
he  studies  the  combination  of  prejudices,  coarse  ways  of  regard- 
ing tilings,  and  vulgar  narrowness  brought  on  by  exclusively  mili- 
tary feeling  which  was  the  deep  stain  upon  the  masterful  Latin 
character  and  in  time  fatally  limited  the  point  of  view  of  even 
gentle  and  refined  men  like  Virgil.  But  either  of  the  old  civiliza- 
tions, which  we  study  in  this  far  off  day  of  ours  as  impersonally 
as  we  do  the  world  of  stars  overhead,  informs  us  much  by  compari- 
son and  discloses  in  an  humiliating  way  that  our  modern  civiliza- 
tion is  not  symmetrical,  in  spite  of  its  magnificent  expansion 
along  certain  lines  of  development.  A  bad  boy  who  tortures  kit- 
tens cannot  help  being  a  better  humanitarian  than  Marcus  Aure- 
lius,  and  usages  obtained  among  the  noblest  ancients  which  would 
be  tolerated  by  no  class  in  a  civilized  land  now.  But  it  is  exceed- 
ingly doubtful  if  we  have  their  respect  for  good  material  and  hon- 
est work.  I  fancy,  too,  that  in  spite  of  our  quick  consciences  we 
are  morally  disinclined  to  do  our  duty  about  various  great  reforms 
which  we  know  are  desirable  and  feel  are  inevitable.  We  secretly 
echo  the  cry  of  the  Lotus-eaters, — 

*^  Let  us  alone.    Time  driveth  onward  fast, 
And  in  a  little  while  oar  lips  are  dumb.*' 

We  have  ambition  without  power,  I  suppose ;  and  how  much  of 
this  semi-paralysis  is  due  to  the  halting  education  which  was  cer- 
tainly ours  will  never  appear. 

Long  continued  diill  and  a  great  endowment  of  knowledge  are 
going  to  strengthen  these  girls  of  ours  to  be 

'^  More  earnest  than  others  are,  speed 
Where  they  falter,  persist  where  they  cease." 

Their  careers  will  be  like  the  cathedrals  of  Europe  whose  wide 
doors  stand  forever  open  deep  down  among  the  homes  of  the  cit- 


184  EDUCATION.  [November, 

ies  clustering  at  their  feet,  and  whose  spires  soaring  into  the  air 
command  a  view  undreamed  of  in  the  streets  below. 

The  semi-yearly  tests  are  in  truth  the  power  that  holds  our 
work  together  through  the  first  year  in  Latin,  and  enables  us  to 
live  with  our  pupils  in  tolerable  friendship  and  not  in  intolera- 
ble discord.  They  gauge  the  class  knowledge  of  the  anatomy  of 
the  language  which  we  will  begin  in  the  second  year  to  pad  with 
literature.  A  test  used  last  year  is  appended  with  three  of  the 
papers  offered,  marked  afterwards  for  the  purpose  they  are  now 
serving  as  Bad,  Medium,  and  Good.  The  class,  by  the  way,  which 
had  this  test,  numbered  twenty-one.  Of  this  number,  two  offered 
very  poor  papers,  eleven  some  of  medium  quality,  and  eight  those 
that  were  really  of  value.  The  three  selected  to  illustrate  the 
varying  success  with  the  test  are  printed  precisely  as  they  came  to 
the  teacher. 

An  hour  and  a  half  was  allowed,  with  a  margin  of  fifteen  min- 
utes. 

TEST.     ( Written.^ 

1.  Write  in  Latin, — 

If  we  were  willing  to  forget  the  old  misfortune,  could  we  also 
get  rid  of  the  remembrance  of  recent  insults  ? 

2.  Write  in  Latin, — 

The  lieutenant  did  not  lead  liLs  army  into  winter  quarters, 
although  the  suminer  was  almost  gone. 

3.  Write  in  Latin, — 

(a)  When  ambassadors  were  sent,  Ariovistus  demanded. 
(6)  Before  he  attempted  anything  he  summoned  Divitiacus. 

4.  Write  in  English, — 

Eo  postquam  Caesar  pervenit  obsides,  arma,  servos  poposcit. 

5.  Write  in  Latin, — 

(a)  He  shows  what  his  plan  is. 
(V)  He  asked  what  the  cause  was. 

6.  Translate, — 

Oppidum  parvo  pretio  vendidit. 

7.  In  above,  parse  underlined  words. 

8.  Translate, — 

Quum  ex  captivis  quaereret  Caesar  quam-ob-rem  Ariovistus 
proelio  non  decertaret,  hanc  reperiebat  causam. 

9.  Decline  plits  in  both  numbers. 


1888.]  TEACHING  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  LANGUAGES.  186 

BAD. 

1.  Si  incommodi  vertus  oblovisci  vultis  tarn  memoriam  recen- 
tum  injuriarum. 

2.  Legatus  exercitum  suum  non  duxit  in  herbena  quum  aestas. 

3.  Quum  legatus  mitteret  Ariovistus  postulavit. 
Priusquam  quid  conabitur  Divitiacum  poposcit. 

4.  After  this  Caesar  came  he  demanded  hostoges  armes  slaves. 

5.  Consuli  sui. 
Rogabat  causa  erat. 

6. 

7.  Oppidum  is  a  neuter  noun  of  the  second  declention  from 
oppidum  oppidi  oppido  oppidum  oppidum  oppido ;  it  is  found  in 
the  nominative  case  subject  of  vindidit  according  to  Section  173.^ 


9. 

Phis 

Plures  Plura. 

Phiris 

Plurium  Plurium. 

Phis 

Pluribus. 
Plures  Plura. 
Pluribus. 

MEDIUM. 

1.  Si  veteris  contumeUarum  oblivisci  vellemus,  num  etiam  nos 
recentium  injuriarum  deponere  reminiscantur  ? 

2.  Legatus  exercitum  suum  in  hiberna  non  duxit,  quum  aestas 
semper  iret. 

3.  (a)  Quum  legati  mitterentur,  Ariovistus  postulavit. 
(6)  Priusquam  quid  quam  conabatur  Divitiacum  vocat. 

4.  After  Caesar  arrived  there  he  demanded  hostages,  arms  and 
slaves. 

5.  (a)  Quid  sui  consuli  est,  ostendit. 
(6)  Quae  causae  fuit,  rogavit. 

6.  He  sold  the  town  for  a  small  price. 

7.  Oppidum  is  a  neuter  noun  of  the  second  declension  from 
oppidum,  oppidi,  oppido,  oppidum,  oppidum,  oppido.  It  is  found 
in  the  accusative  plural  singular,  and  is  the  direct  object  of  ven- 
didit,  according  to  Section  237. 

Pretio  is  a  neuter  noun  of  the  second  declension  from  pretium, 
pretii,  pretio,  pretium,  pretium,  pretio.  It  is  found  in  the  ablative 
of  Price,  according  to  Section  250. 

*■  Allen  ft  Greenongh. 


186  EDUCATION.  [November, 

8.     When  CsBsar  asked  from  the  captives,  for  what  reason  Ario- 
vistns  did  not  contend  in  battle,  he  found  out  this  reason. 

9. 


PhlR 

Plures  Plura. 

Pluris 

Plurium  Plurium. 

Pluribus  Pluribus. 

Plus 

Plures  Plura. 

Pluribus  Pluribus. 

MUCH   BETTER. 

1.  Si  incommodi  veteris  oblivisci  vellemus,  num  etiam  contu- 
meliarum  recentium  memoriam  deponere  possemus? 

2.  Legatus  exercitum  suum  in  hiberna  non  adduxit,  etsi  aestus 
prope  exacta  erat. 

3.  (a)  Quum  legati  mitterentur,  Ariovistus  postulavit. 
(6)  Priusquam  quidquam  conaretur,  Divitiacum  vocat. 

4.  As  soon  as  Caesar  arrived  there,  he  demanded  hostages, 
weapons,  slaves. 

5.  (a)  Quid  sui  consuli  sit,  ostendit. 
(6)  Causa  quae  esset  quaesiit. 

6.  He  sold  the  town  for  a  small  price. 

7.  Oppidum  is  a  neuter  noun  of  the  second  declension,  de- 
clined —  oppidum,  oppidi,  oppido,  oppidum,  oppidum,  oppido.  It 
is  found  in  the  accusative,  object  of  vendidit  according  to  Section 
237. 

Pretium  is  a  neuter  noun  of  the  second  declension,  declined 
pretium,  pretii,  pretio,  pretium,  pretium,  pretio.  It  is  found  in 
the  ablative  of  Price,  according  to  Section  252. 

8.  When  Csesar  inquired  of  the  captives  why  Ariovistus  would 
not  fight,  he  found  out  this  reason. 


9.     Plus 

Plures,  plura. 

Pluris 

Plurium,  plurium. 

Pluribus,  pluribus. 

Plus 

Plures,  plura. 

Pluribus,  pluribus. 

The  thing  we  are  apt  to  fail  of  to-day  is  not  breadth  and 
thoroughness  of  knowledge  of  what  is  about  us,  but  of  what  is 
above  and  within  us.  T.  T.  Hunger. 


1888.]  Oim'ARD,  CHRISTIAN  SOLDIERS.  187 


ONWARD,     CHRISTIAN    SOLDIERS.^ 

[FROM  TIIE  ENGLISH  OF  REV.  8.  BARINO-OOITLD.] 
BT  O.  F.  EMERSON,  IOWA  COLLEGE,  GRINNELL,  IOWA. 

Milites  Christiani 

Bello  pergite ; 
Caram  Jesu  crucem 

Vo8  provehite. 
Christus  rex,  magister, 

Ducit  agmina, 
Ecce  jam  vexillum 

It  in  proelia. 

Magnum  agmen  movet 

Dei  ecclesia. 
Gradimur  nunc,  fratres, 

Sanctii  Semite. 
Non  divisi  sumus, 

Unus  omnes  nos ; 
Unus  spe,  doctrina, 

Caritate  nos. 

Throni  atque  regna 

Instabilia, 
Sed  per  Jesum  constans 

Stat  ecclesia. 
Portae  non  geheimae 

Possunt  vincere, 
Non  promissus  Jesu 

Potest  fallere. 

Popule,  beatis 

Vos  conjungite ! 
Carmina  triumphi 

Vos  concinite; 
Christo  regi  honor, 

Laudes,  gloria, 
Angeli  hoc  canent 

Saecla  omnia. 

^Considerable  interest  is  grivon  to  a  class  of  beginners  in  Latin  by  allowing  the  pupils 
to  sing  simple  Latin  bymns.  Besides  tbe  above  a  translation  of  "  Stand  np  for  Jesus  " 
by  the  Rev.  Samuel  Duffleld,  of  New  Jersey,  has  been  used  with  profit.  O.  F.  E. 


188  EDUCATION.  [Noyember, 


CHILD  SPEECH,  AND  THE  LA  W  OF  MISPRONUN- 

CIA  TION, 

BY  EDMUND  NOBLE,  BOSTON. 
III. 

BUT  the  law  has  a  wider  application  stiU.  To  me  it  seems  to 
throw  not  a  little  light  on  the  tendency  of  consonants  to 
vary  according  to  a  fixed  rule  when  they  pass  from  one  language 
into  another.  The  general  phenomena  of  the  LautverBchiehung 
will  be  known  to  aU  my  readers.  I  need,  therefore,  only  remind 
them  of  a  few  of  the  changes  that  actually  occur  in  accordance 
^  Gri^m-.  fonnul.  L  u,  W.e  o„/or  .wo  dmpl.  Aryan 
words  and  follow  them  in  their  passage  through  the  principal 
Indo-European  languages.  The  word  ther  in  Greek  reaches  Latin 
as  fera^  enters  English  as  deer,  and  is  seen  in  High  German  as 
thier.  The  Greek  phegos  again  is  seen  as  fagtis  in  Latin,  as  beech 
in  English,  and  as  buche  in  German.  We  thus  gain  the  following 
sequences  of  recurrence :  — 


Ther, 

Phegos, 

Fera, 

Fagus, 

Deer, 

Beech, 

Thier, 

Buche. 

The  reader  wiU  note  in  passing,  that  while  each  word  changes 
in  entering  a  new  language,  the  change  is  strictly  in  accordance 
with  a  method  common  to  aU  the  changes.  That  is  to  say,  an 
obvious  sound  never  becomes  a  difl&cult  sound,  but  continues  to  be 
modified  in  the  anterior  part  of  the  mouth.  The  sounds  in  the 
first  column  stand  —  Dental  aspirate,  labial  aspirate,  dental  soft, 
dental  hard.  In  the  second  column  the  changes  run  —  Labial  as- 
pirate, labial  aspirate,  labial,  labial. 

We  shall  find  the  same  order  of  sequence  in  other  words.  Thus 
ffenos  in  Greek  becomes  genus  in  Latin,  kin  in  English,  and  kind 


1888.]  CHILD  SPEECH.  189 

in  German.  Greek  duo  is  duo  in  Latin,  two  in  English,  and  zwei 
in  German.  The  Greek  kardia  turns  to  cor(d)  in  Latin,  in  En- 
glish to  hearty  and  in  German  to  herzen.  Pons  in  Greek  is  Latin 
pes^  English  foot^  and  German  fuss.  These  examples  may  be  ar- 
ranged thus :  — 


Genes, 

Du6, 

Kardia, 

Pons, 

Genus, 

Duo, 

Cor(d), 

Pes, 

Kin, 

Two, 

Heart, 

Foot, 

Kind, 

Zwei, 

Herzen, 

Fuss. 

The  changes  here  represented  may  be  described :  1.  Soft  guttu- 
ral, soft  guttural,  hard  guttural,  hard  guttural.  2.  Soft  dental, 
soft  dental,  hard  dental,  hissing  dental.  3.  Hard  guttural,  hard 
guttural,  aspirate  guttural,  aspirate  guttural.  4.  Hard  labial, 
hard  labial,  aspirate  labial,  aspirate  labial.  That  the  changes  al- 
ways take  place  within  the  limits  of  their  class  is  thus  obvious. 
The  reader  wiU,  moreover,  note  that  the  range  of  difference  in  the 
change  from  Greek  to  Latin  is  not  so  great  in  any  of  the  cases  as 
the  range  of  difference  in  the  change  from  Latin  to  the  Germanic 
tongues,  while  these  again  seem  to  be  more  nearly  allied  with  each 
other  than  they  are  with  the  Greek-Latin  languages. 

Now,  how  did  these  changes  come  about,  and  by  what  limiting 
conditions  were  the  variations  confined  within  their  own  class? 
Philology  is  content  to  note  the  existence  of  the  law  of  Lautver- 
schiebung ;  further  than  a  mere  record  of  the  facts  it  has  never 
gone.  But  for  us  it  has  a  new  interest.  For  if  the  vagaries  of 
child  speech  are  to  be  removed  forever  from  the  list  of  accidental 
phenomena,  how  much  more  are  we  not  bound  to  recognize  the 
operation  of  law  in  the  structural  changes  which  words  undergo 
in  passing  from  race  to  race  and  from  people  to  people  I 

First  of  all,  let  us  be  fully  aware  of  the  impossibility  of  any 
structural  changes  occurring  in  words  by  any  such  sudden  process 
as  that  indicated  in  popular  illustrations  of  the  Lautver schiebung. 
In  the  vicissitudes  of  language  there  are  no  leaps.  Any  one  who 
can  believe  that  Greek  kardia  was  suddenly  transformed  for  En- 
glish ears  and  vocal  organs  into  "heart,"  or  that  Latin  pes  be- 
came "  foot "  in  the  twinkling  of  a  philologist's  eye,  or  that  phegos 
was  redacted  in  a  night  as  buche  for  the  German  school  books  — 
any  one  who  can  believe  these  things  is  beyond  the  reach  of  evi- 


190  EDUCATION.  [November, 

dence.  The  changes  described  as  Lautver%chiehungen  were  really 
connected  with  each  other  by  a  vast  number  of  slight  variations, 
each  of  which  carried  the  sound  a  little  away  from  its  early  char- 
acter, a  little  nearer  to  the  new  phonic  goal  towards  which  it  was 
tending.  By  almost  insensible  degrees  of  change  the  Greek  trU 
became  the  German  drei^  and  the  English  "  three  " ;  pes  was  con- 
verted into  "  foot "  on  the  one  hand,  into  fuss  on  the  other ;  duo 
appeared  in  English  as  "  two  " ;  by  such  slow  vicissitudes,  in  fact, 
all  the  metamorphoses  of  the  Lautverschiehwig  were  accomplished. 

What,  now,  were  the  causes  which  led  to  the  changes,  and  how 
were  those  changes  confined  within  the  class  limits  to  which  we 
have  seen  them  to  belong  ?  The  simplest  reply  to  this  question  is 
to  attribute  all  the  variations  of  the  Lautverschiebung  to  the  men- 
tal degeneration  of  the  word  in  the  course  of  the  transition  from 
its  state  as  an  original  sound  to  its  condition  as  a  reproduced  sound. 
A  lack  of  vividness  in  the  percept,  an  incomplete  re-percept,  and 
a  defective  translation  of  the  re-percept  into  uttered  sound  —  these 
are  potent  sources  of  mispronunciation  in  children.  But  how  much 
greater  are  the  difficulties  in  the  way  of  a  correct  rendering  of 
speech  when  the  original  sound  is  uttered  and  reproduction  at- 
tempted by  different  races?  Yet  the  German's  confusion  of  "b" 
and  "  p, "  of  "  t "  and  "  d  "  ;  the  French  use  of  "  z  "  for  "  th  "  ;  all 
the  blunders,  in  fact,  made  by  foreigners  in  pronouncing  English, 
follow  the  same  law  which  we  have  seen  to  be  operative  in  the  er- 
ror's of  child  speech.  And  it  seems  probable,  at  any  rate,  that  the 
process  of  interracial  degeneration  of  words  was  much  the  same 
during  the  formation  of  the  later  Indo-European  languages  as  that 
which  is  being  illustrated  today  in  all  countries  of  mixed  population. 
Parents  migrating  to  a  new  country  or  forced  at  home  not  only  to 
mingle  with  a  crowd  of  military  invaders,  but  to  adopt  the  speech 
and  habits  of  the  incomers,  would  first  acquire  the  strange  lan- 
guage imperfectly,  and  then  transmit  it,  full  of  illegitimate  sounds, 
to  their  offspring.  Each  country  would  thus  redact  the  new 
tongue  in  its  own  way,  and  though  in  each  the  process  would  be 
governed  by  the  same  general  law,  there  would  arise,  upon  a 
foundation  of  racial  peculiarities,  lingual  and  physiological,  sejv 
arate  structures  of  language  as  individual  in  their  physiognomy 
as  are  the  Romance  and  the  Germanic  tongues  of  today. 

Concerning  the  changes  themselves,  it  would  be  difficult  to  as- 
sert that  they  take  place  less  in  the  case  of  the  obvious  sounds 


1888.] 


CHILD  SPEECH, 


191 


than  in  the  case  of  the  sounds  that  are  difficult.  To  decide  whetlier 
a  selection  of  the  kind  has  actually  been  exercised  would  involve 
an  exhaustive  examination  of  related  words  in  Indo-European  dic- 
tionaries. The  reader  need  only  note  here  that  in  some  of  the 
more  common  nouns  the  obvious  labials  are  changed  but  slightly  or 
not  at  all.     Thus :  — 


Latin. 

Italian. 

Spanish. 

Portugaete. 

French. 

Filius, 

Figlio, 

Hijo, 

Filho, 

Fils, 

Palpebra, 

Palpebra, 

Palpebra, 

Paupifere, 

Bonus, 

Buono, 

Bueno, 

Bom, 

Neuf, 

Panis, 

Pane, 

Pan, 

Pao, 

Pain, 

Pater, 

Padre, 

Padre, 

Pai, 

P^re, 

Portio, 

Porzione, 

Porcion, 

Por9ao, 

Portion, 

Sacerdotium, 

Sacerdozio, 

Saeerdocio, 

Saeerdocio, 

Sacerdoce, 

Vento, 

Vento, 

Viento, 

Vent, 

Mulier, 

Mogliere, 

Mugere, 

Molher, 

Flamma, 

Fiamma, 

Llamado, 

Flamme, 

Phalanx, 

Falange, 

Falange, 

Phalange. 

The  following  are  examples  from  the  same  languages  of  changes 
in  difficult  letters :  — 


Clavis, 

Chiave, 

Llave, 

Chave, 

Clef, 

Oculus, 

Occhio, 

Ojo, 

Olho, 

Oeil, 

Stomachus, 

Stomaco, 

Estomago, 

Estomago, 

Stomac, 

Noctes, 

Notte, 

Noches, 

Noites, 

Nuits, 

Octo, 

Otto, 

Ochio, 

Oito, 

Huit, 

Aqua, 

Acqua, 

Agua, 

Agoa, 

Eau, 

Herba, 

Erba, 

Yerba, 

Herbe, 

Auricula, 

Orecchio, 

Oreja, 

Oreille. 

EDUCATION. 


The  Teutonic  languages  seem  to  discriminate  in  the  same  way 
between  difficult  and  easy  sounds.  In  the  following  list  the  read- 
er will  tind  a  number  of  words,  each  beginning  with  a  labial  or 
other  easy  consonant :  — 


BnglUh. 

£sr. 

n-Mm. 

PUwUtk. 

DMck. 

S^. 

iX™«. 

ApmNO. 

iJis.. 

w«y. 

Weg. 

Wol. 

Weg, 

Weg. 

Weg. 

IV. 

viSS 

vegm. 

H*ld, 

HMden, 

U>«etb, 

MM»d. 

Maid. 

Hwd, 

Moe. 

mS. 

Hmt, 

Braut. 

Breott. 

Borete, 

Borat, 

BUnte, 

Borate. 

BAato, 

Brioat, 

Flood, 

Plod, 

Plod. 

riotd. 

Plood. 

Flutb. 

Plod, 

nod. 

Flod, 

Blood. 

Blod. 

Bloed. 

Blood. 

Blood, 

Blat, 

Blod, 

Blod. 

Blood, 

MldK. 

MlKse, 

Ma«. 

Mofge. 

Mooke. 

Myg, 

Mye«. 

My, 

DMp, 

Deop, 

Dyip. 

Dlep, 

Deep. 

tw. 

Dyb, 

ss 

DJap. 

SWMt, 

8w«t. 

Swiet. 

«Ml. 

Sot, 

Sum, 

sod. 

S»tr, 

FUh, 

FlM, 

Flik. 

««*, 

FlMb. 

Pt«b, 

Flak, 

Flak, 

Flakr, 

Ulik. 

Meolo, 

Meloo, 

Melk, 

Melk, 

Milcb, 

MItolk, 

Mjolk, 

Hlolk, 

Book, 

Boo, 

Book, 

Book, 

Book, 

BDOh, 

Bog, 

Bok, 

Bok. 

Pole, 

Pol, 

PH. 

PUl.' 

P«l. 

pfua, 

P«ll, 

p4,i.. 

PaU, 

Mmbs, 

Nuna, 

Kkmk. 

Num. 

Mame, 

K«m.. 

\aTD, 

NIfalD. 

Matn. 

Drink, 

DrinoD 

Drinken, 

Drinkea. 

TH,^, 

DriWHl 

Driaka. 

Dreoka, 

Mother. 

Mother, 

Moder, 

Moder, 

Matter. 

Moder, 

Moder. 

Mooder. 

Morrow, 

Morson. 

Morfen. 

MorseD, 

Mor^-. 

Moixen, 

Morsao. 

Morgan, 

Mn. 

8ann«. 

SUD. 

Ae, 

Sanoe, 

9on«e, 

Sol. 

Sol, 

Sonoa, 

DV. 

DXB, 

Del, 

D«B, 

D«t. 

7*W, 

Da«, 

Dag. 

Dagr. 

To«i, 

T». 

T.O.. 

Tm, 

Aft«,         ,Ta«, 

HtI 

Ta, 

Tear, 

Tmt. 

Tbcr. 

Tnum, 

Tr^ne. 

T.,™eB.. 

Tux™. 

T«or. 

*■     J 

The  coses  when?  there  is  a  breiik  in  the  oorreiipoDdenoa  | 
marked  with  italic:^.     It  will  thus  be  seen  that  of  one  hondl 
seventy-seven  initiiU  sounds  all  save  eight  an?  in  lonvi^j-ntui ■■?«». 
though  drawn  from  nine  different  languages.     M»iwvi.'r.  t ^  i-ii  the 
exceptions  are  merely  case^  of  the  substitution  o(  Q 
,  of  a  class  for  another  soiuid  of  the  same  c 
to  "v,"  of  "s"  to  "z."  of  "d"  U>  "t,"  ol_3 
(v)  to  *•  V."     The  reader  will  furthttJ| 
of  all  —  vii.,"b,'"  "II."  "m" — doj 
Let  us  now  turn  to  a  few  of  I 
gui^s.    They  may  K^  n^pn-st 


194  EDUCATION,  [November, 

ment  of  strange  habits  of  speech.  It  is  a  true  case  of  concrete 
selection.  Both  child  and  man  take  ^^the  path  of  least  resist- 
ance." Yet,  whereas  the  child  only  obeys  the  law  of  its  blunders 
in  pronunciation  until  the  moment  at  which  its  senses  have  attained 
their  full  accuteness,  the  individual  clings  helplessly  to  his  errors, 
while  the  race  draws  alike  from  proficiency  in  familiar  and  inca- 
pacity in  strange  habits  of  speech  the  materials  of  a  new  lingual 
structure. 


DOES  IT  PAY? 

BY  ELIZABETH  PORTER  GOULD. 

DOES  it  pay  —  all  this  burden  and  worry, 
All  the  learning  acquired  with  pain, 
All  the  planning  and  nervous  wild  action. 
All  the  restlessness  following  gain  — 
Does  it  pay  ? 

Alas !  'tis  disease  that  enslaves  us, 
Not  Nature's  pure  sanative  health, 

Or  the  mind  of  the  sweet  blessed  spirit 
Giving  restful  and  generous  wealth. 
Is  it  not? 

To  be  free  from  this  burden  and  worry, 

To  have  knowledge  without  fear  and  pain. 
To  be  peaceful,  far-seeing,  sweet-tempered. 

And  calm  in  the  presence  of  gain, 
We  must  know  the  pure  secret  of  Nature, 

Like  her,  be  obedient  tp  law. 
And  work  in  the  light  of  the  promise 
Of  blessed  results  Christ  foresaw. 
Then  each  day 
And  alway 
Life  will  pay. 


1888.]  EDITORIAL.  1»5 


EDITORIAL. 

IT  must  have  been  an  impressive  spectacle,  on  the  evening  of 
Oct.  10th,  when  the  venerable  senator,  Justin  S.  Morrill,  ad- 
dressed the  legislature  of  Vermont  on  the  importance  of  cherishing 
and  strengthening  the  Agricultural  College  of  the  state.  It  should 
encourage  Senator  Blair,  in  his  efforts  at  national  aid  for  education, 
to  learn  that  the  proposition  to  grant  public  lands  for  agricultural 
and  mechanical  colleges  was  four  years  in  limbo  and  survived  one 
presidential  veto,  to  be  adopted  in  war  time,  in  1862.  Although 
the  distracted  state  of  the  country  was  unfavorable,  for  several 
years,  yet  forty-seven  institutions,  with  five  thousand  students 
and  five  hundred  professors  in  every  state,  are  the  fruits  of  the 
first  twenty-five  years  of  this  beneficent  movement.  One  of  the 
most  notable  results  is  the  stimulant  thus  given  to  the  higher 
industrial  education,  everj^where.  In  several  of  the  southern 
states  this  fund  was  the  first  lever  that  raised  the  broken-down 
state  university  from  the  wreck  of  1865.  Once  in  operation,  these 
colleges  attracted  attention  and  gradually  accumulated  funds  from 
public  and  private  sources.  In  several  cases  the  state  has  been 
able  to  separate  the  agricultural  and  mechanical  college  from  the 
university  and  establish  it  on  an  independent  foundation.  In 
New  England  alone,  more  than  a  million  dollars  has  thus  been 
drawn  from  public  and  private  sources  to  supplement  the  land 
grant,  and  Cornell  in  New  York,  Purdue  in  Indiana,  and  others, 
have  illustrated  the  same  tendency.  There  was  never  a  more 
shallow  criticism  than  the  assertion  that  this  national  aid  for 
industrial  education  has  been  a  failure.  So  far  from  this,  these 
forty-seven  colleges  are  the  solid  foundation  of  the  whole  struc- 
ture of  industrial  education  in  the  country.  National  aid  to 
education  in  this,  as  in  every  case,  does  not  demoralize  the  people, 
but  stimulates  public  spirit  and  private  benevolence  to  supplement 
the  nation's  gift. 

THE  expert  in  the  high  and  normal  school  is  in  constant  need 
of  wise  supervision  and,  often,  restraint,  from  a  superin- 
tending mind  competent  to  hold  the  entire  scheme  of  education  in 


196  EDUCATION.  [November, 

that  grade  in  due  relations.  We  lately  heard  a  bright  teacher  in 
English  Literature  assign  work  for  the  coming  day,  in  the  way  of 
investigation,  which  would  consume  every  hour  of  the  most  indus- 
trious pupil.  Probably  the  half  dozen  other  experts  assigned 
similar  tasks  in  their  own  departments.  This  habit  is  becoming  a 
great  burden  and  confusion  in  many  of  our  best  appointed  schools. 
Unfortunately,  superintendents  are  chary  of  suggestion  to  this 
class  of  superior  teachers ;  who  are  sometimes  inclined  to  ignore 
or  even  resist  all  supervision.  But  the  success  of  the  secondary 
school  depends  largely  on  the  working  together  of  its  teachers, 
that  each  may  observe  due  limits  and  the  pupil  be  saved  from  the 
fate  of  the  immortal  six  hundred. 

THE  recent  conference  of  the  friends  of  the  Indian,  at  Lake 
Mohonk,  was  somewhat  divided,  though  finally  harmonized 
on  the  proposition  to  establish  a  thorough  system  of  education, 
supported  and  supervised  by  the  government,  for  the  benefit  of  all 
their  children  and  youth.  What  between  the  army,  the  contrac- 
tors, and  the  different  agencies  for  educating  the  mind  and  saving 
the  soul  of  "  the  noble  savage,"  he  is  in  danger  of  becoming  as 
rare  a  spectacle  as  the  buffalo.  Why  not  assume  that  he  is  a  man, 
like  the  rest  of  us  Americans,  and,  for  a  time,  try  the  system  of 
education  and  discipline  which  has  made  the  name  American 
renowned  through  all  the  earth  ? 

THE  sudden  death  of  Mr.  E.  C.  Carrigan  of  this  city  a  few 
days  ago  upon  a  western  railroad  train,  furnishes  an  inter- 
esting commentary  upon  the  possibilities  which  are  open  to  an 
American  youth.  Bom  abroad,  coming  to  this  country  in  early 
boyhood,  learning  to  read  at  an  age  when  some  boys  are  almost 
fitted  for  college,  pushing  his  way  against  tremendous  obstacles' 
through  a  New  England  college,  studying  law  and  graduating  at 
the  law  school  of  the  Boston  University,  he  has  come  to  be  one  of 
the  foremost  educational  men  of  the  old  Bay  State.  A  member  of 
the  Boston  School  Committee,  and  of  the  Massachusetts  State 
Board  of  Education,  his  untimely  death  has  stopped  short  what 
many  have  predicted  would  prove  a  very  brilliant  and  useful 
career.     He  was  a  warm  friend  of  the  public  school  cause. 


1888.]  THE  PBOMOTION  OF  PATRIOTISM.  197 


THE  PROMOTION  OF  PATRIOTISM. 

THE  American  system  of  public  schools  has  for  its  comer-stone  the 
preservation  of  our  republican  institutions.  This  cannot  be  kept 
too  closely  before  the  mind  of  every  one  connected  with  school  work. 
Whatever  tends  to  foster  a  love  of  country,  an  appreciation  of  good  gov- 
ernment, a  correct  understanding  of  our  institutions,  should  lie  near  the 
heart  of  every  earnest  teacher.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  larger  atten- 
tion has  not  been  given  to  instilling  sentiments  of  patriotism  into  the 
minds  of  the  children  in  the  schools  by  means  of  patriotic  readers,  and 
selections  from  the  writings  of  the  great  men  connected  with  our  politi- 
cal history.  The  pupils  in  every  school  in  the  land  should  be  familiar 
with  Lincoln's  address  at  Gettysburg.  How  strange  it  is  that  our  patri- 
otic airs,  and  our  national  hymns  cannot  all  be  found  in  any  one  book. 
The  schools  are  to  be  congratulated  that  a  book  containing  the  best 
patriotic  selections  f^om  the  world,  with  a  chapter  devoted  to  our  ^^  Patri- 
otic and  National  Songs,  Hymns  and  Odes,"  together  with  a  large  and 
rich  gathering  of  original  contributions,  is  soon  to  appear,  compiled  by 
Gen.  H.  B.  Carrington.^ 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  this  reader  will  receive  a  wide  circulation  and 
find  full  use  in  all  parts  of  our  common  country.  No  previous  decade 
has  been  so  prolific  as  the  present  in  the  production  of  important  aids 
to  the  study  of  our  national  history.  Among  the  important  books  which 
have  lately  appeared  is  one  by  that  eminent  educator.  Dr.  B.  A.  Hins- 
dale, now  professor  of  the  science  and  art  of  teaching  in  the  University 
of  Michigan,  filling  the  chair  lately  vacated  by  that  other  eminent  teacher, 
Dr.  William  H.  Payne.     This  book  is  called  "  The  Old  Northwest."  ^ 

This  valuable  work  exhibits  ripe  scholarship,  a  royal  historical  genius, 
and  a  profound  spirit  of  patriotism.  From  ^'  North  America  in  Outline," 
down  through  the  French  discoveries  and  settlements,  showing  how 
"  England  wrested  the  Northwest  from  France,"  along  the  line  of  the 
"  Thirteen  Colonies  as  Constituted  by  the  Royal  Charters,"  the  author 
«hows  '*The  Western  Land  Policy  of  the  British  Government,"  "The 
Northwest  in  the  Revolution,"  how  "  The  United  States  wrested  the 

1 A  Patriotic  Reader;  containing  selections  in  verse  and  prose  firom  all  ages,  lands,  and 
races.  With  historical  Notes.  By  Henry  B.  Carrington,  U.  S.  A.,  LL. D.  Philadelphia: 
J.  B.  Llppincott  Co.    1888. 

*"  The  Old  Northwest,*'  with  a  view  of  the  thirteen  colonies  as  constituted  hy  the  royal 
•charters.    By  B.:A.  Hinsdale,  Ph.  D.    New  York:    Townsend  Mao  Conn.    1888.    Pp.  440 


Id8  ED  UCA  TlOy.  [N  o  vember. 

Northwest  from  England,"  ''  The  Northwestern  Land  Claims,"  and  '*  The 
Northwestern  Cessions,"  **The  Ordinance  of  1787,"  ''The  Territory 
Northwest  of  the  River  Ohio,"  "The  Admission  of  the  Northwestern 
States,"  "Slavery  in  the  Northwest,"  '* The  Connecticut  Western  Re- 
serve," and  finally,  "  A  Century  of  Progress." 

The  book  is  in  reality  a  new  history  of  the  United  States,  from  the 
Ohio  standpoint,  and  is  a  monument  of  patient  industry,  and  patriotic 
appreciation  of  the  importance  to  our  republic  of  these  wonderful  chap- 
ters in  the  history  which  gave  us  this  "  Northwest,"  instead  of  assigning 
it  to  either  Great  Britain  or  Spain,  in  which  case  it  would  have  been  a 
constant  menace  and  probably  a  fatal  barrier  against  our  progress  west- 
ward. It  is  difficult  to  overestimate  the  importance  to  our  republic  of 
this  "Old  Northwest"  territory.  It  embraces  a  country  covering  more 
than  250,000  square  miles,  a  territory  larger  by  far  than  France  or 
Spain,  Germany  or  Italy.  Its  population  has  increased  with  surprising 
rapidity  from  less  than  50,000  at  the  beginning  of  the  present  century  to 
13,000,000  the  present  year,  1888.  This  section  now  produces  on  an 
average  about  one-third  of  the  entire  crop  of  our  count r}'  in  wheat,  oats, 
potatoes,  Indian  corn,  and  ha3\  It  has  nearly  one-thiixl  of  all  tbe  rail- 
roads, reckoned  by  miles,  in  the  United  States,  and  has  for  many  years 
held  a  controlling  influence,  in  many  respects,  over  the  federal  govern- 
ment. The  people  of  the  United  States  have  only  once  in  thirty  3'ear8 
elected  a  chief  magistrate  from  outside  of  the  "Old  Northwest,"  and 
he,  our  present  President,  was  but  just  over  the  border  in  the  State  of 
New  York.  One  of  the  candidates  now  before  the  people  for  that  high 
office  is  also  from  this  section.  Virginia  was  formerly  called  the  "  mother 
of  presidents."  This  "  Old  Northwest "  seems  to  be  in  a  fair  way  to 
dispute  that  title,  erelong,  with  the  "  Old  Dominion." 

By  a  singular  coincidence  another  important  work  upon  this  same 
patriotic  section,  and  giving  a  graphic  account  of  the  earliest  organized 
settlement  within  this  region,  a  book  long  looked  for  by  historical  stu- 
dents, and  of  untold  value,  has  just  appeared,  in  the  life  of  that  famous 
Ohio  pioneer.  Rev.  Manasseh  Cutler,  LL.  D.^ 

This  Life  of  Doctor  Cutler  is  in  reality  a  history  of  the  Marietta  set- 
tlement, which  has  just  celebrated  its  centennial. 

"  Rev.  Doctor  Cutler  was  prominent  in  Massachusetts  as  a  clergyman, 
scientist,  and  politician  for  fifly  years  prior  to  1820.  His  memoir  has 
been  carefully  prepared  by  his  grandchildren  from  hitherto  unpublished 
family  papers  in  their  hands. 

"The  earlier  chapters  covering  the  period  to  1783  contain  a  vivid 

1  Life,  Journal  and  Correspondence  of  Rev.  Manasseh  Cutler,  LL.  D.  By  his  grrand- 
children,  William  Parker  Cutler  and  Julia  Perkins  Cutler.  Two  volumes.  Pp.  624,  495. 
Cincinnati :  Robert  Clarke  A  Co.  1888.  Price  $5.00  net.  Sent  by  mail  on  receipt  of  the 
price. 


1888.]  THE  PBOMOTION  OF  PATRIOTISM.  109 

picture  of  life  in  New  England,  in  colonial  times,  and  during  the  Revo-- 
lutionary  War,  in  which  Doctor  Cutler  served  two  campaigns  as  chap- 
lain. 

''The  account  of  a  visit  to  the  White  Mountains  with  Rev.  Jeremy 
Belknap  and  others  in  1784,  and  of  a  second  visit  in  1804;  the  corre- 
spondence with  Mr.  Belknap,  largely  concerning  the  early  days  of  the 
American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences ;  the  botanical  correspondence 
with  Professor  Peck,  Doctor  Mulilenburgh,  Samuel  Vaughn,  and  others 
in  America,  Doctor  Jonathan  Stokes  of  England,  and  Doctors  Schwartz 
and  Paykull  of  Sweden,  will  be  of  special  interest  to  all  scientists. 

'*  The  journal  of  his  visits  to  New  York  and  Philadelphia  as  agent  of 
the  Ohio  Company  to  purchase  lands  in  the  Northwest  Territory,  which 
has  been  often  quoted  from,  is  given  in  full.  It  contains  the  only  history 
of  the  negotiations  with  Congress  which  resulted  in  the  passage  of  the 
Ordinance  of  1787  and  in  the  first  settlement  of  Ohio  at  Marietta  by  a 
colon}'  of  old  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  Revolutionary  Army ;  and  an 
entertaining  picture  of  social  life  in  New  York  and  Philadelphia  one 
hundred  years  ago.  , 

"  His  journal  of  a  visit  to  Ohio  in  1788,  when  it  required  twenty-nine 
da3's  of  continuous  travel  to  cover  the  distance  from  Hamilton,  Mass., 
to  Marietta,  Ohio,  is  also  given  in  full,  with  a  description  of  the  first 
accurate  survej-  and  examination  made  of  the  Ancient  Worlds  at  Marietta. 
Many  letters  to  and  from  General  Rufus  Putnam,  Major  Winthrop  Sar^ 
gent.  General  S.  H.  Parsons,  Hon.  Ebenezer  Hazard,  and  others,  with 
much  of  the  unwritten  history  of  the  Ohio  Company  and  its  unfortunate 
neighbor,  the  Scioto  Company,  are  contained  in  the  work. 

"  Dr.  Cutler  was  a  member  of  Congress  from  the  Essex  North  Dis- 
trict, Massachusetts,  1801  to  1805,  during  President  Jefferson's  first 
term.  His  letters  to  his  family  and  friends  from  Washington  are  very 
full,  and  cover  a  great  variety  of  topics.  Accounts  of  speeches  of  the 
elder  Bayard,  John  Randolph,  and  others ;  of  dinners  at  the  President's 
and  British  Minister's ;  of  a  visit  by  a  party  of  Federal  Congressmen  to 
Mrs.  Washington,  at  Mt.  Vernon ;  of  a  horse  race  which  Congress  ad- 
journed to  attend ;  a  description  of  Washington  when  it  was  little  more 
than  a  village,  and  of  Alexandria  when  it  was  an  important  commercial 
city :  these,  with  his  diary,  form  a  valuable  and  interesting  contribution 
to  the  social  and  political  history  of  the  period." 

The  journals  and  descriptions  are  delightfully  readable,  and  as  a  source 
of  simple  entertainment  this  work  will  prove  as  attractive  as  a  romance. 
Senator  Hoar  in  his  oration  at  the  late  Marietta  Centennial  said  of  Doc- 
tor Cutler :  — 

'^  He  was  probably  the  fittest  man  on  the  continent,  except  Franklin, 


190  EDUCATION.  [November, 

dence.  The  changes  described  as  Lautverschiebungen  were  really 
connected  with  each  other  by  a  vast  number  of  slight  variations, 
each  of  which  carried  the  sound  a  little  away  from  its  early  char- 
acter, a  little  nearer  to  the  new  phonic  goal  towards  which  it  was 
tending.  By  almost  insensible  degrees  of  change  the  Greek  trU 
became  the  German  drei^  and  the  English  "  three  " ;  pes  was  con- 
verted into  "  foot "  on  the  one  hand,  into  fuss  on  the  other ;  duo 
appeared  in  English  as  "  two  " ;  by  such  slow  vicissitudes,  in  fact, 
all  the  metamorphoses  of  the  Lautverschiehmig  were  accomplished. 

What,  now,  were  the  causes  which  led  to  the  changes,  and  how 
were  those  changes  confined  within  the  class  limits  to  which  we 
have  seen  them  to  belong  ?  The  simplest  reply  to  this  question  is 
to  attribute  all  the  variations  of  the  Lautverschiebung  to  the  men- 
tal degeneration  of  the  word  in  the  course  of  the  transition  from 
its  state  as  an  original  sound  to  its  condition  as  a  reproduced  sound. 
A  lack  of  vividness  in  the  percept,  an  incomplete  re-percept,  and 
a  defective  translation  of  the  re-percept  into  uttered  sound  —  these 
are  potent  sources  of  mispronunciation  in  children.  But  how  much 
greater  are  the  difficulties  in  the  way  of  a  correct  rendering  of 
speech  when  the  original  sound  is  uttered  and  reproduction  at- 
tempted by  different  races?  Yet  the  German's  confusion  of  "b" 
and  " p, "  of  "  t "  and  "  d  "  ;  the  French  use  of  "z  "  for  "  th  " ;  all 
the  blunders,  in  fact,  made  by  foreigners  in  pronouncing  English, 
follow  the  same  law  which  we  have  seen  to  be  operative  in  the  er- 
rora  of  child  speech.  And  it  seems  probable,  at  any  rate,  that  the 
process  of  interracial  degeneration  of  words  was  much  the  same 
during  the  formation  of  the  later  Indo-European  languages  as  that 
which  is  being  illustrated  today  in  all  countries  of  mixed  population. 
Parents  migrating  to  a  new  country  or  forced  at  home  not  only  to 
mingle  Avith  a  crowd  of  military  invaders,  but  to  adopt  the  speech 
and  habits  of  the  incomers,  would  first  acquire  the  strange  lan- 
guage imperfectly,  and  then  transmit  it,  full  of  illegitimate  sounds, 
to  their  offspring.  Each  country  would  thus  redact  the  new 
tongue  in  its  own  way,  and  though  in  each  the  process  would  be 
governed  by  the  same  general  law,  there  would  arise,  upon  a 
foundation  of  racial  peculiarities,  lingual  and  physiological,  sej>- 
arate  structures  of  language  as  individual  in  their  physiognomy 
as  are  the  Romance  and  the  Germanic  tongues  of  today. 

Concerning  the  changes  themselves,  it  would  be  difficult  to  as- 
sert that  they  take  place  less  in  the  case  of  the  obvious  sounds 


1888.] 


CHILD  SPEECH. 


191 


than  in  the  case  of  the  sounds  that  are  difficult.  To  decide  whether 
a  selection  of  the  kind  has  actually  been  exercised  would  involve 
an  exhaustive  examination  of  related  words  in  Indo-European  dic- 
tionaries. The  reader  need  only  note  here  that  in  some  of  the 
more  common  nouns  the  obvious  labials  are  changed  but  slightly  or 
not  at  all.     Thus :  — 


Latin. 

Italian. 

Spanish. 

Portuguese. 

French. 

FUius, 

Figlio, 

Hijo, 

Filho, 

Fils, 

Palpebra, 

Palpebra, 

Palpebra, 

Paupi^re, 

Bonus, 

BUODO, 

Bueno, 

Bom, 

Neuf, 

Panis, 

Pane, 

Pan, 

Pao, 

Pain, 

Pater, 

Padre, 

Padre, 

Pai, 

Pere, 

Portio, 

Porzione, 

Porcion, 

Por9ao, 

Portion, 

Sacerdotium, 

Sacerdozio, 

Saceixlocio, 

Sacerdocio, 

Sacerdoce, 

Vento, 

Vento, 

Viento, 

Vent, 

Mulier, 

Mogliere, 

Mugere, 

Molher, 

Flamma, 

Fiamma, 

Llamado, 

Flamme, 

Phalanx, 

Falange, 

Falange, 

Phalange. 

The  following  are  examples  from  the  same  languages  of  changes 
in  difficult  letters :  — 


Clavis, 

Chiave, 

Llave, 

Chave, 

Clef, 

Oculus, 

Occhio, 

Ojo, 

Olho, 

Oeil, 

Stomachus, 

Stomaco, 

Estomago, 

Estomago, 

Stomac, 

Noctes, 

Notte, 

Noches, 

Noites, 

Nuits, 

Octo, 

Otto, 

Ochio, 

Oito, 

Huit, 

Aqua, 

Acqua, 

Agua, 

Agoa, 

Eau, 

Herba, 

Erba, 

Yerba, 

Herbe, 

Auricula, 

Orecchio, 

Oreja, 

Oreille. 

192 


EDUCATION. 


[November, 


The  Teutonic  languages  seem  to  discriminate  in  the  same  way 
between  difficult  and  easy  sounds.  In  the  following  list  the  read- 
er will  find  a  number  of  words,  each  beginning  with  a  labial  or 
other  easy  consonant :  — 


EnglUK 

Anglo 
Saxon. 

FrUian, 

FltmUh. 

Low 
Dutch. 

High 
DiOck. 

Danitk. 

Swediik. 

lee. 
landie. 

Way, 

Weg, 

Wei, 

Weg, 

Weg, 

Weg. 

r^. 

v^ 

Vegur, 

Maid, 

Maeden, 

Mageth, 

Maagd. 

Maid, 

Magd, 

Moe, 

•• 

Mo, 

Maer, 

Breast, 

Breost, 

Borate, 

Borst, 

Bttrste, 

Borste, 

B9rste, 

Briost, 

Flood, 

Flod. 

Flod, 

Vloed, 

Flood. 

Fluth, 

Flod, 

Flod, 

Flod, 

Blood, 

Blod, 

Bloed, 

Bloed, 

Blood, 

Blut, 

Blod, 

Blod, 

Blood, 

Midge. 

Migge. 

Mug, 

Mugge, 

Mucke, 

Myg, 

Mygg, 

My, 

Deep, 

Deop, 

Dylp. 

Diep, 

Deep, 

TV. 

Dyb, 

DJup, 

pjup. 

Sweet, 

Swet, 

Swiet, 

Zo€i, 

Sot, 

Suss, 

S(id. 

SKtr, 

Fish, 

Fisc, 

Fisk, 

Vi$ck, 

Fissh, 

Fisch, 

Fisk. 

Fisk, 

Fiskr, 

Milk, 

Meolo, 

Meloc, 

Melk, 

Melk, 

Milch, 

MPelk, 

MJolk, 

Miolk, 

Book, 

Boo, 

Boek, 

Boek, 

Book, 

Bach, 

Bog. 

Bok, 

Bok, 

Pole, 

Pol, 

Pal. 

Paal,< 

Paal, 

PflOil, 

Pael, 

P^e. 

PaU, 

Name, 

Nama, 

Kama, 

Naam. 

Name. 

Name, 

Nam, 

Nfinn, 

Nafh. 

Drink, 

Drlnoan, 

Drinken, 

Drinken, 

TrtfilrMt, 

DriitMl 

Dricka, 

Dreoka, 

Mother, 

Mother, 

Moder, 

Moeder. 

Moder, 

Mutter, 

Moder, 

Moder, 

Mooder, 

Morrow, 

Morgon, 

Morgen, 

Morgen, 

Morgen, 

Morgen, 

Morgen, 

Morgon, 

Morgun, 

San, 

Sunna, 

Sun, 

Zon, 

Sunne, 

Sonne, 

Sol, 

Sol, 

Sunna, 

Day, 

Daeg, 

Dei, 

Dag, 

Dag, 

Tag, 

Dag, 

Dag, 

Dagr. 

Toe, 

Ta, 

Tane, 

Tee, 

Taan, 

Zehe, 

Taa, 

Hri 

Ta. 

Tear, 

Tear, 

Ther, 

Traan, 

Trane, 

Thraene, 

Taare, 

Taor, 

Tar. 

The  cases  where  there  is  a  break  in  the  correspondence  are 
marked  with  italics.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that  of  one  hundred  and 
seventy-seven  initial  sounds  all  save  eight  are  in  correspondence, 
though  drawn  from  nine  different  languages.  Moreover,  even  the 
exceptions  are  merely  cases  of  the  substitution  of  one  of  the  sounds 
of  a  class  for  another  sound  of  the  same  class  — the  change  of  "  f  " 
to  "  V,"  of  "  s  "  to  "z,"  of  "  d  "  to  "  t,"  of  ''  t "  to  "  z,"  and  of  "  w  " 
(v)  to  "  V."  The  reader  will  further  note  that  the  easiest  sounds 
of  all  —  viz.,  "b,"  "p,"  "m"  —  do  not  yield  a  single  exception. 
Let  us  now  turn  to  a  few  of  the  difficult  sounds  of  the  same  lan- 
guages.    They  may  be  represented  as  follows :  — 


1888.] 


CHILD  SPEECH. 


193 


u 

J?^    a 

a 


i 


*  4 


a 


BO      *d 


g 


a 
a 


Is" 


a 

a 


^     "O 


8  -o  I   3 

H    H     ^    fr 


I 


4 


>4 

M 


•*  i  1 

«^  I  5 


5  ? 

it    H 


tq 


.a 


a    -o    ^'   JS    »:   a'    S    ^ 

3    3    Q    Q    •? 


S    N    n 


I' 
3  I 


a 


s 
0    S 


^1 


Q    3 


H      W 


Q      *     tad 


u 

®    a 

I   3 


1   3 


-     "O 


Q    M    tid 


M 


a 

9 


a 
o 


a 

M 


f 


a 


a 

a 


s 


a 


2    o     « 
•a     o 


<g 


2     2?^ 

5    9    S    ^ 

I  .^  g  m 


■si 


i 

a 

t 

1 

a' 
a 

5 

* 

2 

s 


O       O       V 

O    Q    H 


-  s 


5'  I   --   I  2    i    .  1  ^- 

03 


5 


o 

nJ 


o 


^    ^    g 


o 


C3 


2 


H 

O 


I 


fi4 

60 


«-   -o    J^    2 

S      J*      J3       9      JS 

Q     Q     Q     &si     H 


-    5    "O    jJ  ^    A    A 


S 


S 


o 


„   B  §  8  a  a  ^- 

32     o'S     ?^t^5S 


o  s  >•  >» 


M 
O 


C3 


The  above  table  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  words,  all  of  them 
exemplifjdng  the  difficult  class  of  consonants,  yields  no  fewer  than 
seventy-nine  variations  of  related  sounds.  It  would  thus  seem^ 
from  the  examples  cited  — all  of  them  either  written  down  at  ran- 
dom or  selected  with  a  simple  preference  in  favor  of  words  of 
common  occurrence  —  that  in  interracial  changes  of  speech-sounds 
there  is  far  less  tendency  to  variation  in  those  sounds  which  are 
easily  imitated  than  is  noticeable  in  the  sounds  that  are  not  so 
easily  followed  with  ear  and  eye. 

The  preference  exercised  by  the  child  for  the  sounds  which  can 
be  easiest  reproduced  is  thus  exercised  alike  by  the  individual 
learning  a  new  language,  and  by  the  race  forced  into  the  acquire- 


194  ED  UCA  TIOX.  [November, 

ment  of  strauge  habits  of  speech.  It  is  a  true  case  of  concrete 
selection.  Both  child  and  man  take  ^Hhe  path  of  least  resist- 
ance." Yet,  whereas  the  child  only  obeys  the  law  of  its  blunders 
in  pronunciation  until  the  moment  at  which  its  senses  have  attained 
their  full  accuteness,  the  individual  clings  helplessly  to  his  errors, 
while  the  race  draws  alike  from  proficiency  in  familiar  and  inca- 
pacity in  strange  habits  of  speech  the  materials  of  a  new  lingual 
structure. 


DOBS  IT  PAYf 

BY  ELIZABETH  PORTER  GOULD. 

DOES  it  pay  —  all  this  burden  and  worry, 
All  the  learning  acquired  with  pain. 
All  the  planning  and  nervous  wild  action. 
All  the  restlessness  following  gain  — 
Does  it  pay  ? 

Alas !  'tis  disease  that  enslaves  us, 
Not  Nature's  pure  sanative  health, 

Or  the  mind  of  the  sweet  blessed  spirit 
Giving  restful  and  generous  wealth. 
Is  it  not? 

To  be  free  from  this  burden  and  worry. 

To  have  knowledge  without  fear  and  pain. 
To  be  peaceful,  far-seeing,  sweet-tempered. 

And  calm  in  the  presence  of  gain. 
We  must  know  the  pure  secret  of  Nature, 

Like  her,  be  obedient  tp  law, 
And  work  in  the  light  of  the  promise 
Of  blessed  results  Christ  foresaw. 
Then  each  day 
And  alway 
Life  will  pay. 


1888.]  EDITORIAL,  195 


EDITORIAL. 

IT  must  have  been  an  impressive  spectacle,  on  the  evening  of 
Oct.  10th,  when  the  venerable  senator,  Justin  S.  Morrill,  ad- 
dressed the  legislature  of  Vermont  on  the  importance  of  cherishing 
and  strengthening  the  Agricultural  College  of  the  state.  It  should 
encourage  Senator  Blair,  in  his  efforts  at  national  aid  for  education, 
to  learn  that  the  proposition  to  grant  public  lands  for  agricultural 
and  mechanical  colleges  was  four  years  in  limbo  and  survived  one 
presidential  veto,  to  be  adopted  in  war  time,  in  1862.  Although 
the  distracted  state  of  the  country  was  unfavorable,  for  several 
years,  yet  forty-seven  institutions,  with  five  thousand  students 
and  five  hundred  professors  in  every  state,  are  the  fruits  of  the 
first  twenty-five  years  of  this  beneficent  movement.  One  of  the 
most  notable  results  is  the  stimulant  thus  given  to  the  higher 
industrial  education,  everywhere.  In  several  of  the  southern 
states  this  fund  was  the  first  lever  that  raised  the  broken-down 
state  university  from  the  wreck  of  1865.  Once  in  operation,  these 
colleges  attracted  attention  and  gradually  accumulated  funds  from 
public  and  private  sources.  In  several  cases  the  state  has  been 
able  to  separate  the  cigricultural  and  mechanical  college  from  the 
university  and  establish  it  on  an  independent  foundation.  In 
New  England  alone,  more  than  a  million  dollars  has  thus  been 
drawn  from  public  and  private  sources  to  supplement  the  land 
grant,  and  Cornell  in  New  York,  Purdue  in  Indiana,  and  others, 
have  illustrated  the  same  tendency.  There  was  never  a  more 
shallow  criticism  than  the  assertion  that  this  national  aid  for 
industrial  education  has  been  a  failure.  So  far  from  this,  these 
forty-seven  colleges  are  the  solid  foundation  of  the  whole  struc- 
ture of  industrial  education  in  the  country.  National  aid  to 
education  in  this,  as  in  every  case,  does  not  demoralize  the  people, 
but  stimulates  public  spirit  and  private  benevolence  to  supplement 
the  nation's  gift. 

THE  expert  in  the  high  and  normal  school  is  in  constant  need 
of  wise  supervision  and,  often,  restraint,  from  a  superin- 
tending mind  competent  to  hold  the  entire  scheme  of  education  in 


196  EDUCATIOy.  [November, 

that  grade  in  due  relations.  We  lately  heard  a  bright  teacher  in 
English  Literature  assign  work  for  the  coming  day,  in  the  way  of 
investigation,  which  would  consume  every  hour  of  the  most  indus- 
trious pupil.  Probably  the  half  dozen  other  experts  assigned 
similar  tasks  in  their  own  departments.  This  habit  is  becoming  a 
great  burden  and  confusion  in  many  of  our  best  appointed  schools. 
Unfortunately,  superintendents  are  chary  of  suggestion  to  this 
class  of  superior  teachers ;  who  are  sometimes  inclined  to  ignore 
or  even  resist  all  supervision.  But  the  success  of  the  secondary 
school  depends  largely  on  the  working  together  of  its  teachers, 
that  each  may  observe  due  limits  and  the  pupil  be  saved  from  the 
fate  of  the  immortal  six  hundred. 

THE  recent  conference  of  the  friends  of  the  Indian,  at  Lake 
Mohonk,  was  somewhat  divided,  though  finally  harmonized 
on  the  proposition  to  establish  a  thorough  system  of  education, 
supported  and  supervised  by  the  government,  for  the  benefit  of  all 
their  children  and  youth.  What  between  the  army,  the  contrac- 
tors, and  the  different  agencies  for  educating  the  mind  and  saving 
the  soul  of  "  the  noble  savage,"  he  is  in  danger  of  becoming  as 
rare  a  spectacle  as  the  buffalo.  Why  not  assume  that  he  is  a  man, 
like  the  rest  of  us  Americans,  and,  for  a  time,  trj'  the  system  of 
education  and  discipline  which  has  made  the  name  American 
renowned  through  all  the  earth? 

THE  sudden  death  of  Mr.  E.  C.  Carrigan  of  this  city  a  few 
days  ago  upon  a  western  railroad  train,  furnishes  an  inter- 
esting commentary  upon  the  possibilities  which  are  open  to  an 
American  youth.  Born  abroad,  coming  to  this  country  in  early 
boyhood,  learning  to  read  at  an  age  when  some  boys  are  almost 
fitted  for  college,  pushing  his  way  against  tremendous  obstacles' 
through  a  New  England  college,  studying  law  and  graduating  at 
the  law  school  of  the  Boston  University,  he  has  come  to  be  one  of 
the  foremost  educational  men  of  the  old  Bay  State.  A  member  of 
the  Boston  School  Committee,  and  of  the  Massachusetts  State 
Board  of  Education,  his  untimely  death  has  stopped  short  what 
many  have  predicted  would  prove  a  very  brilliant  and  useful 
career.     He  was  a  warm  friend  of  the  public  school  cause. 


1888.]  THE  PBOMOTION  OF  PATBI0TI8M.  197 


THE  PROMOTION  OF  PATRIOTISM. 

THE  American  system  of  public  schools  has  for  its  corner-stODe  the 
preser\'ation  of  our  republican  Institutions.  This  cannot  be  kept 
too  closely  before  the  mind  of  every  one  connected  with  school  work. 
Whatever  tends  to  foster  a  love  of  country,  an  appreciation  of  good  gov- 
ernment, a  correct  understanding  of  our  institutions,  should  lie  near  the 
heart  of  every  earnest  teacher.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  larger  atten- 
tion has  not  been  given  to  instilling  sentiments  of  patriotism  into  the 
minds  of  the  children  in  the  schools  by  means  of  patriotic  readers,  and 
selections  tcom  the  writings  of  the  great  men  connected  with  our  politi- 
cal history.  The  pupils  in  every  school  in  the  land  should  be  familiar 
with  Lincoln's  address  at  Gettysburg.  How  strange  it  is  that  our  patri- 
otic airs,  and  our  national  hymns  cannot  all  be  found  in  any  one  book. 
The  schools  are  to  be  congratulated  that  a  book  containing  the  best 
patriotic  selections  from  the  world,  with  a  chapter  devoted  to  our  "  Patri- 
otic and  National  Songs,  Hymns  and  Odes,"  together  with  a  large  and 
rich  gathering  of  original  contributions,  is  soon  to  appear,  compiled  by 
Gen.  H.  B.  Carrington.^ 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  this  reader  will  receive  a  wide  circulation  and 
find  full  use  in  all  parts  of  our  common  countr}'.  No  previous  decade 
has  been  so  prolific  as  the  present  in  the  production  of  important  aids 
to  the  study  of  our  national  history.  Among  the  important  books  which 
have  lately  appeared  is  one  by  that  eminent  educator,  Dr.  B.  A.  Hins- 
dale, now  professor  of  the  science  and  art  of  teaching  in  the  University 
of  Michigan,  filling  the  chair  lately  vacated  by  that  other  eminent  teacher, 
Dr.  William  H.  Payne.     This  book  is  called  "  The  Old  Northwest."  « 

This  valuable  work  exhibits  ripe  scholarship,  a  royal  historical  genius, 
and  a  profound  spirit  of  patriotism.  From  ''  North  America  in  Outline," 
down  through  the  French  discoveries  and  settlements,  showing  how 
"  England  wrested  the  Northwest  fVom  France,"  along  the  line  of  the 
"  Thirteen  Colonies  as  Constituted  by  the  Royal  Charters,"  the  author 
«hows  ''The  Western  Land  Policy  of  the  British  Government,"  "The 
Northwest  in  the  Revolution,"  how  "  The  United  States  wrested  the 

1 A  Patriotic  Reader;  containing  selections  in  verse  and  prose  ttoxa  all  ages,  lands,  and 
races.  With  historical  Notes.  By  Heniy  B.  Carrington,  U.  S.  A.,  LL.D.  Philadelphia: 
J.  B.  Lippincott  Co.    1888. 

***  The  Old  Northwest,"  with  a  view  of  the  thirteen  colonies  as  constituted  by  the  royal 
charters.    By  B.^A.  Hinsdale,  Ph.  D.    New  York:    Townsend  Mac  Coun.    1888.    Pp.  iiO 


198  ED  UCA  TIOX.  [N  o  vember, 

Northwest  from  England,"  ''  The  Northwestern  Land  Claims/'  and  '*  The 
Northwestern  Cessions,"  "The  Ordinance  of  1787,"  *'The  Territory 
Northwest  of  the  River  Ohio,"  '*The  Admission  of  the  Northwestern 
States,"  "Slavery  in  the  Northwest,"  " The  Connecticut  Western  Re- 
serve," and  finally,  "  A  Century  of  Progress." 

The  book  is  in  reality  a  new  history  of  the  United  States,  from  the 
Ohio  standpoint,  and  is  a  monument  of  patient  industry,  and  patriotic 
appreciation  of  the  importance  to  our  republic  of  these  wonderful  chap- 
ters in  the  history  which  gave  us  this  "  Northwest,"  instead  of  assigning 
it  to  either  Great  Britain  or  Spain,  in  which  case  it  would  have  been  a 
constant  menace  and  probably  a  fatal  barrier  against  our  progress  west- 
ward. It  is  difficult  to  overestimate  the  importance  to  our  republic  of 
this  "  Old  Northwest"  territory.  It  embraces  a  country  covering  more 
than  250,000  square  miles,  a  territory  larger  by  far  than  France  or 
Spain,  Germany  or  Italy.  Its  population  has  increased  with  surprising 
rapidity  from  less  than  50,000  at  the  beginning  of  the  present  century  to 
13,000,000  the  present  year,  1888.  This  section  now  produces  on  an 
average  about  one-third  of  the  entire  crop  of  our  country  in  wheat,  oats, 
potatoes,  Indian  com,  and  hay.  It  has  nearly  one-thiix!  of  all  the  rail- 
roads, reckoned  by  miles,  in  the  United  States,  and  has  for  many  years 
held  a  controlling  influence,  in  many  respects,  over  the  federal  govern- 
ment. The  people  of  the  United  States  have  only  once  in  thirty  3'ears 
elected  a  chief  magistrate  from  outside  of  the  "Old  Northwest,"  and 
he,  our  present  President,  was  but  just  over  the  border  in  the  State  of 
New  York.  One  of  the  candidates  now  before  the  people  for  that  high 
office  is  also  from  this  section.  Virginia  was  formerly  called  the  "  mother 
of  presidents."  This  "Old  Northwest"  seems  to  be  in  a  fair  way  to 
dispute  that  title,  erelong,  with  the  "Old  Dominion." 

By  a  singular  coincidence  another  important  work  upon  this  same 
patriotic  section,  and  giving  a  graphic  account  of  the  earliest  organized 
settlement  within  this  region,  a  book  long  looked  for  by  historical  stu- 
dents, and  of  untold  value,  has  just  appeared,  in  the  life  of  that  famous 
Ohio  pioneer.  Rev.  Manasseh  Cutler,  LL.  D.^ 

This  Life  of  Doctor  Cutler  is  in  reality  a  history  of  the  Marietta  set- 
tlement, which  has  Just  celebrated  its  centennial. 

"  Rev.  Doctor  Cutler  was  prominent  in  Massachusetts  as  a  clergyman, 
scientist,  and  politician  for  flfty  years  prior  to  1820.  His  memoir  has 
been  carefully  prepared  by  his  grandchildren  fh)m  hitherto  unpublished 
family  papers  in  their  hands. 

"The  earlier  chapters  covering  the  period  to  1783  contain  a  vivid 

1  Life,  Journal  and  Correspondence  of  Bev.  Manaaseh  Cutler,  LL.  D.  By  his  grand- 
children, William  Parker  Cutler  and  Julia  Perkins  Cutler.  Two  Tolumes.  Pp.  fi24,  496. 
Cincinnati :  Robert  Clarke  A  Co.  1888.  Price  $5.00  net.  Sent  by  mail  on  receipt  of  the 
price. 


1888.]  THE  PROMOTION  OF  PATRIOTISM.  199 

picture  of  life  in  New  England,  in  colonial  times,  and  during  the  Revo^ 
lutionary  War,  in  which  Doctor  Cutler  served  two  campaigns  as  chap- 
lain. 

'*The  account  of  a  visit  to  the  White  Mountains  with  Rev.  Jeremy 
Belknap  and  others  in  1784,  and  of  a  second  visit  in  1804;  the  corre- 
spondence with  Mr.  Belknap,  largely  concerning  the  early  days  of  the 
American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences ;  the  botanical  correspondence 
with  Professor  Peck,  Doctor  Mulilenburgh,  Samuel  Vaughn,  and  others 
in  America,  Doctor  Jonathan  Stokes  of  England,  and  Doctors  Schwartz 
and  PaykuU  of  Sweden,  will  be  of  special  interest  to  all  scientists. 

**  The  journal  of  his  visits  to  New  York  and  Philadelphia  as  agent  of 
the  Ohio  Company  to  purchase  lands  in  the  Northwest  Territory,  which 
has  been  often  quoted  from,  is  given  in  full.  It  contains  the  only  history 
of  the  negotiations  with  Congress  which  resulted  in  the  passage  of  the 
Ordinance  of  1787  and  in  the  first  settlement  of  Ohio  at  Marietta  by  a 
colony  of  old  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  Revolutionary  Army ;  and  an 
entertaining  picture  of  social  life  in  New  York  and  Philadelphia  one 
hundred  years  ago.  / 

"  His  journal  of  a  visit  to  Ohio  in  1788,  when  it  required  twenty-nine 
days  of  continuous  travel  to  cover  the  distance  from  Hamilton,  Mass., 
to  Marietta,  Ohio,  is  also  given  in  full,  with  a  description  of  the  first 
accurate  survey  and  examination  made  of  the  Ancient  Works  at  Marietta. 
Many  letters  to  and  from  General  Rufus  Putnam,  Major  Winthrop  Sar^ 
gent.  General  S.  H.  Parsons,  Hon.  Ebenezer  Hazard,  and  others,  with 
much  of  the  unwritten  history  of  the  Ohio  Company  and  its  unfortunate 
neighbor,  the  Scioto  Company,  are  contained  in  the  work. 

"  Dr.  Cutler  was  a  member  of  Congress  from  the  Essex  North  Dis- 
trict, Massachusetts,  1801  to  1805,  during  President  Jefferson's  first 
term.  His  letters  to  his  family  and  friends  from  Washington  are  very 
full,  and  cover  a  great  variety  of  topics.  Accounts  of  speeches  of  the 
elder  Bayard,  John  Randolph,  and  others  ;  of  dinners  at  the  President's 
and  British  Minister's  ;  of  a  visit  by  a  party  of  Federal  Congressmen  to 
Mrs.  Washington,  at  Mt.  Vernon ;  of  a  horse  race  which  Congress  ad- 
journed to  attend ;  a  description  of  Washington  when  it  was  little  more 
than  a  village,  and  of  Alexandria  when  it  was  an  important  commercial 
city :  these,  with  his  diary,  form  a  valuable  and  interesting  contribution 
to  the  social  and  political  history  of  the  period." 

The  journals  and  descriptions  are  delightfully  readable,  and  as  a  source 
of  simple  entertainment  this  work  will  prove  as  attractive  as  a  romance. 
Senator  Hoar  in  his  oration  at  the  late  Marietta  Centennial  said  of  Doc- 
tor Cutler :  — 

^^  He  was  probably  the  fittest  man  on  the  continent,  except  Franklin, 


200  EDUCATION.  [November, 

for  a  mission  of  delicate  diplomacy.     It  was  said  that  Putnam  was  a  man 
after  Washington's  pattern  and  after  Washington's  own  heart.     Cutler 
was  a  man  after  Franklin's  pattern  and  after  Franklin*s  own  heart.     He 
was  the  most  learaed  naturalist  in  America,  as  Franklin  was  the  great- 
est master  in  ph3'sical  science.     He  was  a  man  of  consummate  prudence 
in  speech  and  conduct ;  of  courtly  manners ;  a  favorite  in  the  drawing- 
room  and  in  the  camp,  with  a  wide  circle  of  friends  and  correspondents 
among  the  most  famous  men  of  his  time.     During  his  brief  service  in 
Congress  he  made  a  speech  on  the  judicial  system,  in  1803,  which  shows 
his  profound  mastery  of  constitutional  principles.     It  now  fell  to  his  lot 
to  conduct  a  negotiation  second  only  in  importance  in  the  history  of  his 
country  to  that  which  Franklin  conducted  with  France  in  1778.     Never 
was  ambassador  crowned  with  success  more  rapid  or  more  complete.     The 
measure  providing  for  the  terms  of  the  sale  to  the  Ohio  Company  was 
passed  on  the  27th  of  July,  1787.     Cutler  was  master  of  the  situation 
during  the  whole  negotiation.      When  some  of  his  conditions  were  re- 
jected he  *  paid  his  respects  to  all  the  members  of  Congress  in  the  city, 
and  informed  them  of  his  intention  to  depart  that  day,  and,  if  his  terms 
were  not  acceded  to,  to  turn  his  attention  to  some  other  part  of  the  coun- 
try.'    They  urged  him  *  to  tarry  till  the  next  day,  and  they  would  put  by 
all  other  business  to  complete  the  contract.'     He  records  in  this  diary 
that  Congress  ^  came  to  the  terms  stated  in  our  letter  without  the  least 
Tariation.'     From  this  narrative  I  think  it  must  be  clear  that  the  plan 
nrhich  Ruftis  Putnam  and  Manasseh  Cutler  settled  in  Boston  was  the  sub- 
stance of  the  ordinance  in  1787.     I  do  not  mean  to  imply  that  the  detail 
or  the  language  of  the  great  statute  was  theirs.     But  I  cannot  doubt 
that  thej^  demanded  a  constitution,  with  its  unassailable  guaranties  for 
civil  liberty,  such  as  Massachusetts  has  enjo\'ed  since  1780  and  such  as 
Virginia  has  enjoyed  since  1776,  instead  of  the  meager  provision  for  a 
government  to  be  changed  at  the  will  of  Congress  or  of  temporary  popu- 
lar majorities,  which  was  all  Congress  had  hitherto  proposed,  and  this 
constitution  secured  by  an  irrevocable  compact,  and  that  this  demand 
was  an  inflexible  condition  of  their  dealing  with  Congress  at  all." 

These  two  volumes  will  be  found  replete  with  valuable  information  for 
the  student  of  American  history.  It  is  not  often  that  the  reviewer  has 
the  privilege  of  noticing  two  such  important  works  as  the  last  two  named, 
bearing  upon  the  history  of  a  distinct  portion  of  our  country,  and  the 
readers  of  American  history  are  to  be  congratulated  upon  the  important 
addition  to  our  knowledge  of  the  "  Old  Northwest"  which  these  volumes 
bring.  William  A.  Mowry. 


1888.]  FOREIGN  NOTES.  201 


FOREIGN  NOTES. 

England.  University  Extension. — The  local  examinations  and  the 
local  lectures  by  which  the  influence  of  the  great  universities  is  extended 
throughout  England  have  been  repeatedly  noticed  in  Education.  To 
these  measures  Oxford  has  added  a  scheme  for  giving  the  benefits  of 
temporary  residence  to  certain  classes  of  outside  students.  One  feature 
of  this  scheme  is  the  **  Summer  Festival  of  Education"  which  brings 
together  for  ten  days'  study  and  intercourse,  students  whose  zeal  has 
been  kindled  bj"  the  University  lectures.  A  second,  and  for  many  rea- 
sons a  more  important  feature  is  the  summer  session  of  the  Teachers' 
University  Association.  The  main  aim  of  this  Association  is  *'  to  pro- 
mote the  training  of  teachers  at  the  University'  and  University  colleges," 
and  in  accordance  with  this  purpose  arrangements  are  made  for  a  month's 
residence  at  Oxford,  a  full  programme  of  lectures,  geological  excursions, 
etc..  being  provided.  The  session  for  the  present  year,  which  was 
held  in  August,  is  said  to  have  been  unusuallj*  successful.  The  follow- 
ing are  mentioned  as  among  the  most  notable  features :  Lectures  on 
"  Moral  Philosoph}',"  by  Mr.  J.  M.  McDonald  ;  on  the  *'  Recent  Progress 
of  Astronomical  Science,"  b}'  Charbs  Pritchard,  D.  D.,  Savilian  Pro- 
fessor of  Astronomy;  on  "Logic,"  by  the  Rev.  W.  Hawker  Hughes, 
M.  A.,  Dean  of  Jesus  College. 

In  the  "  Clarendon  Laboratory,"  students  of  physics  had  every  facility 
extended  to  them.  In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  notice  that  the 
Royal  Commission  on  Education  in  its  final  report  advises  that  "an 
experiment  should  be  made  of  training  non-residential  students  in  con- 
nection with  local  university  colleges." 

Report  on  Public  Instruction  in  Hungary.  — The  death  of  Dr.  Au- 
gust Tr^fort,  Minister  of  Public  Instruction  in  Hungary,  deprives  this 
department  of  public  affairs  of  the  services  of  an  able  and  judicious 
statesman.  Under  his  guidance  some  of  the  most  important  reforms 
advocated  in  recent  years  have  been  incorporated  into  the  educational 
system  of  Hungary  without  material  friction  or  disturbance.  The  fol- 
lowing particulars  are  from  his  last  report  covering  the  year  1885-86  :  — 

As  regards  primary  instruction,  increase  as  compared  with  the  pre- 
ceding year  appears  in  almost  every  item.  The  number  of  primary 
schools  reported  is  16,417  ;  attendance  upon  the  same,  1,836,459  pupils, 
and  the  cost  of  maintenance,  85,110,523.  The  attendance  was  equiva- 
lent to  79  per  cent,  of  the  children  subject  to  the  compulsory  law. 


202  EDUCATIOX.  [November, 

The  year  was  characterized  by  several  important  measures  for  the  gen- 
eral improvement  of  the  primary  schools.  We  note  particularly  those 
having  reference  to  the  sanitary  condition  of  the  buildings.  Instruction 
in  hygiene  and  gymnastics  has  been  made  an  obligatory  part  of  the 
primary  course.  This  creates  a  demand  for  teachers  qualified  in  the 
.branches  specified,  to  meet  which  the  minister  instituted  a  special  course 
in  the  normal  department  of  the  University  at  Budapest,  and  ordered 
that  henceforth  no  one  should  be  employed  as  master  or  professor  of 
g}'mnastics  who  had  not  attended  the  course  and  received  the  diploma. 
In  view  of  the  great  importance  attached  to  industrial  training  the  min- 
ister established  carpenter  and  mechanical  workshops  in  the  normal 
school  for  masters.  It  is  remarked  that  whereas  formerlv  the  schools 
depended  upon  foreigners  for  their  supplies  of  plastic  models  and  appa- 
ratus for  teaching  physics,  these  are  now  obtained  from  the  new  work- 
shops. 

As  regards  secondary  instruction  the  most  important  action  of  the 
year  consisted  in  the  practical  elaboration  of  the  plan  of  studies  laid 
down  in  the  law  of  1883.  The  programme  for  the  gymnasia  of  Hungary 
is  substantially  the  same  as  for  the  corresponding  schools  in  other  coun- 
tries of  Europe,  but  such  relations  ar6  maintained  with  the  real  schools 
as  makes  it  easy  for  scholars  to  pass  from  the  one  to  the  other.  This 
arrangement  was  made  by  Doctor  Tr^fort  in  order  that  parents  might 
not  be  obliged  to  decide  upon  a  final  career  for  their  children  at  too  early 
an  age.  As  one  step  toward  the  end  indicated  the  minister  had  taken 
care  to  introduce  the  Latin  language  as  an  optional  study  in  the  real 
schools.  Scholars  from  these  schools  who  pass  the  required  examination 
in  Latin  can  be  admitted  to  the  faculties  of  law  and  of  medicine,  a  pro- 
vision without  example  in  any  other  European  country. 

The  number  of  gymnasia  reported  was  150,  and  of  real  schools,  28, 
having  respectively  an  attendance  of  35,749  and  6,371  students.  The 
total  expense  for  secondary  instruction  was  81,588,128.  Of  this  sum 
16  per  cent,  was  furnished  by  the  public  treasury,  and  11  per  cent,  by 
religious  orders. 

In  accordance  with  his  power  under  the  law,  the  minister  announced 
his  intention  of  creating  in  the  secondary  schools  chairs  of  hygiene  and 
of  political  economy. 

In  the  chapter  upon  superior  instruction  the  minister  devotes  consid- 
erable space  to  a  discussion  of  the  careers  chosen  by  graduates  of  the 
secondary  schools.  According  to  the  statistics  given,  23  per  cent,  make 
choice  of  the  ecclesiastical  and  32  per  cent,  of  the  legal  profession.  The 
candidates  for  medicine  fall  to  22  per  cent.,  which  is  less  than  is  demanded 
by  the  needs  of  the  country.     As  a  means  of  remedying  this  evil,  the 


1888.1  FOREIGN  NOTES.  203 

minister  proposed  to  create  a  third  university,  or  at  least  a  third  faculty 
of  medicine.  Hungary  possesses  a  single  polytechnic  university.  In 
order  to  bring  this  into  closer  relation  with  the  practical  demands  of  life, 
the  minister  issued  a  decree  making  several  of  the  professors  perpetual 
members  of  the  superior  technical  council  of  the  government  and  accord- 
ing to  students  of  the  polytechnic  who  should  pass  their  first  examina- 
tion the  privilege  of  employment  for  two  months  of  their  vacation  in  one 
or  another  section  of  the  public  works. 

France.  —  The  new  superior  council  of  public  instruction  in  France 
held  its  first  session  in  Jul}'.  The  deliberations  of  the  council  related 
chiefly  to  secondary  instruction  and  the  interests  of  superior  primary 
schools.  With  respect  to  the  former,  definite  action  must  be  delayed 
until  the  special  commission,  instituted  in  July  to  consider  the  changes 
and  ameliorations  that  it  is  desirable  to  introduce  into  the  conduct  of 
secondary  schools,  shall  have  finished  its  operations  and  submitted  a 
report. 

With  respect  to  the  superior  primary  schools,  the  council  has  issued 
an  important  decree  which  completes  the  laws  and  regulations  for  the 
organization  of  these  intermediate  schools.  The  decree  permits  the  pro- 
gramme of  studies  and  the  industrial  training  to  be  determined  by  local 
conditions,  but  fixes  the  maximum  hours  of  work,  the  conditions  of 
admission  and  the  qualification  of  teachers.  The  council  has  also  sim- 
plified the  programme  of  primary  studies  leading  to  the  elementary  cer- 
tificate. This  action  meets  tlie  approval  of  those  members  of  Parlia- 
ment and  of  the  Academy  of  Medicine  who  have  raised  the  question  of 
over-pressure. 

The  Minister  of  public  instruction  announces  tlie  acceptance  on  the 
part  of  the  Faculty*  of  Paris,  of  the  annual  appropriation  by  the  city  for 
the  support  of  a  chair  of  biolog}'.  The  amount  offered  is  in  round  num- 
bers. $2,300.  The  proposition  of  the  Faculty  that  the  designation  of 
the  new  chair  should  be  *'  Evolution  of  Organic  Beings"  was  accepted. 
The  designation  originally  proposed  was  '*  Chair  of  Biological  Philoso- 
phy." To  this  the  Faculty'  objected,  because  they  do  not  teach  philoso- 
phy. They  pointed  out  further,  that  precedent  for  that  title  could  be 
found  only  in  England  where  the  word  philosophy  has  not  the  same  sig- 
nification as  in  France.  In  the  former  country  the  word  designates 
science  itself,  whereas  in  France,  philosophy  begins  where  science  ends. 

The  work  of  the  reconstruction  of  the  Sarbonne  has  been  accomplished 
thus  far  at  an  expense  of  $3,589,800.  There  remains  a  balance  of  $700,- 
000  from  the  original  appropriation  which  will  be  devoted  to  the  recon- 
struction of  the  Faculty  of  Sciences  and  the  rooms  required  for  their 
use.  A.  T.  8. 


aoi 


EDUCATION. 


[November, 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  OF   CURRENT  PERIODICAL   LIT- 

ERATURE    UPON  EDUCATION. 


The  following  bibliography  of  oarrent  periodical  literatare  includes  articles  upon 
ednoation  and  other  subjects  calculated  to  interest  teachers.  Only  articles  from  peri- 
odicals not  nominally  educational  are  mentioned.  Articles  of  special  importance  to 
teachers  will,  as  a  rule,  be  mentioned  in  notes. 


Ainu  Family.  Life  and  Religion.  J. 
K.  Goodrich.  Popular  Science  Mont?i- 
Ij/f  October. 

Altruism  Economically  Considered. 
Charles  W.  Smiley.  Popular  Science 
Monthly^  October. 

American  Language,  The  Great. 
Comhill  Magazine^  October. 

A  spicy  account  of  American  pro- 
vincialiems. 

Ants.  Mound-Makinff  Ants  of  the 
Alleghanies.  L  Dr.  H.  C.  Mc  Cook. 
Chautauquan^  October. 

Artium  Magister.  Clarence  King. 
North  American  Review^  October. 

Atkinson,  Edward,  Sketch  of.  Popu- 
lar Science  Monthly^  Octol)er. 

At  Last:  Six  Days  in  the  Life  of  an 
Ex-Teacher.  John  Ilabberton.  Lip- 
pincotVsy  October. 

Austrian  Economists  and  their  View 
of  Value,  The.  James  Bonar.  Quar- 
terly Journal  of  Economics^  October. 

Belief.  Sins  of  Belief  and  Sins  of 
Unbelief.  St.  George  Mivart.  Nine- 
teenth Century^  October. 

Body,  On  the  Care  of  the.  W.  M. 
P.  Round.    Homiletic  Reviexo.  October. 

Books.  Early  Books,  Magazines, 
and  Book-making.  Charles  IL  Shinn. 
(herland^  October. 

An  account  of  early  book-making  in 
California. 

Brown,  John.  Macm%llan''B^  Octo- 
ber. 

Buffon.  F.  Bruneti^re.  Revue  des 
Deux  Mondes^  15  September. 

Chatimentsdans  V  Education,  A  pro- 
posdes.  Felix  Hement.  Academie  des 
Sciences  Morales  et  Politiques^  Septem- 
ber, October. 

Chautauqua  Reading  Circle,  The.  J. 
G.  Fitch.  Nineteenth  Century^  Octo- 
ber. 

An  interesting  account  of  the  Chau- 
tauquan  movement  as  seen  by  an  Eng- 
lish educator. 

Culture,  The  Possibilities  of.    Bish- 


op H.  W.  Warren.  Chautauquan^  Oc- 
tober. 

Education  Commission,  Report  of. 
Church  Quarterly  Review^  October. 

Education,  Royal  Commission  on. 
Doctor  Crosskey's  Evidence.  Congre- 
gational  Review^  September. 

Economy,  Esoteric.  Agnes  Rep- 
plier.    Atlantic^  Octol)er. 

Elementary  Education  in  England 
and  Wales.    Andover  Review^  October. 

An  editorial. 

Elementary  Education :  Payment  by 
Results.    Westminster  Reviete^  October. 

Emerson,  Ralph  Waldo.  Church 
Quarterly  Review^  October. 

English  and  American  Traits.  Rich- 
ard A.  Proctor.    Knowledge^  October. 

Ethics,  A  Basis  For.  Prof.  S.  W. 
Dyde.    Mind^  Octol)er. 

"  Exorcizo  Te."  M.  H.  Dziewicki. 
Nineteenth  Century^  Octol)er. 

A  discussion  of  possession  and  ex- 
orcism. 

Flying  Machine,  The  Problem  of  a. 
Prof.  Joseph  I^  Conte.  Popular  Sci" 
ence  Monthly^  October. 

Four-Hunded  Sinners.  Felix  L.  Os- 
wald, M.  D.  Popular  Science  Monthly y 
Ootobf^r 

Garibaldi's  Early  Years.  Wm.  R. 
Thayer.    Atlantic  ^'OQloher. 

Genius,    The    Irresponsibilities   of. 

E.  Lynn  Linton.  Fortnightly  Review^ 
October. 

Goethe's  Faust.  Prof.  W.  C.  Wil- 
kinson.   Homiletic  Review.  October. 

Greece  and  Modern  Civilization. 
Herbert  B.  Adams  and  William  P. 
Trent.     Chautanquan^  October. 

Greece,  Gossip  about.  I.  J.  P.  Ma- 
haffy.     Chautauquan,  October. 

Greek,  Mytholojry.  I.  James  Bald- 
win.    Chautauqnan^  October. 

Ilamilton.  Some  Precedents  fol- 
lowed by  Alexander  Hamilton.  Charles 

F.  Dunbar.  Quarterly  Journal  of  Eco- 
nomics,  October. 


1888.] 


BIBLIOGRAPHY. 


206 


Historical  Writing  in  the  United 
^  States,  1783-1861.  J.  F.  Jameson. 
Englische  Studien^  XII.  band  1  heft. 

This  able  article  was  given  as  a  pub- 
lic lecture  at  the  Johns  Hopkins  Uni- 
versity in  1887. 

HumanismuB,  £in  Hauptfuhrer  des 
deutschen.  George  Winter.  Nord  und 
Stid^  October. 

An  historical  sketch  of  Mutianus 
Rufus. 

Indian  Women,  Everyday  Life  of. 
Capt.  R.  C.  Temple.  Popular  Science 
Monthly^  October. 

Industrial  Village  of  the  Future, 
The.  Prince  Krapotkin.  Nineteenth 
Century,  October. 

A  strong  argument  for  the  combina- 
tion of  Agriculture  and  Industry. 

Jonson.  Ben  Jonson's  *'Dis«'over- 
ies.'*  Algernon  Charles  Swinburne. 
Fortnightly  Bevieto,  October. 

Kindergarten.  What  is  the  Good  of 
the  Kindergarten  ?  J. 'Lliomas.  Catho- 
lic Worlds  October. 

An  argument  for  consideration  of 
the  claims  of  the  Kindergarten  in 
Catholic  education. 

Lazarus,  Emma.     Century ^  October. 

Life.  Prolongation  of  Human  Life. 
Clement  M.  Hauimond.  Popular  Sci- 
ence Monthly^  October. 

Limoges  and  its  Industries.  Theo- 
dore Child.     Harper^s,  October. 

Literary  Idolatries,  Some.  William 
Watson.  '  National  Beview,  October. 

Luxe.  Questions  sociales.  II.  I^ 
Luxe.  Ch.  Secretan.  Bevue  Philo- 
sophique^  September. 

Malerei,  Von  moderner.  Betrach- 
tungen  iiber  die  Munchener  Kunstaus- 
stelTung  von  1888.  Carl  Neumann. 
Preussische  Jahrhiicher,  September. 

Manual  Training  in  the  Public 
Schools  in  its  Economic  Aspect.  Prof. 
Edmund  J.  James.  Andooer  Beview, 
October. 

"The  future  of  our  public  educa- 
tional S3'ittem  is  firmly  bound  up  in, 
and  dependent  upon,  the  future  of 
manual  training.  As  the  latter  suc- 
ceeds, the  former  will  flourish.'* 

Marriage  and  Divorce,  The  Scrip- 
tural Doctrine  concerning.  Westmin- 
ster Bevifw^  October. 

Martineau's  Study  of  Religion. 
Church  Quarterly  Bevifxo^  October. 

Mental  Science.  Recognition  of 
Sense-Impressions.  Association  by 
Contrast.  Science^  September  28,  anil 
October  12. 

Meredith,  George.  Meredith's  Nov- 
els. J.  M.  Barrie.  Contemporary  Be- 
viewy  October. 


Military  Education  and  the  Volun- 
teer Militia.  Col.  James  M.  Rice. 
Century,  October. 

Mineral  Waters,  Home  Uses  of.  Ti- 
tus Munson  Coan.    Harper^ s,  October. 

Morality  and  its  Sanction.  Church 
Quarterly  Bevievo,  October. 

Morals,  The  Border-Land  of.  Dr. 
C.  A.  Bartol.    Forum,  October. 

Music  and  Christian  Education.  Ed- 
ward S.  Steele.  Bibliotheca  Sacra,  Oc- 
tober. 

Musique,  L*  Amour  dans  la.  Ca- 
mille  Bellaigue.  Bevue  des  Deux 
Mondes,  15  September. 

My  Predecessors.  Prof.  Max  Miil- 
ler.     Contemporary  Beview,  October. 

Myth  and  Totemism,  Gerald  Mas- 
sey.    National  Beview,  October. 

Naturforschung  und  Schule«  A. 
Matthias.  Preussische  Jahrb^kcher,  Sep- 
tember. 

An  able  defence  of  the  gymnasium 
in  answer  to  Preyer's  brochure  upon 
the  same  subject. 

Oeffentliche  Unterricht  in  Preussen, 
Was  kostet  der ?  Annalen  des  Deutschen 
Beichs,  Nr.  10. 

Oldest  Book  in  the  World,  The. 
Translated  by  Howard  Osgood.  Bib- 
liotheca Sacra,  October. 

Old  Shady,  with  a  Moral.  Gen.  W. 
T.  Sherman.  North  American  Beview, 
October. 

Opera.  English  Opera  in  Nubibus. 
Frederick  J.  Crowest.  National  Be- 
view^ October. 

Oxford,  **  The  Classes  and  the  Mass- 
es" at.     National  Beview^  October. 

An  account  of  the  recent  vacation 
meeting  of  University  Extension  stu- 
dents at  Oxford. 

Pain,  The  Economy  of.  III.  Rev. 
Henry  Hay  man.  Bibliotheca  Sacra, 
October. 

Painters.  Boston  Painters  and  Paint- 
ings. IV.  Wm.HoweDownes.  Atlan- 
tic,  October. 

Paleolithic  Man  in  America.  W.  J. 
Mc  Gee.  Popular  Science  Monthly^  Oc- 
tober. 

Peasant  Women  of  Galicia,  The. 
Paul  Sylvester.  National  Bevieuo,  Oc- 
tober. 

Philanthropy.  Prof.  Richard  T. 
Ely.     Chautauquan,  October. 

Philosophic,  L'  Ilistoire  de  la.  F. 
Picavet.  Academie  des  Sciences  Mor- 
ales et  PolUiques,  September,  October. 

Poet.  IlrtS  America  Produced  a 
Poet?  Edmund  Gosse.  Forum,  Oc- 
tober. 

Political    Econo:iiy,     International 


200 


EDUCATION, 


[November, 


Migration    and.    Westminster  Heview^ 
Oct<)l)er. 

Polities,  Problems  in  American. 
Hugh  MeCulloch.  Scribner's^  Octo- 
ber. 

Poverty.  Westminster  Eeview^  Oc- 
tober. 

Progress  of  the  Nation,  The.  Ed- 
ward Atkinson.     Forixm,  October. 

Protection,  The  Effects  of.  Charles 
S.  Ashley.  Popular  Science  Monthly^ 
October. 

Psychologic.  L*  Association  par 
Contraste;  Le  Contraste  simultane; 
I>eContraste  successif.  M.  Paulhan. 
Bevne  Sdentifique^  September  1  and  15. 

An  interesting  attempt  to  show  the 
importance  of  contrast  as  a  law  of 
mental  association. 

Psychology,  The  llerbartian.  II. 
G.  F.  Stout.    Mind^  October. 

An  account  of  the  analytical  portion 
of  Herbart's  psychology. 

Psychologie  des  Grecs,  Ilistolre  de 
la.  La  Psychologie  des  Stoiciens.  A. 
Ed.  Chaignet.  Acad^mie  des  Sciences 
Morales  et  Politiques^  Septeml)er,  Oc- 
tober. 

Public  Schools.  What  Shall  the 
Public  Schools  Teach?  Rev.  A.  S. 
Isaacs.     Forttm^  October. 

"  Whatever  tends  to  produce  the 
perfect  American  citizen,  helpful, 
sound,  sober,  honest,  earnest,  patriot- 
ic, intelligpnt,  must  And  place  in  its 
curriculum.'^  The  author  advocates 
the  teaching  of  morality,  and  suggests 
the  use  as  a  manual  of  an  anthology 
from  American  literature. 

Public  School  System,  The,  and  the 
Ministry.  Prof.  John  Bascom.  Uomi- 
letir  Review^  October. 

Questions,  Our  One  Hundred.  II [. 
LippincotVs^  October. 

Race  Antagonism  in  the  South. 
James  B.  Eustis.     Forum,  October. 

Railroad,  The,  in  Its  Busin^^ss  Rela- 
tione. Arthur  T.  Hadley.  Scribnefs^ 
October. 

Railway  Debt,  The  Great.  Adelbert 
Hamilton.      Ftirum,  October. 

Religion  en  Russie,  La.  V.  I^s  Re- 
fornjateurs.  Le  Comte  I/»on  Tolstoi, 
ses  Precurspurs  et  ses  Emules.  Ana- 
toli* Ixjroy  Beaulieu.  Revue  des  Deux 
Mondes,  1.5  September. 

Relisi:ioii!4  Education.  Cyrus  A.  Bar- 
tol.     Unitarian  7^Ti>»r,  Ortober. 

Resiionsabilitc  Morale,  La.  A.  Bi- 
net.    Revue  Philosophique^  September. 

Roe.  ''  A  Native  Author  Called 
Roe.  (An  AutoMojrniphy.)  E.  Pi 
Roe.    Lippincott^s,  October. 


Saloon  in  Politics,  Sovereignty  of 
the.  Judge  Pitman.  Our  Day^  Octo- 
ber. 

Sciences,  The  Circle  of  the.  I.  Prof. 
A.  P.  Coleman.  Chautauquan^  Octo- 
ber. 

Sense,  Problematic  Organs  of.  Sir 
John  Lubbock.  Popular  Science  Month' 
ly^  October. 

Socialistic  Philosophy.  London 
Quarterly  Review^  October. 

Solon,  the  Athenian.  Thomas  D. 
Seymour.     Chautauquan^  October. 

SomnambuliKme.  Contribution  & 
V  etude  du  somnambulisme  provoque 
A  distance  et  a  1*  insu  du  sujet.  Doc- 
tor Dufay.  Revue  PhilosophiquCy  Sep- 
tember. 

Spinoza.  1/  Amour  Intel lectuel  de 
Dieu  d*  apres  Spinoza.  Malapert.  Re- 
vue Philosophique^  September. 

Subject-Sciences.  Definition  and  De- 
marcation of  the.  Prof.  A.  Bain.  Mind^ 
October. 

Sun-Power  and  Growth.  Julius 
Stinde.  Popular  Science  Monthly^  Oc- 
tober. ^ 

Sweating  System,  The  Lord's  Com- 
mittee on  the.  Arthur  A.  Baumann. 
National  Review^  October. 

Sweating  System,  The.  LendaHand^ 
October. 

Tariff  Experiment,  The  Australian. 
Fred  Perry  Powers.  Quarterly  Jour- 
nal of  Economics^  October. 

Tariff.  How  the  Tariff  Affect«  Wa- 
ges. Prof.  F.  W.  Taussig.  Forum^ 
October. 

A  clear  and  candid  discussion. 

Tell-Sage,  Dar  Ursprung  der.  J. 
M&hly.  Preussische  Jahrhuche.r^  Sep- 
tember. 

Tolstoi  and  Mathew  Arnold.  Prof. 
Fnincis  II.  Stoddard.  Andover  Review^ 
October. 

Tolstoi,  Count  Leo.  Archdeacon  F. 
W.  Farrar.     Forum^  October. 

Tortoise,  Habits  of  the  Great  South- 
ern. Prof.  N.  S.  Shaler.  Popular  Sci- 
ence Monthly^  October. 

Truthfulness  in  S«*ience  and  Reli- 
gion. Church  Quarterly  Review^  Oc- 
tober. 

Tutor  of  a  Great  Prince,  The.  II. 
W.  P.  and  L.  I).     Atlantic^  Oirtober. 

Unlversite  D*  Orleans,  La  Nation  Al- 
lemande,  a  \\  au  XIV.  e  Siecle.  Xou- 
velie  Revue  Ilistoriqne^  July,  August. 

Urheberrecht.  Die  Berner  Ueber- 
einkunft  zum  Seliutzc  des  Urheber- 
rechts.  Adolf  Fleischmann.  Unsere 
Zeit^  October. 


1888.]  AMOXO  THE  BOOKS.  207 


AMONG  THE  BOOKS, 

IklETHODS  AND  AlDS  IN  GEOGRAPHY  FOR  THE  USE  OF  TEACHERS  AND  NORMAL 

Schools.  By  Charles  F.  Kin^,  President  of  the  National  Summer  School, 
and  Master  of  Dearborn  School,  Boston.  Boston :  Lee  &  Shepard.  Cloth. 
Illustrated.    Pp.518.     Price  $1.60  net. 

This  is  a  practical  book  for  the  use  of  practical  teachers.  It  is  evidently  a 
V3orking  book  in  Geography.  It  has  been  prepared  to  help  teachers  ^^  to  help 
pupils  help  themselves/'  according  to  the  true  spirit  of  the  new  education.  Mr. 
King  believes  in  making  geography  interesting  to  the  child,  and  he  tells  here 
just  how  to  do  it;  what  illustrations  to  use,  what  selections  to  read  from  other 
books,  what  topics  to  treat  in  detail,  and  what  to  pass  over  hastily.  The  meth- 
ods recommended  are  those  adapted  to  the  child's  nature.  A  well  arranged 
course  of  study  is  given  with  all  necessary  adjuncts  for  carrying  it  out. 

The  chapters  on  Commercial  Geography  contain  much  matter  not  before 
accessible  toTtie  teachers  of  the  country.  How  to  Conduct  a  Recitation,  is  illus- 
trated from  actuHl  work  in  the  school,  reported  by  one  of  the  pupils.  A  strik- 
ing feature  of  the  work  is  the  exhaustive  list  of  geographical  books  in  the  last 
chapter,  classified  and  arranged  so  that  the  teacher  may  easily  find  the  best 
work  on  each  country,  the  best  books  for  a  teacher's  geographical  library,  the 
best  scientific  books  for  children  as  supplementary  reading  in  connection  with 
geography,  interesting  books  of  travel  for  children,  etc.  A  list  of  books  of 
travel,  published  in  paper  covers,  contains  some  forty  titles.  We  have  thus 
indicated  to  some  extent  the  encyclopaedic  character  of  the  closing  chapters. 
The  illustrations  are  a  valuable  feature.  A  second  edition  is  already  out.  It  is 
one  of  the  most  helpful  and  valuable  aids  to  the  teaching  of  geography  which 
has  yet  appeared.  It  will  prove  Itself  indispensable  to  every  well  equipped 
library. 

INTRODUCTORT  LESSONS  IN  ENGLISH  GRAMMAR,  for  u«e  in  lower  grammar 
classes.  By  William  II.  Maxwell,  M.  A.,  Ph.  D.,  Superintendent  of  Public 
Instruction,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.    New  York :    A.  S.  Barnes  &  Co. 

It  is  refreshing  to  observe  a  new  book  entitled  "  Grammar."  We  have  had 
lor  ten  or  fifteen  years  a  surfeit  of  textbooks  on  '^  Language,"  and  ^*  Language 
Lessons,"  but  no  new  grammars.  The  course  marked  out  by  Doctor  Maxwell 
comprises  three  books,  viz. :  1.  Primary  Lessons  in  Language  and  Composi- 
tion. 2.  Introductory  Lessons  in  English  Grammar.  3.  Advanced  Lessons 
in  English  Grammar.  The  plan  of  this  book  is  a  good  one,  and  it  is  well  car- 
ried out.  The  author  begins  with  a  sentence,  and  the  kinds  of  sentences,  and 
then  considers  the  several  parts  of  speech.  The  discussion  of  the  modes, 
tenses,  and  conjugations  of  the  verb  is  postponed,  apparently  with  wisdom,  to 
a  later  period  than  usual.  The  construction  process  is  largely  employed,  and 
in  all  respects  the  author  has  shown  himself  master  of  the  subject  and  its  treat- 
ment. The  book  is  commended  to  the  careful  attention  of  all  teachers  of  ele- 
mentary grammar. 


906  EDUCATION.  [November, 

Harper*s  First  Reader  in  two  parts.    Price  24  cents. 
Harper's  Second  Reader  In  two  parts.    Price  36  cents. 
Harper's  Third  Reader  In  two  parts.    Price  48  cents. 

This  new  series  of  Readers  should  receive  the  careful  attention  of  all  teach- 
ers and  school  boards.  The  paper,  type^  and  illustrations  are  of  the  very  best, 
and  the  binding  Is  unusually  strong.  They  are  bound  in  linen  covers  with  tape 
and  steel  wires.  They  are  fuller  than  most  other  readers,  the  price  is  low,  and 
the  illustrations,  which  are  in  the  best  style  of  the  art,  are  evidently  for  pur- 
poses of  teaching  and  not  for  ornamentation.  The  editor  has  so  arranged  the 
lessons,  especially  in  the  First  Reader,  that  while  no  more  words  than  usual 
are  introduced,  all  of  these  words  are  continually  repeated  until  they  are  per- 
fectly familiar,  ao  that  the  child  recognizes  them  at  sight,  llie  easy,  steady 
progress  of  the  lessons  Is  noticeable.  Script  type  Is  in  frequent  use,  and  one  of 
the  lessons  in  the  First  Reader  upon  the  clock  Is  designed  to  teach  in  a  very 
interesting  way,  how  to  tell  the  time  of  day.  The  lessons  appear  to  be  un- 
usually well  adapted  to  the  minds  of  children,  and  at  the  same  time  are  calcu- 
lated to  cultivate  a  taste  for  the  best  style  of  literature  as  regards  both  thought 
and  expression.  It  Is  no  secret  that  these  readers  were  edited  and  prepared  for 
the  press  by  Dr.  James  Baldwin,  and  Supt.  O.  T.  Bright,  of  Englewood,  111. 

Second  Lessons  in  Arithmetic.  An  Intellectual  Written  Arithmetic  upon 
the  inductive  method  of  instruction,  as  Illustrated  In  Warren  Colburn's  First 
Lessons.  By  U.  N.  Wheeler.  Boston:  Houghton,  Mifflin  &Xo.  Pp.  282. 
Price  60  cents. 

Professor  Wheeler  has  in  this  book  prepared  a  textbook  on  the  principle  that 
the  essentials  of  Arithmetic  should  be  better  taught  than  heretofore,  and  that 
the  non-essentials  should  be  omitted.  Ills  first  aim  Is  to  develop  the  mind  of 
the  learner,  and  he  places  emphasis  constantly  on  fundamental  principles  and 
omits  useless  subjects  and  those  arithmetical  terms  which  are  known  only  in 
the  schoolroom.  He  follows  the  Inductive  method  so  admirably  illustrated  In 
^^  Colburn*s  First  lessons  '^  which  has  probably  done  more  for  the  cause  of 
education  than  any  other  textbook  ever  published  in  America.  The  book  is 
designed  as  a  continuation  of  ^^Colburn's  First  lessons.*'  Professor  Wheeler 
is  a  thorough  mathematician,  and  not  simply  an  Arithmetic  maker.  He  grasps 
the  whole  range  of  mathematics,  and  has  given  us  here  a  book  on  an  entirely 
new  plan  which  is  at  once  original,  practical,  thorough,  and  philosophical. 
While  smaller  than  some  textbooks  upon  the  subject,  it  probably  has  more 
examples,  and,  therefore,  gives  more  practice  in  the  use  of  numbers  than  any 
other  textbook  in  common  use.  It  is  safe  to  say  that  any  class  of  pupils  which 
shall  have  mastered  '*  Colburn's  First  I^essons ''  and  "  Wheeler's  Second  Les- 
sons/^ will  need  no  further  Instruction  in  Arithmetic  for  the  ordinary  affairs 
of  life.  We  commend  this  book  heartily  to  the  careful  examination  of  all  teach- 
ers and  school  boards. 

My  Wonder  Story.  By  Anna  Kendrick  Benedict.  Illustrated.  Boston  :  D. 
Lothrop  Company.    Price  $L50. 

The  Idea  of  imparting  a  knowledge  of  anatomy  and  physiology  to  young 

readers  in  the  form  of  a  story  is  unique,  but  it  is  successfully  accomplished  In 

the  handsomely  Illustrated  volume  before  us.    The  author  imagines  a  mother 

with  two  bright  children,  who  are  full  of  questions,  and  especially  anxious  to 

learn  something  about  the  structure  of  the  human  frame.    The  mother  Is  only 

too  ready  to  gratify  them,  and  they  begin  their  Informal  studies.    First,  the 


1888.]  AMOXQ  THE  BOOKS.  209 

bones  are  coDsidered ;  then  they  take  up  the  muscles,  fat  and  skin ;  the  organs 
that  take  care  of  the  blood  and  the  blood  itself;  the  process  of  digestion;  the 
lymphatic  system;  the  nervous  system,  and,  finally,  specid  studies  are  made 
of  the  eye  and  the  ear.  At  each  lesson  the  microscope  is  brought  into  use,  and 
the  author  has  avoided  as  much  as  possible  all  technical  terms,  and  wherever 
they  occur  they  are  accompanied  by  the  corresponding  popular  terms.  The 
text  is  very  fully  illustrated,  and  the  work  is  admirably  fitted  for  use  in  schools 
as  a  reader  or  supplementary  textbook. 

Illustrated  Catalogue  of  the  Art  Galleries,  in  the  Ohio  Centennial 
Exposition,  September  4  to  October  19,  1888.  Arranged  by  Walter  S.  Good- 
nough.  Commissioner  of  Art  Department. 

Here  is  a  catalogue  containing  625  numbers,  with  many  engravings,  showing 

the  finest  of  the  pictures  on  exhibition  at  this  famous  gallery.    Mr.  Goodnough 

has  devoted  almost  infinite  pains  and  labor  in  getting  up  this  department  of 

the  wonderful  Ohio  celebration.     It  reflects  great  credit  upon  him,  and  must 

prove  of  special  interest  and  satisfaction  to  the  people  of  Columbus  and  Ohio. 

Questions  Prepared  to  Accompany  Fiske-Irving's  Washington  and  his 
Country.    By  D.  H.  M.    Boston ;    Glnn  A  Company.    1888.    Paper.    Pp.  88. 

Primary  Methods  in  Zoology  Teaching.  For  Teachers  in  Common  Schools. 
By  W.  P.  Manton,  M.  D.,  F.  R.  M.  S.,  F.  Z.  S.,  etc.  Illustrated.  Boston: 
Lee  &  Shepard.    50  cents.    Cloth. 

This  is  a  capital  littln  treatise.  It  is  a  republication  of  the  articles  which  ap- 
peared under  the  same  title  last  year  in  Common  School  Education.  It  deserves 
and  will  receive  a  wide  reading. 

Aims  and  Methods  in  Classical  Study.  By  William  Gardner  Hale,  Cornell 
University.     Boston :    Ginn  &  Company.    Paper.    Pp.  47.    Price  20  cents. 

Topics  in  Ancient  History.  By  Miss  C.  W.  Wood,  Teacher  of  Ancient  His- 
tory in  Mt.  Holyoke  Seminary  and  College.  Boston:  Ginn  A  Company. 
Paper. 

The  object  of  this  little  pamphlet  is  to  suggest  rather  than  limit  topical  study. 

The  references  indicate  additional  lines  of  thought,  and  admit  of  much  variety 

of  use  in  teaching  and  study,  giving  material  help  in  brief  lectures.    The  idea 

that  the  best  literature  is  full  of  condensed  philosophy  of  history  is  indicated 

in  a  series  of  illustrative  quotations. 

The  Fatherhood  of  God.  By  Rev.  John  Coleman  Adams.  Boston :  Unl- 
versalist  Publishing  House. 

This  is  No.  1  of  a  series  of  little  booklets  called  ^*-  Manuals  of  Faith  and 
Duty."  Rev.  Mr.  Adams  has  here  presented  "  The  Fatherhood  of  God  "  in  a 
very  attractive  way,  the  teaching  of  the  Old  Testament,  of  our  Lord,  of  the 
Apostles,  and  of  the  fathers,  and  he  discusses  in  a  skilful  and  convincing  man- 
ner *'  The  Divine  Fatherhood  and  Human  Sorrow,"  and  other  kindred  topics. 
It  deserves  a  wide  reading. 

Riverside  Literature  Series.  No.  12.  Studies  in  Longfellow,  by  W.  C. 
Gannett.  No.  37.  A.  —  Hunting  of  the  Deer,  and  other  essays,  by  Charles  Dud- 
ley Warner.    Boston :    Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co.     Price  16  cents. 

Delightful  paper  covers,  just  what  is  wanted  in  the  Language  and  Literature 

classes  in  our  High  schools. 

Algebra  Lessons.  No.  1.  To  Fractional  Equations,  47  lessons.  No.  2. 
Through  Quadratic  Equations,  47  lessons.  No.  3.  Higher  Algebra,  47  les- 
sons. $1.44  per  dozen  for  each  number.  Boston:  Leach,  Shewell  &  San- 
born. 

These  are  three  blank  books  of  large  size  in  paper  covers,  for  work  in  Alge- 


210  ED  UCA  TIOX.  [November, 

bra.  They  have  the  examples  at  the  top  of  the  long  page  to  be  worked  oat 
with  pen  or  peDcil  upon  the  page.  The  examples  appear  to  be  well  arranged, 
and  the  blanks  v^l  undoubtedly^  prove  popular  and  have  a  large  sale,  as  they 
deserve. 

Some  Famous  Art  Galleries  axd  Works  of  Art  ik  England  and  on  the 
Continent.  Compiled  by  E.  W.  Boyd.  Boston :  Leach,  Shewell  &  San- 
born.   Pp.  54. 

To  the  student  of  Art,  this  brief  account  of  some  famous  art  galleries  with 

their  contents,  will  be  a  source  of  great  pleasure  and  profit.    The  work  was 

prepared  by  the  author,  who  is  the  "  Head  of  St.  Agnes  School,  Albany,"  from 

the  outline  used  in  his  classes.    It  will  prove  valuable  to  travelers. 

English  Composition  and  Rhetoric.  Enlarged  Edition.  Part  II.  Emo- 
tional Qualities  of  Style.  By  Alexander  Bain,  LL.  D.  New  York :  D.  Ap- 
pleton  &  Co. 

This  is  the  authorized  edition  of  this  newest  standard  work  by  this  distin- 
guished author.  It  is  designed  to  follow  Part  I.,  which  treats  of  Intellectual 
Elements  of  Style.  This  Part  II.  is  devoted  to  Emotional  Qualities  of  Style. 
It  classifies  ^^  Art  Emotions,'*  discusses  ^^  Aids  to  Emotional  Qualities," 
'*  Ideality,''  *' Refinement,"  *' Strength,"  "Feeling,"  *•  Wit,"  "Ridicule." 
etc.,  etc.  It  is  a  strong  book,  and  treats  the  subject  in  a  thorough  and  masterly 
manner.  It  will  be  welcomed  by  many  colleges  and  universities,  who  desire  a 
complete  and  reliable  book. 

The  Tenth  and  Twelfth  Books  of  the  Institutes  of  Quintilian.  With 
explanatory  notes.  By  Prof.  Henry  S.  Frieze,  Ann  Arbor.  New  edition. 
Revised  and  enlarged.    New  York :  *  D.  Appleton  &  Co. 

Professor  Frieze's  classical  books  are  too  well  known  to  require  anything 
more  than  a  mere  mention.  This  revised  edition  of  Quintilian  is  every  way 
worthy  the  name  of  the  distinguished  editor.  The  notes  are  enlarged,  and  con- 
tain the  results  of  all  recent  criticism  and  scholarship. 

The  GUNMAKER  OF  Moscow.  Bv  Sylvanus  Cobb,  Jr.  New  York:  Cassell 
&  Co.    Price  50  cents.     For  sale  by  W.  B.  Clarke  &  Co. 

^^  The  Gunmaker  of  Moscow  "  is  Sylvanus  Cobb,  Jr.*s  most  famous  book, 

and  has  become  a  classic  among  stories.    It  was  a  great  success  from  the  first. 

It  is  now  for  the  first  time  published  in  a  bound  volume.    It  forms  one  of  the 

*'  Sunshine  Library  "  series. 

The  Rainbow  Calendar  for  1889:  a  companion  to  *'  A  Year  of  Sunshine." 
Compiled  by  Kate  Sanborn.    Boston :    Tioknor  &  Co.    Price  50  cents. 

A  capital  book,  beautifully  printed,  with  choices  elections  for  every  day  in 

the  year.    It  will  make  a  beautiful  Christmas  gift. 

The  Silver  Ix)CK,  and  other  Stories.  By  Popular  Authors.  Cassell  &  Co. 
Pp.  212.    Price  25  cents.    Sold  by  W.  B.  Clarke  &  Co. 

Another  of  the  Rainbow  Series.  Containing  seventeen  short  stories,  some 
of  which  are  remarkably  well  told.  ''Shooting  the  Rapids,"  '*The  School- 
mistress at  "  Skenie  Dun,"  and  '*  A  Song  Without  Words  "  are  among  the  best 
of  them. 

Fa<;ots  for  the  Fireside.  A  c<>lleetl(»n  of  more  than  one  hundred  entertain- 
ing games  for  evenings  at  home  and  social  parties.  By  Lucretia  Peabody 
Uale.     Illustrated.     Boston:    Ticknor  &  Co.     Pp.274. 

Chock  full  of  fun,  games,  and  puzzles.  It  has  riddles  and  conundrums,  sto- 
ries, ballads,  proverbs,  and  everything  else,  from  chicken-pie  to  cupping  verses. 


1888.]  AMONG  THE  BOOKS.  211 

There  are  sixteen  bundles  of  these  fagots.  The  book  is  one  of  the  most  com- 
plete collections  of  entertaining  games  and  plays  which  has  ever  appeared  in 
this  country.  Any  child  who  gets  a  copy  of  it  for  a  Christmas  present  should 
be  truly  grateful  to  Santa  Claus  as  long  as  he  lives. 

Classiques  Populaires,  Edites  par  II.  Leeene  and  H.  Oudin.  Florian,  par 
Leo  Claretie.    Paris.    Paper  covers.    Price  1  franc  and  a  half. 

This  volume  of  238  pages  gives  an  account  of  the  life  and  w^orks  of  Jean 

Pierre  Claris  de  Florian,  who  was  born  in  1754,  and  died  in  1703.    The  work  is 

divided  into  five  chapters,  which  treat  respectively  of  his  early  years;  of  his 

literary  career;  as  a  dramatic  author,  novelist,  and  writer  of  fables;  of  his 

last  years;  concluding  with  the  distinguished  tributes  paid  to  his  memory  after 

his  death.    The  book  is,  from  its  pure  French  and  the  diversity  of  matter,  — 

both  prose  and  poetry,  —  well  adapted  for  French  classes  in  our  schools  and 

seminaries. 

First  French  Course;  or  Rules  and  Exercises  for  Beginners,  By  C. 
A.  Chardenal.    A  new  and  enlarged  edition.    Boston:    Allyn  &  Bacon. 

This  capital  book  for  iMginners  in  French  was  republished  from  foreign 
plates  some  years  ago,  an^has  had  a  large  sale  in  this  country.  It  is  now  re- 
vised and  reprinted  from  new  plates  of  the  very  best  type.  Paradigms  and 
vocabularies  are  in  bold  faced  type  with  proper  French  accents.  The  exercises, 
both  French  into  English,  and  English  into  French,  are  numerous  and  well 
adapted.  Near  the  end  of  the  book  are  twenty-five  pages  of  choice  extracts 
from  French  authors.  The  vocabularies,  both  French-English  and  English- 
French,  are  very  full. 

Teacher's  Manual.  No.  7,  Unconscious  Tuition.  By  F.  T.  Huntington, 
D.  D.  No.  8.  How  to  Keep  Order.  By  James  L.  Hughes.  No.  9.  How  to 
Train  the  Memory.  By  Rev.  II.  K.  Quick.  No.  10.  FroebePs  Kindergarten 
Gifts.  By  Heinrich  Hofi'man.  New  Vork:  E.  L.  Kellogg  «fe  Co.  Price  by 
mail,  13  cents  each. 

Capital  little  books  with  paper  covers,  for  the  wide-awake  teacher. 

A  Quiz  Manual  of  the  Theory  and  Practice  of  Teaching.  By  Albert  P. 
Southwick,  A.  M.  New  York:  E.  L.  Kellogg  &  Co.  Pp.  132.  Price  75 
cents. 

Mr.  Southwick  is  well  known  as  a  writer  of  ^^  Quiz ''  books.  In  this,  his 
latest,  he  discusses  "  What  is  Education  V  "  *'  Reading,''  "  Arithmetic,'*  *'  Com- 
position," ''Natural  History,"  "  Grammar,"  "Rhetoric,"  ''Literature,"  and 
twenty  or  thirty  more  subjects.  In  the  first  part  of  the  book  the  author  asks 
more  than  five  hundred  questions,  and  in  the  remainder  of  the  book  answers 
them.  The  type  is  too  small,  and  the  ideas,  in  too  many  instances,  very  com- 
monplace. We  confess  to  no  great  love  for  this  omnium^atherum  style  of 
teacher's  books. 

Missouri  :  The  Bone  of  Contention.  By  Lucien  Carr.  Boston :  Hough- 
ton, Mifflin  &  Co.     Pp.  377.     Price  $126. 

The  latest  addition  to  the  American  Commonwealth  Series  gives  the  hiitory 

of  this  central  state  in  our  Union,  from  the  early  discovery  and  exploration  of 

the  Mississippi  River,  down  to  the  close  of  the  civil  war.    It  is  essentially  a 

political  history,  and  has  to  do  largely  with  the  slavery  controversy.    About 

one-fourth  of  the  book  is  devoted  to  matters  relating  to  the  civil  war.    The 

history  of  this  state  is  interesting,  especially  from  a  political  standpoint,  as 

Missouri  was  for  nearly  half  a  century  the  great  battle-ground  of  the  slave 


212  EDUCATION.  [November, 

power.  From  the  specially  political  character  of  the  work  it  will  be  less  popu- 
lar and  more  limited  in  the  scope  of  its  readers  than  some  other  volumes  of  this 
excellent  series. 

A  Guide  to  the  Study  op  the  History  and  Constitution  of  the  United 
States.  By  William  W.  Rupert,  C.  E.  Boston:  Ginn  &  Co.  Pp.  130. 
Price  75  cents. 

This  book  is  designed  to  aid  the  teacher  in  imparting  a  knowledge  of  the  his- 
tory and  the  Constitution  of  the  United  State:?,  and  to  guide  the  student  in 
acquiring  such  knowledge.  It  is  piiucipally  concerned  with  a  brief  explana- 
tion of  the  Constitution.  Its  bibliography  will  be  found  to  be  of  much  value 
to  the  teacher  of  the  history  of  this  country. 

Introduction  to  the  Books  of  the  Old  Testament.  With  Analyses  and 
numerous  references  to  Illustrative  Literature.  By  O.  S.  Stearns,  D.  D., 
Professor  of  Biblical  Interpretation  in  Newton  Theological  Institution. 
12mo.    Cloth.    Price  $1.00.    Boston :    Silver,  Burdett  A  Co. 

Every  careful  reader  of  the  Bible  finds  himself  punctuating  its  pages  with 
the  queries,  \ioho^  tohen^  why^  what.  The  Old  Testamant  is  a  library  containing 
thirty- nine  books.  They  cover  a  period  of  many  oraturies.  They  sprang  out 
of  the  pressure  of  the  times.  Each  book  calls  for  m  answer  to  each  of  these 
questions  before  it  can  be  intelligently  understood.  Who  wrote  it?  In  what 
age  of  the  world  was  it  written?  Why  was  it  written  just  at  that  time?  What 
is  the  central  thought  in  the  book,  and  how  is  it  unfolded?  This  volume  at- 
tempts to  answer  these  questions  candidly  and  briefly.  Professor  Stearns  calls 
it  a  '*  syllabus,**  a  ^* digest.**  He  has  given  in  compact  form  the  results  of 
many  years*  experience  as  a  teacher  of  the  Old  Testament.  The  general  reader 
and  the  special  student  of  the  Bible  will  welcome  it  as  an  important  and  valua- 
ble help.  Every  reader,  teacher,  and  student  of  the  Bible  should  possess  a 
copy.  It  will  be  of  great  value  to  all  Sunday  School  teachers,  in  unfolding 
intelligently  the  international  lessons. 

Temple  House.  By  Elizabeth  Stoddard.  New  York :  Cassell  &  Co.  For 
sale  by  W.  B.  Clarke  &  Co.    Price  50  cents. 

Of  writing  story  books  there  is  no  end,  and  there  are  all  kinds  of  stories. 
Indeed,  there  must  be,  to  suit  all  kinds  of  people.  This  is  not  like  one  of  Uow- 
ells*,  but  the  story  h  well  told.  It  delineates  the  life  of  a  certain  class  of  peo- 
ple—  if  such  as  are  here  described  exist  anywhere — but  its  scenes  and  charac- 
ters fortunately  arc  not  common.  It  will  engage  the  attention  of  the  reader 
till  it  is  finished.  When  finished,  he  will  say,  ''  Right  is  right,  and  right  is 
best.*' 

Marching  through  Georgia;  written  in  honor  of  Sherman*s  Famous  March 
from  "  Atlanta  to  the  Sea.'*  Written  and  composed  by  Henry  C.  Work.  Il- 
lustrated. Boston :  Ticknor  &  Co.  Full  gilt.  Bronzed  Arabesque.  Price 
$1.50. 

'* Marching  through  Georgia**  is  the  great  processional  song  of  this  decade 
in  America,  and  thrills  with  patriotic  fervor  and  martial  spirit.  No  other  mel- 
ody Is  so  often  sung  and  played  in  assemblies  of  national  interest,  or  where 
the  memories  of  the  old  heroic  days  come  to  the  fore.  It  is  a  ringing,  heroic 
song,  full  of  swing  and  spirit,  and  every  old  soldier  loves  it.  The  American 
Bookmaker  says  of  it :  ^^  Intent  upon  giving  the  admirers  of  this  soul-stirring 
song  a  series  of  every-way  truthful  illustrations,  the  publishers  commissioned 
that  very  capable  artist,  Charles  Copeland,  to  go  South,  traverse  the  route  pur- 
sued by  Sherman,  and  catch  to  the  life  the  necessary  local  coloring.    The  spir- 


1888.]  AMONG  THE  BOOKS.  213 

ited  work  which  illumines  the  pages  of  this  book  gives  evideDce  of  study/' 
This  will  make  a  very  popular  gift  book  for  the  approaching  holiday  season. 

The  Young  Idea  ;  or  Common  School  Culture.    By  Caroline  B.  I^  Row. 
New  York :    Cassell  &  Co.     For  sale  by  W.  B.  Clarke  &  Co.    Price  50  cents. 

The  effect  upon  a  philosophic  mind  of  reading  this  book,  it  would  be  difficult 
for  us  to  tell.  But  let  an  ordinary  mortal  somewhat  at  home  upon  educational 
subjects  read  it,  and  we  know  from  experience  that  it  leaves  him  in  serious 
doubt  and  perplexity.  At  one  time  he  is  almost  ready  to  abolish  the  entire 
school  system  and  bid  the  race  return  to  its  natural  state  of  barbarism  and  be 
happy.  Again,  he  wishes  Miss  Le  Bow,  and  General  Walker,  and  Colonel 
Parker  would  stop  holding  up  our  excellent  school  system  to  ridicule,  and  turn 
around  and  give  their  blessing  to  the  poor  school  teachers,  who  amid  much  dis- 
couragement are  trying  to  elevate  the  coming  race  of  American  citizens,  so  that 
they  will  know  whether  to  vote  for  a  high  protective  tariff,  '*  revenue  reform  " 
or  free  trade.  On  the  whole,  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  this  brilliant  author  will 
not  write  any  more  books  criticising  the  schools,  the  teachers,  and  the  pupils, 
and  ^^  making  fun  "  of  them  all  unless  she  will  show  good  judgment  in  doing 
it.  What  stuff  she  quotes  from  the  Xeic  York  School  Journal  and  The  Journal 
of  Education^  and  General  Walker,  and  others  id  omne  genus!  And  yet  she 
culls  many  excellent  extracts  from  Education  and  copies  some  sensible  words 
from  *•  A  Boston  Teacher**  and  a  Rhode  Island  Normal  School  Teacher,  which 
go  far  towards  setting  the  whole  matter  right.  The  author  quotes  a  report  of 
^*a  child  In  a  western  prairie  country  who  asked  her  teacher  if  the  Alps  and 
the  Andes  were  as  high  as  the  steeple  of  the  Congregational  church.^-  Well, 
what  of  it?  The  question  was  perfectly  natural,  and  is  not  to  be  considered  to 
the  discredit  of  the  pupil.  Apropos  to  that,  one  might  quote  a  report  to  the 
effect  that  an  intelligent  English  lady  asked  an  American  if  there  were  any 
large  trees  in  his  country,  but  immediately  checked  herself,  and  added,  ^^  Of 
course  not,  because  your  country  is  too  young  yet  to  have  any."  It  may  be 
wise  for  us  all  to  exercise  a  little  care  over  the  inferences  we  draw  from  such 
*' reports."  Again,  '*  A  Boston  Teacher"  is  quoted  as  saying:  "  There  Is  too 
much  of  this  condemnation  without  knowledge  and  without  investigation. 
.  .  .  .  Many  of  the  things  that  are  said  against  the  schools,  fifteen  min- 
utes^ inquiry  at  the  nearest  school-house  would  show  to  be  not  only  baseless, 
but  purely  nonsensical."  It  will  appear  to  some  minds  a  prurient  sort  of 
curiosity  or  what-not,  to  roam  over  the  whole  country  as  a  scavenger,  smelling 
out  all  the  foolish  and  unripe  things  which  little  children,  Just  beginning  to 
learn,  say,  and  to  hold  these  sayings  up  to  ridicule,  and  withal  blaming  the 
schools  therefor. 

•Chubby  Ruff,  and  other  Stories.  By  Rev.  George  Huntington.  Boston : 
Congregational  Sunday-School  and  Publishing  Society.  Pp.  200.  Price 
91.00. 

A  charming  little  book  for  the  children,  fresh,  and  bright,  and  wise.  It  car- 
ries its  readers  into  the  borders  of  wonderland,  but  always  has  a  hidden  bit  of 
wisdom  to  hint,  but  not  quite  to  disclose.  They  are  like  the  author^s  descrip- 
tion of  Captain  Beu*s  stories  in  ^^  the  Bobo*s  Country,"  of  which  he  says : 
-■^The  most  improbable  of  them  were  generally  the  most  Instructive,  and  often 
bit  off  some  fault  or  nonsense  of  our  own  pretty  sharply.**  The  visits  to  San- 
ta Claus  in  his  home,  and  to  the  Bobos,  a  people  who  had  no  feelings,  are 
•equally  amusing  and  instructive.  It  is  a  good  book  for  Christmas  or  any  other 
time  of  year. 


214  EDUCATIOX.  [November. 


MAGAZINES  RECEIVED. 

The  attention  of  the  readers  of  this  magazine  is  respectfully  called  to  the  following 
articles  in  the  current  numbers  of  onr  leading  magazines  as  likely  to  be  of  special  inter- 
est to  them:— 

Tery  little  is  known  by  the  general  public,  or  by  teachers  even,  about  some  parts  of 
North  America.  The  history  of  several  of  our  own  states  is  still  largely  unknown.  T\t 
American  Magazine  of  History  for  October  gives  "  A  Romtintio  Chapter  in  Texas  Uistor>'»** 

under  the  title  of  **Tbe  City  of  a  Prince." The  third  of  a  series  of  articles  on  **  A 

Mexican  Campaign/'  is  given  in  the  October  Century The  Xorth  American  Review  for 

October  contains  some  very  vigorous  articles  on  political  subjects.  '*  The  President's 
Letter"  is  discussed  by  Thomas  B.  Reed,  while  "General  Harrison's  Letter"  is  the  sub. 
Ject  of  an  article  by  Senator  Morgan.  In  this  same  number  is  an  article  on  the  "  Presi- 
dent's English,"  by  Daniel  Sparkman.  General  Butler's  article  on  "  Defenseless  Cana- 
da*' will  be  read  with  interest. The  October  Jfide  Awake  contains  an  article  on  '*  Dan- 
iel Webster  in  his  New  Hampshire  Home,"  which  will  be  of  value  to  the  older  readers 

as  well  as  to  the  children. Prof.  Edmund  J.  James  has  an  article  on  '*  Manual  Train* 

Ing  in  the  Public  Schools  in  its  Economic  Aspect,"  in  the  October  number  of  The  Ando- 

ver  Review. The  September  number  of  The  Xew  England  Magazine  gives  an  interesting 

and  well  illustrated  article  entitled,  "A  Literary  Symposium  on  Cincinnati." Our 

Little  Men  and  Women  is  one  of  the  prettiest,  brightest,  most  healthful  of  the  many  excel- 
lent children's  magazines  published. The  Writer  is  a  monthly  magazine  to  interest 

and  help  all  literary  workers.    The  September  number  of  this  novel  magazine  contains 

an  Interesting  article  entitled.  "  The  Story  of  a  Rejected  Manuscript." The  opening 

article  in  the  yeto  Englander  and  Yale  Reviewia  by  William  L.  Klngsley.  entitled,  *'  The  New 

Danger  which  Threatens  Russia." An  interesting  article  on  *■  Paleolithic  Man  in 

America,"  is  given  in  the  November  Popular  Science  Monthly. An  article  on  *'  The 

Australian  Tariff  Experiment "  in  the  October  Quarterly  Journal  of  Economic*  is  particu- 
larly timely. The  Home-Maker,  a  monthly  magazine  edited  by  the  well-known  Marion 

Harland.  An  interesting  and  attractive  homo  magazine  with  a  list  of  our  best  contribu- 
tors.   Literature  for  October  20  gives  an  account  of  Gen.  Onnsby  MacKnight  Mitchell. 

The  Xoveliett  A  weekly  Magazine  of  American  Fiction,  contains  a  story  by  Robert 

Timsol,  entitled  "  A  Pessimist." The  complete  novel  in  the  November  Lippincott  is 

"  Earthlings,*'  by  Grace  King. The  "  Physiology  of  the  Sea,"  in  the  November  Catho- 
lic Worldt  is  an  article  of  much  value. The  Englieh  Illuetrated  Magazine  for  October, 

contains  an  article  on  "  A  Dead  City,"  an  account  of  St.  David's. In  the  November 

Quiver  is  another  account  of  St.  David's,  a  city  sixteen  miles  from  a  railway,  and  in 

Great  Britain. A  story  entitled  "  Genevieve;  or,  The  Children  of  Port  Royal,"  which 

has  been  running  for  some  time  in  Frank  Leslie**  Sunday  IUu*traied  Magazine,  gives  a 

very  graphic  account  of  Old  France. One  of  the  prominent  features  of  the  October 

Lend  a  Hand,  is  an  article  on  "  Modern  Social  Conditions." The  November  number  of 

the  Cottage  Hearth  shows  that  this  excellent  home  magazine  keeps  up  the  high  standard 

of  its  matter  as  formerly. The  November  Chautauquan  gives  special  attention  to  the 

history  of  Greece,  and  to  the  sciences. Ca*sdVs  Family  Magazine  for  November  has 

an  article  on  "  The  Art  of  Type  Writing,"  which  should  be  of  special  interest  to  teach- 
ers.  Miss  Edith  Simcox,  In  The   Woman"*  World  for  November  gives  an  article  on 

"  Elementary  School  Teaching  as  a  Profession,"  which  is  at  least  novel  in  its  tone. 

ShoppdVs  Modem  Houses,  an  Illustrated  Architectural  Quarterly  for  October,  November 
and  December,  contains  twenty-four  beautiftil  designs  of  "modern  houses,"  and  estimates 

of  the  cost  of  the  same. An  article  in  October  Treasure-Trove  on  "  Russian-America." 

has  a  bit  of  history  concerning  our  country  that  has  but  Just  come  to  light,  as  it  was  a 
state  secret,  and  it  is  only  within  a  short  time  that  it  has  leaked  out.  Teachers  and  all 
interested  in  history  will  And  this  article  of  special  interest.    If  the  story  be  true,  it  ia 

an  important  one. Scribner  for  November,  contains  a  vivid  description  of  Gen.  P.  H. 

Sheridan's  experiences  in  the  Franco-German  War.  The  article  Is  written  by  General 
Sheridan  himself,  and  is  entitled  "  From  Gravelotte  to  Sedan." 


Q)UCrATIOR 

DEVOTED  TO  THE   SCIENCE,  ART,  PHILOSOPHY,  AND 

LITERATURE  OF  EDUCATION. 


Vol.   IX.  DECEMBER,    1888.  No.   4. 

EXCESSIVE  HELPS  IN  EDUCATION. 

BY  W.  T.  HARRIS,  CONCORD,  MASS. 

INASMUCH  as  the  child  is  self-active  and  grows  only  through 
the  exercise  of  his  self-activity,  education  consists  entirely  in 
leading  the  child  to  do  what  develops  this  power  of  doing.  Any 
help  that  does  not  help  the  pupil  to  help  himself  is  excessive.  The 
same  principle  is  a  safe  guide  in  our  public  and  private  charities* 
Help  the  poor  and  unfortunate  to  help  themselves,  and  you  ele- 
vate them  towards  human  perfection  and  the  divine  ideal.  It  is- 
this  principle,  too,  that  makes  clear  to  us  what  road  leads  to  the 
surest  amelioration  of  the  evils  of  poverty  and  mendicancy.  Edu- 
cation is  the  one  sure  road  to  help  the  unfortunate.  Adopt  all 
the  cunning  devices  that  social  science  has  invented,  and  you  can- 
not be  sure  that  direct  or  indirect  help  of  the  poor  does  not  under- 
mine their  self-respect  and  weaken  their  independence.  But  you 
may  give  them  all  the  education  possible.  You  may  begin  with 
the  kindergarten  and  end  with  the  highest  university  —  all  brought 
to  the  very  door  of  the  proletariat,  and  you  are  certain  that  the 
more  education  you  can  persuade  him  to  take,  the  more  indepen- 
dent and  self-helping  he  will  become,  and  the  more  he  will  benefit 
the  race  of  mankind. 

In  making  this  assertion,  I  have,  of  course,  presupposed  that  the 
education  is  good  education,  and  that  the  intellect  is  trained  on 
science  and  fed  on  history  and  literature,  while  the  will  is  trained 
into  good  habits  by  a  firm  and  mild  discipline.     Education  such  as 


216  ED  UCA  TlOy.  [December, 

this  will  elevate  the  most  downtrodden  and  servile  class  of  people 
into  self-governing  freemen  in  a  few  generations.  Gratuitous 
education  does  not  tend  towards  communistic  views  and  opinions, 
but  towards  private  ownership  of  property  and  true  public  spirit. 
The  educated  man  wishes  a  larger  and  larger  margin  of  individual 
action,  and  hence  he  throws  off  in  succession  the  patriarchal  despo- 
tism of  family  government,  the  semi-patriarchal  form  of  the  village 
community,  the  serfdom  of  the  feudal  manor,  the  caste  system  of  the 
monarchy,  and  finds  all  the  scope  he  needs  in  the  free  choice  of 
vocation,  the  free  choice  of  his  habitat,  free  combination  with  his 
fellow-men,  and  in  free  ownership  of  property  without  entail. 
Within  the  sphere  of  his  private  property  he  exercises  his  absolute 
or  individual  will,  but  in  his  free  combination  with  his  fellow-men 
as  political  member  of  a  -constitutional  government,  he  attains  that 
higher  and  more  rational  freedom  which  comes  of  the  adoption  of 
the  will  of  the  community  through  free  insight. 

In  the  State  of  Massachusetts  perhaps  one  may  find  all  grades 
of  education  brought  nearest  to  all  classes  of  people.  In  Massa- 
chusetts will  be  found  the  widest  distribution  of  private  property 
and  the  largest  average  amount  of  it  that  can  be  found  in  com- 
monwealths of  equal  or  greater  size,  search  where  you  will. 

I  mention  these  things  by  way  of  showing  the  ground  on  which 
my  views  in  regard  to  Excessive  Ileli^s  in  Education  rest.  For 
they  go  to  show  that  the  school  is  the  ideal  place  where  self-help 
is  to  be  cultivated.  By  the  study  of  science  the  pupil  learns  to 
help  himself,  by  adding  to  his  own  experience  of  the  world  the 
aggregate  results  of  the  entire  experience  of  the  race.  By  the 
study  of  literature  he  learns  to  know  the  sentiments  and  feelings 
that  have  inspired  the  different  peoples  of  the  world,  and  especially 
his  own  racial  stock.  He  thus  learns  human  nature  as  manifested 
in  the  race,  and  in  liis  nation,  and  he  learns  by  this  his  own  indi- 
vidual possibilities.  He  learns  the  ways  of  thinking  of  his  fellow- 
men  and  their  habits  of  action.  He  thus  acquires  through  litera- 
ture the  most  practical  of  all  practical  learning,  the  knowledge  of 
human  nature.  Without  this  knowledge  he  will  not  know  how  to 
deal  with  his  fellow-men.  By  the  school  discipline  the  pupil  learns 
to  work  with  his  fellow-men,  and  combine  peaceably  to  produce  a 
joint  result.  He  learns  to  submit  to  the  necessary  mediation  which 
alone  can  bring  about  great  results  —  that  is  to  say,  he  learns  to 
subordinate  himself  for  Uie  sake  of  the  whole. 


1888.]  EXCESSIVE  HELPS  IN  EDUCATION.  217 

Now  it  is  evident  that  the  intellectual  training  of  the  school 
which  does  not  help  the  pupil  to  help  himself  is  pernicious  and 
destructive  of  the  very  ends  for  which  the  school  exists.  This 
pernicious  effect  is  a  constant  tendency  in  education  flowing  from 
the  mistaken  idea  that  it  is  quantity  and  not  quality  of  learning 
which  is  to  be  arrived  at  by  instruction.  To  get  over  the  course  of 
study  rapidly  seems  to  be  a  veiy  desirable  thing  to  some  teachers 
and  to  many  parents  and  children.  The  majority  of  teachers  have 
learned  that  such  progress  is  all  a  delusion  ;  that  the  true  progress 
is  the  mastery  by  the  pupil  of  his  branch  of  study  by  a  clear  com- 
prehension of  all  the  steps.  From  this  comes  power  of  analysis 
—  the  ability  to  divide  a  difficult  subject  and  attack  it  in  each  of 
its  details  in  proper  order.  Victory  is  sure  to  come  if  we  can  de- 
tach the  forces  of  the  enemy  from  the  main  body,  and  defeat  them 
one  by  one.  The  good  teacher  looks  solely  to  the  quality  of  the 
knowledge,  and  by  this  increases  the  pupil's  self-help.  The  poor 
teacher  helps  the  pupil  by  doing  his  work  for  him  instead  of  stimu- 
lating him  to  do  it  for  himself.  He  gives  the  pupil  ready-made 
information  and  saves  him  the  trouble  of  finding  it  out  from  books 
and  experiments.  He  pours  in  his  oral  instruction  to  save  the 
pupil  from  the  necessity  of  hard  study. 

In  arithmetic,  for  example,  the  good  teacher  does  not  assign  les- 
sons to  be  learned  out  of  school,  for  he  knows  that  there  is  great 
danger  that  the  elder  brothers  and  sisters,  the  parents  and  even 
the  grand-j)arents  will  be  brought  into  requisition  to  assist  at  the 
solution  of  the  hardest  problems.  In  the  recitation  the  teacher 
will  then  be  without  any  reliable  knowledge  of  the  pupil's  powers. 
He  will  probe  a  given  amount  of  pupil's  work,  plus  an  unknown 
quantity  (r)  of  outside  help.  The  good  teacher  sees  to  it  that 
the  arithmetic  lesson  is  prepared  under  his  own  eyes,  and  that  the 
pupil  does  not  "  cipher  "  —  does  not  work  out  all  of  the  numerous 
"examples  for  practice  "  given  in  the  textbook,  but  only  the  few 
typical  examples.  These  he  requires  him  to  do  again  and  again, 
explaining  minutely  all  the  steps  of  the  process,  and  then  invent- 
ing new  problems  by  the  change  of  the  numbers  given  in  the 
book. 

In  grammar  the  good  teacher  knows  that  the  pupil  is  to  learn 
how  to  analyze  and  discriminate  ideas  and  mental  distinctions, 
thus  acquiring  logical  power  and  the  ability  to  think  out  a  difficult 
question  by  taking  it  to  pieces  and  putting  it  together. 


218  ED  UCA  TIOX.  [Decern  iM-r, 

Grammar  as  the  science  of  human  speech  —  since  language  is 
the  instrument  of  reason  —  is  the  most  concrete  study  that  is  to  be 
found  of  logic  and  ^jsychology.  The  good  teacher  does  not  make 
the  mistake  of  throwing  out  grammar  from  the  course  of  study 
because  it  is  difficult  to  learn,  and  substituting  "  language  lessons  " 
for  it  because  the  latter  work  is  easy.  He  knows  that  language 
lessons  may  be  taught  in  connection  with  the  reading  lesson,  which 
is  properly  a  language  lesson,  and  by  written  examinations  on  the 
substance  of  what  has  been  learned  in  all  other  branches  of  study. 
Language  lessons  and  compositions,  as  often  taught,  are  a  mere 
training  in  gibble-gabble ;  for  they  use  the  colloquial  vocabulary. 
Grammar  is  to  be  taught  by  itself  as  an  indispensable  branch  of 
study. 

In  the  reading  lesson  excessive  help  has  done  its  utmost  to  make 
the  first  steps  easy,  and  to  remove  all  climbing  thereafter.  It  ex- 
pends an  infinite  amount  of  ingenuity  to  smooth  away  all  eleva- 
tions. For  this  purpose  it  uses  only  readers  that  have  the  simplest 
forms  of  colloquial  language,  carefully  avoiding  readers  that  take 
up  higher  vocabularies  which  develop  the  resources  of  our  language. 
The  pupil  learns  to  read  at  sight  all  lessons  written  in  the  collo- 
quial vocabulary  —  and  this  is  called  teaching  how  to  read. 
Whereas,  it  is  but  one-half  of  the  process.  The  other  half,  and  the 
more  important  half,  is  to  teach  the  pupil  to  grapple  with  the  great 
works  of  literature,  and  all  higher  readers  of  any  series  are  full  of 
excellent  specimens  of  real  literature.  In  mastering  these  the 
pupil  must  not  hurry  and  endeavor  to  read  a  large  quantity  of 
reading  matter.  If  he  memorizes  the  gems  of  poetry  and  the  se- 
lections of  impassioned  prose  he  will  fill  his  memory  with  the  hap- 
piest forms  of  expression  of  deepest  thoughts  and  subtlest  feelings. 
In  learning  these,  the  pupil  learns  new  words  unfamiliar  before 
and  new  thoughts  with  them,  and  his  mind  grows  larger.  Our 
school  instruction  leans  in  the  direction  of  excessive  oral  exposi- 
tion, —  and  too  much  manipulating  of  apparatus.  The  result  is  that 
the  pupil  is  less  able  to  find  for  himself  the  aid  that  he  needs  from 
books,  and  in  the  case  of  apparatus,  he  has  less  grasp  of  the  uni- 
versal idea,  though  he  possesses  a  more  intense  notion  of  the 
special  machine  in  its  special  applications.  This  makes  him  a 
good  routine  worker,  but  lame  and  impotent  in  his  inventive 
powers. 


1888.]  EXCESSIVE  HELPS  IN  EDUCATION.  219 

I  must  hasten  to  allude  to  excessive  helps  in  geography  as  found 
in  too  much  map-drawing  —  too  much  physical  illustration,  and 
too  little  study  of  the  relations  of  man  to  the  planet.  In  history, 
in  like  manner,  the  pupil  is  helped  by  avoiding  the  study  of  thoughts 
and  relations,  and  setting  his  task  chiefly  on  the  biographical  parts 
and  personal  anecdotes.  These  should  be  only  the  vestibule  to 
histor}\  But  excessive  help  in  education  wishes  to  prolong  the 
vestibule  and  never  reach  the  temple  itself. 

In  conclusion,  I  would  briefly  name  the  two  excessive  helps  in 
discipline.  There  is  the  old  regime  which  administered  the  rod 
industriously,  and  sought  by  an  oppressive  system  of  espionage  to 
prevent  the  growth  of  evil  habits.  It  was  excessive  help.  The 
doing  of  good  was  to  be  made  easy  by  the  aid  of  bodily  terror  and 
by  the  consciousness  of  vigilant  supervision.  Another  person's 
will  was  to  penetrate  the  sacred  limits  of  the  pupil's  individuality 
and  take  away  his  autonomy.  The  building  up  of  walls  round 
the  pupil  to  shield  liim  from  bad  external  influences  had  the  efiPect 
of  weakening  his  will  power  and  first  making  him  an  un-moral 
being  —  afterwards  to  grow  into  an  immoral  and  corrupt  one.  Af- 
ter the  pupil  left  school  and  came  upon  the  world  he  felt  the  need 
of  the  master's  rod  and  threatening  look,  and  not  finding  this  or  a 
substitute  for  it,  he  found  in  himself  no  strength  to  meet  tempta- 
tion. Excessive  helps  in  the  way  of  harsh  punishments  and  rigid 
supervision  hinder  the  development  of  the  will  and  tend  to  form 
moral  dwarfs,  or  moral  monsters. 

On  the  other  hand  an  excessive  help  to  self-activity  and  freedom 
by  giving  too  much  rein  to  the  inclinations  of  the  youth  is  apt  to 
ruin  him.  The  too  lax  discipline  allows  the  weeds  of  caprice 
and  arbitrariness  to  grow  up  and  each  pupil  strives  against 
the  order  of  the  school,  gets  in  the  way  of  all  others,  and  the 
total  result  is  zero.  The  one  in  authority  does  not  act  to  help 
the  pupil  obey  his  higher  self  and  subdue  his  lower  self.  Such 
sentimentality  ignores  in  fact  the  existence  of  two  selves  in  the 
child  —  it  does  not  see  that  he  begins  as  an  animal  self  full  of 
appetites  and  desires  and  must  become  a  rational  self,  a  spiritual 
self,  governed  by  moral  and  universal  ideas.  He  must  put  down 
his  animal  and  vegetable  nature  and  put  on  the  ideal  type  of 
human  nature  in  order  to  be  civilized.  The  too  lax  discipline,  or 
the  discipline  that  aims  to  isolate  the  pupil  from  temptation  —  the 
flower-pot  system  of  education  —  this  discipline  helps  excessively 


290  EDUCATION.  [December, 

the  development  of  the  spontaneous  will  of  the  pupil  and  helps 
unwisely.  The  pupil  becomes  wayward  and  selfish,  or  weak  and 
pusillanimous,  and  falls  an  easy  victim  to  the  temptations  of  the 
real  world  after  he  leaves  school. 

Excessive  helps  in  the  intellectual  branches  do  not  produce 
such  lasting  and  far-reaching  destruction  as  excessive  helps  in  dis- 
cipline. They  may  be  more  easily  remedied.  But  excessive  helps 
in  discipline  destroy  the  character  and  tend  to  make  the  whole 
personality  a  zero. 

Since  the  properly  taught  and  disciplined  school  can,  and  does 
give  the  only  kind  of  help  to  the  pupils  that  will  help  them  to 
help  themselves,  it  is  obvious  how  imix)rtant  is  this  question  of 
excessive  helps  in  education. 


THE  RECITATION. 

BY  W.  B.  FERGUSON,  SUPERINTENDENT  OF  SCHOOLS,  MIDDLETOWN,  CONN. 

IT  is  largely  in  the  recitation  that  the  vital,  lasting  work  of  the 
teacher  is  done.  It  is  here  that  the  mind  of  the  teacher  and 
the  mind  of  the  pupil  come  into  living,  life-imparting  contact,  the 
former  to  be  tested  in  its  powers  and  attainments,  the  latter  to  be 
directed,  quickened,  and  developed.  It  is  for  this  important  work 
that  the  ambitious  and  devoted  teacher  studies  and  plans.  Here, 
waiting  before  him,  are  pupils ;  some  active,  alert,  inquiring,  need- 
ing guidance  chiefly,  others  cold,  sluggish,  indifferent,  needing 
inspiration  and  push.  What  vast  responsibilities,  then,  centre  in 
the  recitation !  How  can  those  responsibilities  be  successfully  met  ? 
To  answer  this  question  is  the  object  of  this  paper. 

It  is  not  my  purpose  to  pass  through  all  the  branches  of  study 
taught  in  our  public  schools,  and  to  explain  just  how  recitations 
in  every  study  should  be  conducted.  To  do  this  would  require 
more  sj)ace  than  is  at  my  disposal.  Indeed,  all  successful  recita- 
tions conducted  by  different  teachers,  or  even  by  the  same  teacher, 
cannot  be  placed  in  the  same  mould.  There  is  and  can  be  no  best 
way  in  detail  of  conducting  recitations  in  general.  There  are 
pedagogical  principles  which  must  not  be  violated  in  any  recitation, 
but  principles  may  be  the  basis  of  many  equally  good  methods. 


1888.]  THE  RECITATION.  221 

And  yet  there  are  certain  features  which  must  appear  in  nearly  all 
successful  teaching. 

Let  us  inquire,  then,  first,  what  are  the  leading  objects  of  the 
recitation,  that  is,  what  results  should  be  gained  therefrom?  and 
secondly,  what  are  the  chief  conditions  to  the  obtaining  of  those 
results? 

The  first  object  of  the  recitation,  in  all  grades  except  the  prima- 
ry, is  to  discover  the  attainments  of  the  pupils  in  the  subject  of 
the  lesson.  This  is  usually  made  the  sole  aim  by  ignorant  and  lazy 
teachers.  It  is  so  easy  to  sit  calmly  with  book  in  hand,  and  to 
read  off  the  questions  with  one  eye  on  the  text  to  see  whether  the 
pupil  answers  correctly.  Pupils  must  learn  lessons,  and  it  is  the 
teacher's  duty  to  see  that  they  learn  them  properly,  not  so  much, 
however,  for  the  facts  to  be  gained  (though  these  are  seldom  harm- 
ful) as  for  a  more  important  object,  as  we  shall  soon  see. 

The  second  object  of  the  recitation,  one  closely  connected  with 
the  first,  is  to  firmly  fix  in  the  pupil's  mind  the  leading  points  of 
the  lesson.  This  is  often  neglected.  Most  textbooks  fail  to  suf- 
ficiently emphasize  the  more  important  parts  of  the  lesson,  and  to 
make  subordinate  the  less  important.  Sometimes  one  point  is  the 
key  to  the  whole  lesson,  the  other  facts  depending  upon  and  re- 
sulting from  this  one.  Pupils  usually  fail  to  observe  this;  to  them 
all  facts  are  equally  important ;  hence,  often,  none  are  completely 
grasped  and  securely  lodged  in  the  memory.  The  critical  teacher 
will  sharply  discriminate  between  the  vital  and  controlling  part  of 
the  lesson  and  the  subordinate  or  merely  incidental  parts.  He 
will  concentrate  attention  upon  the  former ;  he  will  focalize  upon 
it  all  the  light  the  pupils  can  give ;  he  will  illumine  it,  if  neces- 
sarj'^,  with  his  own  clear  thought  and  vivid  illustration ;  he  will 
magnify  it,  cause  it  to  stand  out  from  the  connected  facts,  and,  in 
this  way,  he  will  firmly  fix  it  in  the  pupil's  memory.  The  other 
parts  of  the  lesson  being  then  placed  in  proper  dependent  relations 
to  this  one  are  held  in  the  mind  in  an  orderly  and  philosophical 
arrangement,  contributing  to  the  pupil's  intellectual  growth. 

The  third  and  most  important  object  of  the  recitation  is  to  train 
to  quick  perception,  close  and  accurate  observation,  clear  and  logi- 
cal thinking,  in  short, — mental  development.  This  object  out- 
weighs all  others.  It  is  vastly  more  important  than  the  mere  gath- 
ering of  information.  "  Were  I  deprived  of  my  knowledge,"  said  a 
well-known  college  president/*  I  would  not  be  greatly  impoverished ; 


222  EDUCATION.  [I>ecember, 

but  were  I  to  lose  the  mental  power  derived  from  the  efiPorts  put 
forth  to  gain  that  knowledge,  I  would  be  poor  indeed."  Says  Lea- 
sing, "  Did  the  Almighty,  holding  in  his  right  hand  Truth  and  in 
his  left  hand  Search  after  Truths  deign  to  offer  me  the  one  I  might 
prefer,  in  all  humility,  but  without  hesitation,  I  should  choose 
Search  after  Truthy  Evidently  the  great  German  valued  the  de- 
velopment and  discipline  to  be  gained  from  searching  after  truth 
more  highly  than  truth  itself. 

And,  happily,  teachers  are  coming  to  discover  —  the  better  class 
have  already  discovered  —  that  children  are  not  rtiQVQ  phonographs^ 
doing  their  highest  intellectual  work  in  storing  up  and  reproducing 
words  ;  nor  merely  collectors  of  information,  but  that  they  are  liv- 
ing spirits^  capable  of  growth^  jwssessing  the  powers  of  sight,  touch, 
and  hearing,  whose  sole  function  is  not  the  detecting  and  doing 
of  mischief,  hence  senses  not  to  be  closed  and  lulled  to  sleep  by 
the  teacher  but  senses  to  be  trained  to  rapid  and  certain  action, 
since  upon  the  trustworthiness  of  their  testimony  all  the  higher 
activities  of  the  soul  are  largely  conditioned ;  yes,  living  spirits 
capable  of  thought,  if  kindled  and  aroused  into  action  by  contact 
with  the  moving,  inspiring  thought  of  a  genuine  teacher. 

Other  objects  of  the  recitation  are,  to  cultivate  the  power  of 
accurate,  concise,  and  ready  expression  (which  usually  accom- 
panies clear  thinking),  to  discover  the  pupil's  habits  of  study  and 
to  correct  whatever  is  faulty  in  those  habits,  to  cultivate  self-reli- 
ance and  self-possession,  to  create  interest  and  arouxe  pupils  to 
heartier  and  more  persistent  work,  and,  in  a  degree,  to  develop  the 
moral  nature. 

Bearing  in  mind  these  objects  of  the  recitation,  let  us  now  con- 
sider the  chief  conditions  to  the  obtaining  of  those  objects. 

The  first  condition  is  that  the  teacher  possess  some  general 
knowlege  of  the  faculties  of  the  human  mind,  their  action, 
their  order  of  development,  and  their  proper  stimuli.  All 
pedagogical  principles  of  instruction  and  discipline  have  their 
foundation  in  the  nature  of  the  mind ;  hence,  the  most  important 
object  of  the  recitation,  that  of  rightly  stimulating  mental  growth^ 
is  conditioned  upon  an  acquaintance  with  the  mental  powers. 
How  can  the  perceptive  powers  be  quickened  and  properly  guided; 
the  memory  made  tenacious  and  ready ;  the  imagination  excited, 
elevated,  and  broadened ;  the  reason  trained  to  unerring  logic ;  the 
feelings  deepened,  refined,  and  brought  under  control;  the  will 


1888.]  THE  RECITATION.  223 

strengthened  and  made  to  respond  to  high  motives  and  to  resist 
the  lower ;  in  short,  how  can  the  e'tUire  nature  of  the  pupil  be  — 
not  to  say  symmetrically  developed,  an  interesting  thing  to  think 
and  write  about,  but  a  result  quite  impossible  to  accomplish  —  but 
developed  in  their  natural  order  with  anything  like  the  least  loss 
of  mental  energy,  except  the  teacher  have  some  general  knowledge 
of  the  mental  faculties,  their  modes  of  activity,  their  inter-de- 
pendence, their  order  of  development,  and  their  proper  nourish- 
ment. From  a  lack  of  such  knowledge,  the  observing  powers  are 
often  stunted ;  artificial  memory  is  trained  to  the  exclusion  of  the 
philosophical ;  the  imagination,  so  active  in  cliildren,  is  repressed 
and  thus  made  incapable  of  forming  lofty  ideals;  the  reflective 
powers  are  insufficiently  developed;  the  egoistic  feelings  are  often 
encoiu-agedto  the  utter  exclusion  of  the  altruistic  and  theetliical; 
while  the  Avill,  instead  of  being  strengthened  and  rightly  guided, 
is  either  broken,  thus  making  the  coward,  or  it  is  uncontrolled, 
becoming  master  of  the  future  criminal. 

Only,  then,  through  the  possession  and  exercise  of  such  knowl- 
edge, gained  in  some  way,  can  the  teacher  meet  the  fii^st  condition 
of  the  most  successful  recitation. 

The  second  condition  is  thorough,  daily  preparation  on  the  part 
of  the  teacher.  This  statement  i)erhaps  seems  trite  to  some,  but 
its  practice  is  not  trit^  to  all  teachers.  I  have  visited  not  a  few 
schools  in  our  own  state  and  elsewhere,  and,  while  I  have  been 
gratified  to  see  evidences  of  some  preparation  by  most  teachers,  I 
have  seldom  failed  to  detect  an  entire  lack  of  preparation  for  some 
recitations.  In  reading,  for  instance,  lessons  upon  which  fifteen 
or  twenty  minutes  of  careful  study  could  have  been  profitably  put 
had  not  been  looked  at  until  the  classes  stood  in  the  floor  to  read ; 
hence,  an  unattractive  and  ineffective  way  of  teaching  new  words, 
mistakes  in  emphasis  and  inflection,  silly  and  irrelevant  questions, 
a  shallow  pretence  of  interest,  and,  of  course,  little  or  no  interest  on 
the  part  of  pupils,  in  short,  all  the  essential  elements  of  good 
reading  omitted.  This,  too,  in  some  of  our  so-called  best  city* 
schools,  not  in  backwoods  districts,  where  the  teacher  has  thirty 
or  forty  recitations  a  day  and  two  dollars  a  week.  When  a  teacher 
stands  before  his  class,  he  should  know  pretty  definitely  what  he 
is  to  teach  and  how  he  is  to  teach  it,  otherwise  his  instruction  is 
diffuse,  indefinite,  hap-hazard,  not  like  the  arrow  that  flies  straight 
to  the  mark  and  finds  lodgment,  but,  like  the  snowball,  it  cov- 


^U  EDUCATION.  [December, 

ers  much  surface,  but  leaves  no  lasting  impression.  It  is  a  com- 
mon saying  that  one  cannot  teach  what  he  does  not  know,  but  still 
further,  he  cannot  teach  broadly  and  critically  what  he  does  not 
know  thoroughly,  and  this  tlioroughness  nothing  but  daily  prepara- 
tion in  and  outside  of  textbooks  can  give.  One  who  does  not  thus 
prepare  himself  for  his  daily  work  lacks  that  genuine,  burning, 
and  contagious  enthusiasm  so  necessary  to  arouse  pupils  to  ener- 
getic, interested  mental  activity  in  the  recitation,  without  which 
little  benefit  results.  He  not  only  has  no  enthusiasm  for  his  work, 
but  he  positively  dislikes  it.  He  goes  to  his  daily  task  like  a 
"  galley  slave  scourged  to  his  dungeon."  **  Not  so,"  says  Superin- 
tendent Dutton,  ^^with  him  who  makes  a  judicious  plan  for  each 
day.  He  goes  to  his  work  with  conscious  strength.  His  pupils 
are  expectant,  and  feel  that  they  are  sitting  at  the  feet  of  a  genu- 
ine teacher." 

It  is  unnecessary  to  discuss  the  needed  preparation  on  the  part 
of  pupils.  Most  teachers  appreciate  the  importance  of  pupils  pre- 
paring their  lessons  whether  they  prepare  themselves  or  not.  Poor 
teachers,  however,  are  apt  to  accept  a  mere  verbal  or  a  narrow  prep- 
aration, such  as  can  be  made  by  slavislily  following  the  textbook. 
Ideas^  not  words  merely,  characterize  every  successful  recitation, 
and  the  larger  use  of  supplementarj'^  books,  the  better. 

The  teaclier  stands  before  his  class  prepared  for  the  recitation ; 
the  pupils  have  prepared  their  lesson.  What  is  now  needed  ?  This 
brings  us  to  the  third  condition,  viz.,  the  concentrated  mental  ac- 
tivity^  or  the  undivided  attention  of  the  whole  class,  the  hardest 
condition  to  be  fully  met.  Such  attention,  however,  is  absolutely 
necessary  to  the  most  efiPective  teaching.  This  word  attention  sig- 
nifies from  its  derivation  a  stretching  of  the  mind  toward  some 
object  of  observation  or  thought ;  hence,  an  active  condition  of  the 
mind.  It  is  a  mistake,  then,  to  suppose  that  attention  consists  in 
a  particular  position  of  the  hands  and  feet,  posture  of  the  head, 
or  direction  of  the  eyes,  though  these  may  favor  attention.  It 
consists,  rather,  in  mental  activity  in  observing,  comparing,  gen- 
eralizing, recalling,  imagining,  or  reasoning  in  respect  to  some  par- 
ticular object  of  thought  before  the  class ;  and  it  is  a  psychological 
fact  that  accuracy  of  observation,  clearness  of  thought,  readiness 
and  tenacity  of  memory,  and  intellectual  growth  are  in  proportion 
to  the  degree  of  mental  concentration.  I  stop  to  emphasize  this 
point,  because  its  importance  is  not  fully  appreciated.     It  is  not 


1888.]  THE  BECITATION.  225 

an  unfrequent  sight  to  see  a  whole  class,  except  the  one  pupil  re- 
citing, half  asleep.  All  may  be  sitting  erect,  hands  and  feet  in 
position,  eyes  properly  directed,  while  the  thoughts  are  milea 
away,  or,  at  best,  resting  lightly  on  the  lesson.  Some  teachers 
are  deceived  by  this  seeming  attention,  and  not  a  few  are  appar- 
ently satisfied  with  it.  The  recitation  should  be  the  time  for 
the  keenest,  severest  work.  The  teacher  should  furnish  the  corv- 
ditions  of  knowledge  and  give  proper  guidance,  while  the  pupils 
should  do  the  observing,  comparing,  recalling,  inferring,  and  rea- 
soning ;  thus  will  their  interest  be  kindled  and  sustained,  and  the 
zeal  and  confidence  resulting  from  successful  personal  effort  will 
be  theirs ;  thus  will  they  be  stimulated  to  stronger,  heartier,  and 
more  persistent  endeavor,  and  the  result  will  be  rapid  intellectual 
growth.  Failure  on  the  part  of  the  teacher  to  secure  this  self- 
activity  of  the  pupil  means  almost  total  failure  in  the  recitation. 
Effective  teaching,  as  I  have  said,  is  impossible  until  this  is  se- 
cured. "  Indeed,"  says  one,  "  teaching  is  nothing  else  than  pro- 
moting human  growth  through  attention."  The  attention  of  the 
youngest  pupils  is  largely  involuntary,  flitting  from  object  to  ob- 
ject. The  power  of  self -direction  of  intellectual  energy  is  weak ; 
but,  if  the  teacher  so  plans  her  exercises  as  to  attract  and  hold 
her  pupils'  attention,  at  first  for  a  few  minutes  only,  afterward 
for  a  little  longer  time,  and  so  on,  the  power  of  voluntary,  con- 
centrated attention  will,  at  length  become  more  or  less  easy  and 
constant.  And,  if  the  schools  do  not  develop  this  power,  they  fail 
in  a  most  important  part  of  their  work,  and  pupils  enter  upon  the 
active  pursuits  of  life  ill  prepared  to  solve  the  difficult  problems 
that  are  sure  to  present  themselves  to  those  who  aspire  to  large 
success.  Says  Schiller,  "  The  thunder,  spread  out  into  its  separate 
folds,  becomes  a  lullaby  for  children ;  send  it  forth  in  one  quick 
peal,  and  the  royal  sound  shakes  the  whole  heavens."  So  the  pu- 
pil who  would  make  the  most  of  his  tiipe  in  school,  and  who  would 
attain  a  high  degree  of  success  in  the  world  must  be  taught  to 
throw  his  intellectual  energies,  like  the  focussed  rays  of  the  sun, 
upon  a  single  point,  and  to  hold  them  there,  until  the  desired  ob~ 
ject  is  accomplished. 

The  attention  of  the  class  being  secured,  what  next?  The 
teacher  must  not  lecture.  Such  instruction  appeals  only  to  the 
so-called  passive  attention,  not  to  the  active,  the  investigative  at- 
tention at  all.     It  may  increase  the  pupil's  stock  of  information ;. 


2-26  EDUCATION.  [December, 

it  may  broaden  his  intellectual  horizon  temporarily,  or  even  per- 
manently, but  it  cannot  greatly  increase  his  intellectual  poiver^ 
which  is  of  chief  value.  Young  teachers,  particularly  college  gradu- 
ates who  think  ideal  teaching  consists  in  imitating  some  learned  col- 
lege professor,  oft«n  make  this  mistake.  Such  a  teacher  once  in- 
formed me  that  she  often  had  a  sore  throat  at  night,  caused  by  her 
being  obliged  to  talk  nearly  all  the  time  to  her  classes  in  order  to 
teach  them  anything.  Not  realizing  that  the  teacher  should  place 
before  her  pupils  the  conditian%  of  knowledge  cliiefly,  sparingly 
knowledge  itself,  not  realizing  that  the  mind  is  a  living  organism, 
growing  and  gaining  strength  through  exercise  like  the  body,  and 
not  a  receptacle  to  be  filled,  she  proceeded  on  that  ever  to  be 
condemned  plan  of  lecturing,  stuffing  the  pupils  with  sense  and 
nonsense.  Such  a  teacher,  of  course,  thinks  it  necessary  to  keep 
a  large  portion  of  her  pupils  after  school  every  night,  tlian  which 
no  habit  can  be  much  worse.  Something  is  radically  wrong  with 
the  teaclier  wlio  finds  it  necess«arv  to  habitually  resort  to  such 

ft  V 

means  in  order  to  induce  pupils  to  learn  their  lessons.  Theii*  in- 
terest in  study  must  be  sadly  lacking,  and  for  this  the  teacher  is 
largely  responsible. 

But  to  return  to  the  matter  of  lecturing.  Says  Spencer,  '"  This 
need  of  perpetual  telling  is  the  result  of  the  teacher's  stupidity, 
not  the  pupil's.  Having  by  our  method  induced  helplessness,  we 
straightway  make  helplessness  a  rt^ason  for  our  method."  While 
there  are  reasons  why  lecturing  in  college,  and,  occasionally  in  the 
high  or  the  grammar  school  may  be  proper  from  a  pedagogical 
standpoint,  it  can  be  safely  said  that  all  lecturing  that  relieves  the 
scholar  of  work,  and  that  deprives  him  of  that  intense  interest  and 
large  mental  growth  that  results  from  successful  personal  investi- 
gation and  discovery  is  harmful.  A  splendid  talker  is  quite  often 
a  very  poor  teacher.  The  ideal  teacher  is  one  who  can  talk  enter- 
tainingly, for  he  is  full  of  his  subject,  but  he  seldom  does  talk  at 
any  considerable  lengtli,  for  he  remembers  the  teacher's  golden 
maxim,  that  "  He  helps  a  pupil  most,  not  by  doing  for  him,  but  by 
inspiring  him  to  do  for  himself."  "Self-activity,  self-evolution, 
and  this  alone,"  says  Spencer,  "  insures  vividness  and  permanency 
to  impressions.  Knowledge  thus  acquired  becomes  at  once  or- 
ganized into  faculty,  ready  to  aid  in  still  keener  observation,  closer 
comparisons,  broader  and  truer  generalizations,  and  more  logical 
reasoning,  and  does  not  lie,  like  a  dead  weight,  upon  the  memory." 


1888.]  THE  BECITATION.  227 

There  are,  in  general,  three  methods  of  conducting  recitations : 
the  questioning  method,  the  topical  method,  and  the  discussion. 
The  first,  skilfully  employed  in  connection  with  the  other  two,  is 
valuable,  but  exclusively  used,  it  is  harmful.  Poor  teachers,  as  a 
rule,  employ  this  method  too  exclusively.  It  requires  little 
information  on  the  part  of  either  teacher  or  pupil,  for  the  teach- 
er usually  has  one  eye  on  the  book  and  asks  leading  questions 
in  such  a  way  as  to  suggest  the  answer.  But  with  the  skilful 
teacher,  questioning  is  an  art,  and  one  not  easily  acquired.  Just 
how  to  question  so  as  to  reveal  the  pupil's  previous  knowledge,  at 
the  same  time  kindling  curiosity  and  arousing  the  intellect  into  a 
wakeful  condition  creating  a  desire  to  know  more ;  just  how  to 
lead  the  pupil  from  point  to  point  in  a  line  of  thinking,  giving  him 
all  needed  assistance  without  relieving  him  of  the  necessity  of  put- 
ting forth  earnest  effort ;  just  how  to  question  so  as  to  most  secure- 
ly link  the  leading  facts  of  today's  lesson  with  those  of  yesterday ; 
just  how  to  lead  the  pupil  to  say  as  much  as  possible  to  the  point, 
while  the  teacher  says  as  little  as  possible,  is  a  question  which  re- 
quires for  its  answer  much  careful  study  of  both  pupil  and  lesson. 

The  following  recitations  reported  by  Agent  Martin,  of  Massa- 
chusetts, as  having  been  heard  by  him  in  a  city  high  school  of  that 
state,  illustrate  the  misuse  of  the  questioning  method.  A  lesson 
about  a  Greek  philosopher,  teacher  with  book  in  hand  questions 
as  follows :  — 

"  Who  was  an  eminent  philosopher,  and  taught  mathematics  and 
astronomy  ?  " 

One  Pupil,  —  "  Diogenes." 

Teacher.  —  "  No,  Anaragoras !  Who  was  Diogenes  ?  Can  any 
one  tell  ?  " 

Several  Pupils,  —  "  He  lived  in  a  tub." 

Teacher,  —  *'  Yes  ;  he  was  a  famous  cynic.  Who  was  called  the 
laughing  philosopher  ?     Can  any  one  tell  ?  " 

No  answer. 

Teacher,  —  "Democritus;  because  he  treated  the  follies  and 
vices  of  mankind  with  ridicule.  He  taught  that  the  physical  uni- 
verse consists  of  atoms,  and  that  nature,  space,  and  motion  are 
eternal." 

In  another  high  school,  the  following  recitation  on  the  reign  of 
Charles  I. :  — 

Teacher,  —  "  This  is  known  in  history  as  the " 


228  EDUCATION.  [December, 

Answer.  —  "  Long  Parliament." 

Teacher.  —  "  The  king  ungratefully  gave  his  consent  to  his " 

Answer,  —  "  Execution." 

Teacher.  — ''  The  king  retired  amid  cries  of " 

Answer.  —  "  Privilege." 

I  believe  these  recitations  fairly  illustrate  a  large  part  of  the 
work  done  by  those  who  have  not  made  a  %tudy  of  teaching. 

The  topical  method  is  especially  well  adapted  to  develop  readi- 
ness in  thinking,  self-reliance,  and  self-possession.  The  pupil  is 
placed  face  to  face  with  his  subject,  and  he  succeeds  according  to 
Lis  knowledge  of  the  subject,  his  self-command,  and  his  readiness 
in  speech.  He  is  trained  in  correctness  and  facility  of  speech, 
and,  in  a  degree,  he  is  practiced  in  extemporaneous  speaking. 
He  is  also  obliged  to  take  a  somewhat  larger  view  of  the  subject. 

The  discussion  is  profitably  used,  in  the  higher  grades,  in  con- 
nection with  the  two  other  methods.  It  tends  to  give  increased 
life  and  interest  to  recitations  upon  certain  subjects,  and,  if  prop- 
erly conducted,  it  teaches  pupils  to  yield  to  the  force  of  rea- 
son. Which  of  these  methods  should  be  made  most  prominent 
in  a  particular  recitation,  largely  depends  upon  the  character 
of  the  lesson,  and  the  maturity  of  the  pupils.  While  the 
topical  method  supplemented  by  the  other  two  is  best  suited  to  a 
recitation  in  history,  the  questioning  method  is  chiefly  employed, 
though  wrongly,  I  think,  in  teaching  the  ancient  classics.  While 
neither  the  topical  method  nor  the  discussion  can  be  used  to  any 
considerable  extent  in  the  primary  grade,  the  tluee  should  be  com- 
bined in  the  higher  grades. 

The  number  of  devices  and  expedients  that  may  be  employed 
in  the  application  of  these  three  general  methods  is  almost  inflnite, 
and  many  are  equally  good.  In  so  far  as  they  conform  to  peda- 
gogical principles,  they  are  proper,  and  in  so  far  as  they  are  effec- 
tive, they  are  valuable.  To  pronounce  this  particular  method  or 
device  in  teaching  the  best  is  the  merest  folly.  What  to  one  seems 
absurd,  to  another  appears  reasonable  and  valuable.  Is  the  method 
based  upon  right  principles  ?  Is  it,  in  a  degree,  original  ?  Is  it 
the  way  in  which  the  teacher's  best  thoughts,  deepest  interest, 
and  most  glowing  enthusiasm  go  ?  With  it,  does  he  accomplish 
his  best  results?  If  so,  then  it  is  his  best  method,  however  it  may 
appear  to  others. 

But  any  method  is  empty  and  futile,  dead^  unless  filled  and  vital- 


1888.]  THE  TEACHINQ  OF  THE  ENGLISH  LANG  UAGE.  229 

ized^  and  made  effective  by  an  unquenchable  interest  and  enthusi- 
asm on  the  part  of  the  teacher ;  an  enthusiasm  that  shows  itself, 
not  in  noisy,  highly  demonstrative,  and  egotistic  bluster,  attracting 
attention  from  the  lesson  to  the  teacher,  or  causing  unhealthful 
excitement,  but  a  deep  and  intense  interest  that  forgets  self,  cen- 
tres in  the  subject  and  the  pupils  and  rivets  attention  on  the  lesson, 
an  interest,  not  of  the  head  to  the  head  alone,  but  also  of  the  heart 
to  the  heart,  and  through  it  reaching  and  moving  the  will.  With- 
out this  genuine,  consecrated  interest,  the  teacher  is  only  sounding 
brass  or  a  tinkling  cymbal ;  with  it  and  through  it,  he  becomes  a 
fashioner  of  intellectual  and  moral  character. 


THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  ENGLISH  LANGUAGE 

AND  LITER  A  TURE.^ 

III. 

THE     STUDY     OF     ENGLISH     LITERATURE. 
BY  MRS.   LAURA  SAUNDERSON  HINES,   A.  M. 

NEW  generations  need  new  methods.  Especially  is  this  true 
in  the  study  of  English  Literature.  My  early  impressions 
of  the  study  will  never  fade.  A  small  biographical  history  of  lit- 
erature served  for  a  textbook  and  an  interrogation  mark  for  a 
teacher.  The  lesson  was  so  many  hard  dry  facts, — dates,  names, 
and  titles,  —  all  to  be  piled  up  in  the  memory  like  bricks.  Even 
the  day  of  the  month  of  the  author's  birth  and  death,  no  matter 
how  unimportant  his  work  might  be,  must  be  carefully  memorized. 
The  titles  of  all  the  works  each  writer  had  composed,  with  the  dates 
of  publication,  must  be  religiously  committed  to  memory.  Great 
emphasis  was  laid  upon  such  good  mouth-filling  names  as  Areop- 
agitica.  Novum  Organum,  or  The  Leviathan.  That  these  words 
might  mean  anything  or  contain  ideas  which  we  could  understand 
never  once  dawned  upon  us.  Why  one  man  was  called  a  better 
writer  than  another  we  made  no  attempt  to  find  out.  We  memo- 
rized the  opinion  of  our  textbook  with  painstaking  accuracy,  and 
that  always  satisfied  the  question  mark. 

1  Copyright,  1888,  by  Eastern  Educational  Bureau. 


230  EDUCATION.  [December, 

The  best  rank  was  awarded  to  the  most  complete  rehearsal  of 
the  facts  of  an  author's  life,  the  perfect  enumeration  of  his  writ- 
ings, and  the  repetition,  word  for  word,  of  the  summary  at  the  end. 

No  suggestion  was  made  that  these  were  readable  books  and  of 
possible  interest  to  us.  Neither  was  it  made  clear  to  us  that  the 
papers  and  magazines  we  enjoyed  so  much  at  home  weY*e  a  part  of 
the  very  literature  we  were  studying  at  school.  It  has  taken 
time  to  remove  from  my  mind  the  impression  received  in  those 
early  days  that  a  man  must  be  dead  in  order  to  make  his  writings 
a  part  of  literature. 

Knowledge  comes,  and  the  methods  of  study  in  this  department 
have  been  greatly  improved.  The  true  teacher  of  literature 
should  work  for  thoughts  and  not  for  facts.  In  our  best  schools 
this  work  is  done,  and  well  done,  but  there  are  still  many  where 
too  much  of  the  old  method  lingers.  The  true  teacher  should 
study  the  minds  of  his  pupils,  the  peculiar  tastes  and  tendencies 
of  each.  He  must  try  to  awaken  one  out  of  dullness,  and  to 
steady  the  erratic  brilliance  of  another.  In  no  department  can 
this  mental  development  be  carried  on  with  greater  success  than 
in  that  of  literature. 

The  student  should  study  the  works  of  the  authors  themselves. 
Every  high  school  girl  and  boy  can  not  only  read  Chaucer  but 
enjoy  his  writings.  Most  of  them  will  find  him  a  delightful  writer 
and  well  worth  the  slight  trouble  of  mastering  his  charming  method 
of  spelling  and  his  rhythm.  The  sturdy  boy  will  at  once  claim 
fellowship  with  the  pilgrims  as  they  journey  toward  Canterbury. 
He  will  tell  you  that  Chaucer  is  a  jolly  fellow  with  a  level  head, 
and  that  he  likes  him  first-rate.  If  you  question  him,  he  will  give 
you  his  reasons  for  this  opinion  in  honest  English.  The  power  of 
thought  gained  from  reading  the  old  masters  can  scarcely  be  esti- 
mated. No  amount  of  memorizing  textbook  opinions  will  give 
the  training  obtained  from  reading  and  forming  an  opinion  for 
one's  self.  A  pupil  that  is  required  to  tell  what  he  thinks  and 
why  he  thinks  so,  learns  to  rely  upon  his  own  brain  rather  than 
the  textbook  for  his  ideas.  Then  as  the  types  of  character,  the 
styles  of  expression  and  the  subjects  presented  are  ever  varying 
the  teacher  may  rapidly  master  the  tendency  of  mind  in  each 
pupil.  The  dreamy  girl  "dotes"  on  Edmund  Spenser.  The 
practical  boy  "has  no  use"  for  Spenser  but  likes  the  way  Bacon 
puts  things  because  he  stops  when  he  gets  through.      In  such 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  ENGLISH  LAXGUAOE.  231 

expressed  preferences,  the  bias  of  the  pupil's  mind  can  be  easily- 
read.  And  the  teacher  can  make  suggestions  for  outside  reading 
accordingly,  so  that  other  powers  of  the  mind  will  be  developed ; 
a  taste  for  the  romantic  cultivated  in  the  boy  and  an  appreciation 
of  the  practical  e very-day  side  of  life  awakened  in  the  di*eam- 
loving  girl. 

In  studying  an  author  througli  his  works,  emphasis  must  be 
laid  upon  two  points.  The  work  chosen  —  if  the  class  have  time 
for  but  one  —  should  be  one  that  well  represents  the  peculiar  char- 
acteristics of  the  writer  and  one  that  is  complete  in  itself.  It  is 
always  desirable  to  study  more  than  one  selection  from  each 
author.  In  many  instances  it  is  necessary  to  study  some  of  the 
shorter  productions  of  tlie  author  and  then  parts  of  longer  ones. 
This  is  true  of  writei's  like  Edmund  Spenser,  John  Milton,  and 
•  Robert  Browning,  with  whom  the  style  of  the  shorter  poems  differs 
so  greatly  from  that  of  their  so-called  masterpieces.  The  purpose 
of  the  autlior  cannot  be  well  understood  unless  the  student  has 
the  whole  composition  in  mind.  And  unless  the  writer's  aim  ia 
understood  the  student  is  liable  to  misjudge  the  work  produced. 

When  one  complete  selection  from  an  author  has  been  studied 
for  its  purpose,  the  relation  of  each  part  to  the  end  in  view,  the 
author's  methods  of  accomplishing  his  purpose  and  his  style  of 
expression,  then  the  student  is  not  likely  to  be  unjust  to  that 
author  in  selections  from  writings  too  long  for  class  study  aa 
a  whole. 

The  most  important  factor  in  producing  the  desired  mental 
development  is  the  teacher's  power  to  ask  questions. 

It  is  assumed  that  no  person  will  be  entrusted  with  the  teach- 
ing of  literature  who  is  not  at  home  in  the  subject,  who  does  not 
possess  a  mind  imbued  with  the  spirit  of  the  masters  whom  he  has 
to  teach.  In  no  way  can  he  awaken  the  enthusiasm  of  his  class  if 
he  attempts  to  teach  what  he  does  not  know  himself.  The  art  of 
questioning  is  of  great  moment  and  cannot  be  gained  in  a  day. 
To  draw  out  each  pupil's  thought  of  the  poem  or  essay  under 
examination  and  of  the  man  who  wrote  it,  will  require  in  the 
teacher  an  extensive  knowledge  of  the  laws  of  the  human  mind  as 
well  as  of  the  author.  It  will  also  demand  a  thorough  compre- 
hension of  the  meaning  of  the  questions  asked.  The  teacher  can- 
not study  too  carefully  the  exact  content  of  "why,"  "when," 
"where,"  and  "how."  The  dull  pupil  must  be  encouraged  to 
express  what  thought  he  has  and  incited  to  further  thinking  by 


230  ED  UCA  TION.  [December, 

The  best  rank  was  awarded  to  the  most  complete  rehearsal  of 
the  facts  of  an  author's  life,  the  perfect  enumeration  of  his  writ- 
ings, and  the  repetition,  word  for  word,  of  the  summary  at  the  end. 

No  suggestion  was  made  that  these  were  readable  books  and  of 
possible  interest  to  us.  Neither  was  it  made  clear  to  us  that  the 
papers  and  magazines  we  enjoyed  so  much  at  home  we^e  a  part  of 
the  very  literature  we  were  studying  at  school.  It  has  taken 
time  to  remove  from  my  mind  the  impression  received  in  those 
early  days  tliat  a  man  must  be  dead  in  order  to  make  his  writings 
a  part  of  literature. 

Knowledge  comes,  and  the  methods  of  study  in  this  department 
have  been  greatly  improved.  The  true  teacher  of  literature 
should  work  for  thoughts  and  not  for  facts.  In  our  best  schools 
this  work  is  done,  and  well  done,  but  there  are  still  many  where 
too  much  of  the  old  method  lingers.  The  true  teacher  should 
study  the  minds  of  his  pupils,  the  peculiar  tastes  and  tendencies 
of  each.  He  must  try  to  awaken  one  out  of  dullness,  and  to 
steady  the  erratic  brilliance  of  another.  In  no  department  can 
this  mental  development  be  carried  on  with  greater  success  than 
in  that  of  literature. 

The  student  should  study  the  works  of  the  authors  themselves. 
Every  high  school  girl  and  boy  can  not  only  read  Chaucer  but 
enjoy  his  writings.  Most  of  them  will  find  him  a  delightful  writer 
and  well  worth  the  slight  trouble  of  mastering  his  charming  method 
of  spelling  and  his  rhythm.  The  sturdy  boy  will  at  once  claim 
fellowship  with  the  pilgrims  as  they  journey  toward  Canterbury. 
He  will  tell  you  that  Chaucer  is  a  jolly  fellow  with  a  level  head, 
and  that  he  likes  him  first-rate.  If  you  question  him,  he  will  give 
you  his  reasons  for  this  opinion  in  honest  English.  The  power  of 
thought  gained  from  reading  the  old  masters  can  scarcely  be  esti- 
mated. No  amount  of  memorizing  textbook  opinions  will  give 
the  training  obtained  from  reading  and  forming  an  opinion  for 
one's  self.  A  pupil  that  is  required  to  tell  what  he  thinks  and 
why  he  thinks  so,  learns  to  rely  upon  his  own  brain  rather  than 
the  textbook  for  his  ideas.  Then  as  the  types  of  character,  the 
styles  of  expression  and  the  subjects  presented  are  ever  varying 
the  teacher  may  rapidly  master  the  tendency  of  mind  in  each 
pupil.  The  dreamy  girl  "dotes"  on  Edmund  Spenser.  The 
practical  boy  "  has  no  use  "  for  Spenser  but  likes  the  way  Bacon 
puts  things  because  he  stops  when  he  gets  through.      In  such 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  ENGLISH  LANCWAOE,  231 

expressed  preferences,  the  bias  of  the  pupil's  mind  can  be  easily- 
read.  And  the  teacher  can  make  suggestions  for  outside  reading 
accordingly,  so  that  other  powers  of  tlie  mind  will  be  developed ; 
a  taste  for  the  romantic  cultivated  in  the  boy  and  an  appreciation 
of  the  practical  every-day  side  of  life  awakened  in  the  dream- 
loving  girl. 

In  studying  an  autlior  through  his  works,  emphasis  must  be 
laid  upon  two  points.  The  work  chosen  —  if  the  class  have  time 
for  but  one  —  should  be  one  that  well  represent*  the  peculiar  char- 
acteristics of  the  writer  and  one  that  is  complete  in  itself.  It  is 
always  desirable  to  study  more  than  one  selection  from  each 
author.  In  many  instances  it  is  necessary  to  study  some  of  the 
shorter  productions  of  the  author  and  then  parts  of  longer  ones. 
This  is  true  of  writers  like  Edmund  Spenser,  Jolm  Milton,  and 
•  Robert  Browning,  with  whom  the  style  of  the  sliorter  poems  differs 
so  greatly  from  that  of  their  so-called  masterpieces.  The  purpose 
of  the  author  cannot  be  well  understood  unless  the  student  has 
the  whole  composition  in  mind.  And  unless  the  writer's  aim  ia 
understood  the  student  is  liable  to  misjudge  the  work  produced. 

When  one  complete  selection  from  an  author  has  been  studied 
for  its  purpose,  the  relation  of  each  part  to  the  end  in  view,  the 
author's  methods  of  accomplishing  liis  purpose  and  his  style  of 
expression,  then  the  student  is  not  likely  to  be  unjust  to  that 
author  in  selections  from  writings  too  long  for  class  study  as 
a  whole. 

The  most  important  factor  in  producing  the  desired  mental 
development  is  the  teacher's  power  to  ask  questions. 

It  is  assumed  that  no  person  will  be  entrusted  with  the  teach- 
ing of  liteiTiture  who  is  not  at  home  in  the  subject,  who  does  not 
possess  a  mind  imbued  with  the  spirit  of  the  masters  whom  he  has 
to  teach.  In  no  way  can  he  awaken  the  enthusiasm  of  his  class  if 
he  attempts  to  teach  what  he  does  not  know  himself.  The  art  of 
questioning  is  of  great  moment  and  cannot  be  gained  in  a  day. 
To  draw  out  each  pupil's  thought  of  the  poem  or  essay  under 
examination  and  of  the  man  who  wrote  it,  will  requii*e  in  the 
teacher  an  extensive  knowledge  of  the  laws  of  the  human  mind  as 
well  as  of  the  author.  It  will  also  demand  a  thorough  compre- 
hension of  the  meaning  of  the  questions  asked.  The  teacher  can- 
not study  too  carefully  the  exact  content  of  "why,"  "when," 
"where,"  and  "how."  The  dull  pupil  must  be  encouraged  to 
express  what  thought  he  has  and  incited  to  further  thinking  by 


232  EDUCATIOX,  [December, 

judicious  questions.  Tlie  thought  must  be  found  in  fragmentary 
answers  and  unformulated  expressions  and  completed  by  means 
of  questions.  The  student  must  be  trained  to  finish  the  express- 
ion of  his  thought  in  words  before  he  attempts  to  utt^r  it.  All 
this  can  be  done  by  questions.  It  is  of  great  service  to  the  pupil 
if  the  teacher's  questions  on  the  lesson  have  been  arranged  in 
logical  order  before  going  into  class.  This  exact  series  of  ques- 
tions may  never  be  put  to  the  pupils,  but  the  teacher  so  prepared 
does  not  allow  the  discussion  to  be  drawn  off  on  a  tangent  to  the 
central  purpose  of  the  lesson.  Also,  the  teacher  so  prepared  does 
not  confuse  the  minds  of  the  pupils  by  permitting  the  discussion 
of  more  than  one  point  at  a  time. 

A  cliild's  mind  reasons  with  syllogistic  accuracy  if  it  has  never 
been  tampered  with  and  given  false  conclusions  from  known 
premises.  A  little  consideration  of  the  political  condition  of 
England  during  those  periods  so  barren  in  literary  production, 
■  readily  furnishes  the  pupil  with  data  for  the  conclusion  that  no 
writings  of  value  would  be  produced  at  that  time.  What  writ- 
ings there  were,  he  decides,  would  relate  to  the  political  or  social 
interests  of  that  time  and  so  would  i>erish  with  it.  In  this  way, 
these  periods  become  reasonable,  not  mere  freaks  of  history.  He 
no  longer  wonders  that  there  was  little  but  political  literature  in 
the  early  years  of  American  authorship,  when  he  considers  that 
-during  that  time  the  government  was  forming  and  the  minds  of 
All  our  thinking  men  were  centered  upon  the  interests  of  the 
nation.  The  revival  of  learning  ceases  to  be  like  Jonah's  gourd, 
the  wonder-work  of  a  night,  when  the  silent  influences  producing 
it  are  considered.  The  condition  of  the  people,  their  state  of  civil- 
ization and  advancement  in  thought  easily  show  why  one  form  of 
literature  is  so  popular  in  one  era  while  a  different  form  is  preem- 
inent in  a  second.  If  the  student  has  not  the  time  to  look  up  the 
facts  for  himself,  the  teacher  may  so  present  them  that  the  pupil 
can  draw  his  own  conclusions. 

A  dozen  dates,  well  fixed,  serve  to  hang  all  the  historical  and 
biographical  knowledge  upon  which  one  needs  to  know  with 
exactness  from  Chaucer  to  Matthew  Arnold.  All  other  facts  can 
be  grouped  about  these  as  centres  and  remembered  easily  in  their 
relation  to  them. 

In  ten  weeks,  even,  of  this  kind  of  study  a  class  will  show 
maiked  improvement  in  the  power  of  grasping  thought,  of  reach- 
ing right  conclusions  and  clearly  expressing  original  thought. 


1888.]  THE  TEACHma  OF  THE  ENGLISH  LANGUAGE.  233 

There  are  many  aids  that  may  be  employed  in  making  this  work 
of  interest  to  a  large  class.  The  aim  of  the  study  of  literature  is 
the  cultivation  of  a  desire  for  reading  the  best  writers,  and  of  the 
power  to  do  so  with  an  understanding  mind.  A  valuable  help  to 
this  end  is  the  devotion  of  five  minutes  of  each  recitation  to  the 
literary  news  of  the  day,  every  member  of  the  class  holding  him- 
self ready  to  report,  if  questioned.  Magazine  articles  of  any 
relation  to  the  topic  of  study,  with  the  date  and  number  of  the 
volume  and  the  author's  name  may  be  reported.  The  death  of 
any  man  of  literary  distinction  must  be  noted ;  points  of  interest 
about  new  books,  or  any  item  seeming  important  to  the  student, 
should  be  gathered  for  that  report.  The  shortness  of  the  time 
allotted  this  exercise  requires  brevity  and  force  in  the  expression 
of  the  facts,  while  the  habit  of  noting  accurately  the  points  is  of 
great  value  as  a  memory  discipline,  if  for  nothing  else.  But  more 
important,  to  my  thinking,  is  the  grasp  the  student  gains  upon 
the  thought  of  the  world  at  large,  and  the  habit  of  reading  with  a 
purpose. 

Besides  this,  printed  outlines^  placed  in  each  pupil's  hand, 
showing  the  place  each  man  occupies  in  his  time,  facilitate  a  com- 
prehensive grasp  of  the  subject.  Each  man  becomes  one  in  the 
great  body  of  thinkers  and  is  no  longer  a  separate  unit. 

Papers  showing  the  growth,  development,  and  decline  of  any 
form  of  writing  assist  the  student  in  keeping  such  writings  in  the 
right  perspective.  This  development  usually  extends  over  several 
centuries,  as  in  the  case  of  the  English  Drama.  An  outline  pre- 
sents at  once  to  the  eye  the  relation  of  the  early  forms  to  the  later 
ones.  Dates  placed  against  each  division  prevent  a  confusion  of 
periods  and  show  the  condition  of  that  kind  of  literatui'e  during 
each  period  included  in  its  development. 

More  valuable  still  we  have  found  the  reference  lists.  These 
lists  give  for  each  author,  under  such  headings  as  "  Life,"  "Times," 
"Criticisms"  and  "Editions,"  the  best  books  written  about  the 
author.  Pains  should  be  taken,  under  "Life"  for  instance,  to 
refer  to  one  brief  and  succinct  account  of  the  author  as  well  as 
to  mention  those  full  of  detail,  incident,  and  anecdote.  On  the 
left  hand  margin  of  this  list  against  each  book  referred  to,  should 

iFor  my  own  claesee  I  have  used  the  hektograpb,  printing  the  outlines  upon  sheets  of 
the  same  size  and  punched  so  that  they  could  be  bound  together  or  piled  in  book  racks 
for  easy  reference  in  review.  My  pupils  report  constant  use  of  these  oatllneft  and  refer- 
ence  lists  in  class  work  and  later  in  their  own  teaching. 


234  EDUCATIOX,  [December, 

be  pLaced  the  library  number  of  the  volume.  This  saves  the  pupil 
time  and  often  he  obtains  a  book  and  reads  it  when  he  woukl  not 
take  the  trouble  to  find  the  number.  This  is  specially  true  where 
the  library  is  a  large  one.  In  placing  this  list  in  the  hands  of  the 
student*?,  a  brief  mention  of  the  points  for  which  the  volume  is 
most  valuable,  helps  tlie  student  in  his  choice  of  a  book  to  read. 
All  criticisms  should  be  left  until  the  author  himself  has  been  read 
and  the  pupil  has  fonned  his  ow^n  opinion.  Then  lie  can  read  the 
critic  intelligently  witliout  fear  of  being  unduly  biased  either  by 
severity  or  excessive  praise. 

The  list  given  below  is  comparatively  brief,  as  the  Editions  are 
so  numerous  that  reference  is  only  made  to  the  general  bibli- 
ography. The  list  does  not  pretend  to  be  exhaustive.  It  gives 
the  student  a  view  of  the  subject  through  the  eye,  giving  him 
under  A  the  relation  of  the  man's  different  kinds  of  writing  to 
each  other,  and  in  B  the  men  who  have  written  about  the  author. 
The  numbers  are  Boston  Public  Library  humbei^s,  as  the  papers 
were  made  out  for  Boston  classes. 

WILLIAM  MAKEPEACE  THACKERAY. 

1811—1863. 

A. 

I.    Periodical  Writings.    1829-1848. 
The  Snob.    1829.     (Punch.) 
The  National  Standard.    1833. 
The  FraRer*8  Magazine.    1837-1839-1847. 
The  New  Monthly  Magrazine.    1838-1840. 
Titmarsh  Papers.    1843-1847. 
Punch.    1844-1854. 

II.    Novels.    1848-1860. 
Vanity  Fair.    1848. 
Illstory  of  Pendennis.    1849, 1850. 
History  of  Henry  Esmond,  Esq.    1852. 
The  Newcomes.    1854,  1855. 
The  Virginians.    1858,  1859. 

III.  Editorial.    1860-1863. 

Cornhill  Magazine.    1860-1862. 
Loveli,  the  Widower.    1860. 
Adventures  of  Philip.     1861,1862. 
The  Roundabout  Papers.     1860. 
The  Four  Georges.     Published  1860. 

IV.  Posthumous. 

Denis  Duval.    (Cornhill  Magazine.) 

Early  and  Late  Papers.    Edited  by  J.  T.  Fields. 

Thackeray's  Letters.    Scribner,  1887. 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  ENGLISH  LANGUAGE.  235 

WILLIAM  MAKEPEACE  THACKERAY. 

B. 
Life. 

Anthony  Trollope's  English  Men  of  T^etters. 
1529.13.     B.  II.  Stoddard's  Anecdote  Biographies  of  Thackeray  and  Dickens. 
4540a. 6.     J.  Hannay.    Memoir  of  Thackeray. 

Editions. 

2575.78.      See  Bibliography  of  Thackeray.  Compiled  by  R.  H.  Shepherd.  1880. 

Times. 

2496.77.  W.  H.  Rldeing.    Thackeray's  London. 

J.  McCarthy.     History  of  Our  Own  Times. 

Criticisms. 

2478.57.    Novels  and  Novelists.    J.  C.  Jeaffreson. 
S.  E.15.14.    British  Novelists.    David  Masson. 

4554.78.  The  English  Novel.     Sidney  Lanier. 
2578.63.    The  Best  of  All  Good  Company.    B.  Jerrold. 

Magazine  Articles. 

7313.1.9.    Cornhill.    Vol.  9.    February,  1864.     (Memorials  by  Dickens,  Antho- 
ny TroUope,  and  Lord  Houghton.) 
London  Literary  Budget,  July  26,  1862.    Page  265.     (Mr.  Thack- 
eray as  an  Editor.) 

3162.50.87.    Edinburgh  Review.     Vol.87.     Page  46. 

5314.1.13.    Atlantic.    Vol.  13.     Page  371.     (B.  Taylor.) 

5314.1.34.    Atlantic.    Vol.  34.     (G.  P.  Lathrop.    The  Novel.) 

5299.1.40.     North  British  Review.    Vol.40.     Page  210. 

If  time  permits  the  student  should  write  essays  upon  topics  con- 
nected with  the  lessons.  In  no  instance  should  the  class  neg- 
lect to  define  each  style  of  writing.  The  discussion  of  what 
a  sonnet,  a  novel,  an  epic  poem  ought  to  be  and  the  expression  of 
the  definition  evolved  is  a  valuable  drill.  It  gives  the  student 
the  opportunity  to  compare  the  author's  work  with  his  ideal  of 
that  class  of  work.  It  heli)S  him  make  keen  discriminations  and 
teaches  him  concise  expression  and  precision  in  the  use  of  words. 

This  work  requires  thought  and  care  on  the  part  of  the  teacher, 
but  the  results  are  so  manifestly  valuable  to  the  student  that  he  is 
repaid  a  hundred  fold  for  his  labor. 


236  BDUCATIOX.  [December, 


PREPARATION  FOR  CITIZENSHIP. 

II. 

AT     AMHERST     COLLEGE. 

BY  ANSON  D.  MORSE,  A.  M. 
WMUey  Profu9or  of  Hittory  and  Politieal  Economy. 

GOOD  citizenship  is  a  product  of  character  even  more  than  of 
knowledge.  One  may  know  the  facts  and  science  of  politics 
as  thoroughly  as  Aaron  Burr  knew  them  and  still  be  a  bad  citizen. 
If  at  graduation  a  man  lack  the  spirit  of  the  good  citizen,  he  will, 
in  all  probability,  never  possess  it;  if,  on  the  other  hand,  he  has 
this  spirit,  but  lacks  political  knowledge,  his  deficiency  admits  of 
partial  remedy ;  he  can  acquire  afterwards  a  working  knowledge  of 
politics. 

The  spirit  of  a  college  is  an  important  factor  in  the  education  of 
its  students ;  it  shapes  their  ideals,  and  thus  counts  for  much  in 
deciding  the  type  and  quality  of  their  citizenship.  The  political 
traits  of  the  Amherst  spirit  are  like  those  of  the  decade,  1815 
to  1825,  in  which  the  college  was  founded.^  National  as  op- 
posed to  sectional  feeling,  sympathy  with  the  people,  rather 
than  a  particular  class,  devotion  to  those  interests  which  are  uni- 
versal, have  always  been  marked  characteristics  of  Amherst. 
The  relation  of  the  College  to  slavery,  the  civil  war  and  recon- 
struction, as  shown  in  its  teaching  and  the  conduct  of  influential 
representatives,  proves  the  strength  and  breadth  of  its  nationalism. 
The  democratic  ideal  of  relationship  between  man  and  man  is 
perhaps  nowhere  more  perfectly  realized  than  among  the  under- 
graduates at  Amherst.  Personal  merit  is  the  basis  of  distinction. 
Only  talent,  and  fine  or  strong  traits  of  character  confer  influence. 
There  is  no  mammon  worship.  The  student  who  works  his  way 
enjoys  the  esteem  of  the  college  community  as  fully  as  the  student 
who  spends  lavishly.  Straitened  means  lead  neither  to  a  surrender 
of  self  respect,  nor  to  a  struggle  with  society,  the  result  of  which,  too 

^Amherst  reckons  1821  as  her  birth  year,  but  Amherst  Academy,  "the  mother  of 
Amherst  College."  was  dedicated  in  1815  and  the  College  charter  after  a  protracted  and 
really  desperate  struggle  was  obtained  in  1825.  Vid.  Tyler's  History  of  Amherst  College, 
Chapters  III.-X. 


1888.]  PREPABATION  FOB  CITIZENSHIP.  237 

often,  is  embittered  isolation.  The  influence  upon  the  rich  is  not 
less  wholesome.  They  learn  to  judge  themselves  and  others,  not  by 
what  a  man  has,  but  by  what  he  is  and  does.  They  learn  also  to 
regard  themselves  as  belonging  to  the  people  rather  than  to  a 
privileged  class.  Another  side  of  this  trait  is  the  marked  pref- 
erence for  substance  over  form  which  characterizes  both  student 
and  graduate.  That  the  Amherst  spirit  is  sensitive  and  respon- 
sive to  universal  interests  is  proved  by  the  history  of  the  college 
in  respect  to  science,  philosophy  and  foreign  missions. 

The  first  fonnal  step  in  "  preparation  for  citizenship"  at  Amherat 
is  taken  at  an  interview  w4th  the  President  at  the  beginning  of 
Freshman  year.  In  this  an  exposition  is  given  of  the  paragraph  in 
the  college  catalogue  which  treats  of  "Administration."  The 
most  important  clause  reads:  "A  student  whose  recommendations 
have  been  approved,  and  whose  examinations  have  shown  liim 
capable  of  admission  to  Amherst  College,  is  received  as  a  gentle- 
man, and,  as  such,  is  trusted  to  conduct  himself  in  truthfulness  and 
uprightness,  in  kindness  and  respect,  in  diligence  and  sobriety,  in 
obedience  to  law  and  maintenance  of  order,  and  regard  for  Chris- 
tian institutions  as  becomes  a  member  of  a  Christian  College." 
The  words  are  explicit;  still  it  is  found  useful  to  impress  them 
upon  the  memory  and  to  make  clear  fis  possible  their  application 
to  tlie  actual  conditions  of  college  life.  Emphasis  is  laid  upon  the 
facts;  first,  that  the  relation  with  the  college  into  wliich  the  stu- 
dent enters  is  on  his  part  voluntary ;  second,  that  this  relation  is 
of  the  nature  of  a  contract  wliich  binds  the  college  to  admit  the 
student  to  its  privileges  and  the  student  to  observe  the  conditions 
on  which  these  privileges  are  granted;  and  consequently,  that  non- 
fulfillment of  obligations  by  cither  party  sTiould  terminate  the 
relation ;  third,  that  this  relation  is  direct ;  the  student  deals  with 
the  college  and  the  college  with  the  student,  not  as  a  member  of  a 
class,  but  as  an  individual.  The  next  step  is  participation  in  the 
government  of  the  college.  The  nature  and  extent  of  this  parti- 
cipation are  stated  in  the  catalogue  as  follows:  "The  Faculty  have 
judged  it  wise  to  associate  with  them,  in  the  immediate  govern- 
ment of  the  College,  a  body  chosen  by  the  students  themselves,  to 
which  questions  of  College  order  and  decorum  are  referred,  and 
whose  decisions,  if  approved  by  the  President,  are  binding  in  the 
CoUege.  This  Ijody  is  called  the  College  Senate,  and  consists  of  four 
Seniors,  three  Juniors,  two  Soj)homores,  and  one  Freshman,  chosen 


238  EDUCATION,  [December, 

by  their  respective  classes.  At  the  meetings  of  the  Senate,  which 
are  hehl  regularly  once  a  month,  the  President  of  the  College 
presides."  ^ 

The  attitude  of  the  Senate  towards  the  College  Ls  indicated  by 
the  following  extract  from  its  Constitution :  — 

'"Before  taking  his  seat,  each  member  shall  sign  the  Constitu- 
tion, U)  which  shall  Ihj  prefaced  the  following  pledge :  *  I  hereby 
sign  this  Constitution,  promising  to  act  as  a  judge  ui)on  all 
matters  brought  before  me,  and  to  endeavor  in  all  my  decisions  to 
seek  always  the  good  order  and  decorum  of  the  College.'" ^ 

The  powers  of  the  Senate  are  as  follows:  — 

"Whenever  a  member  of  the  college  shall  appear  to  have  broken 
the  contract  upon  which  he  was  leceived  as  a  member  of  Amherst 
College,  except  in  cases  pertaining  to  attendance  upon  college  exer- 
cises, determined  by  the  regular  rules  of  the  Faculty,  the  case  shall 
be  brought  before  the  Senate,  who  shall  determine  both  as  to  whether 
the  contract  has  been  broken,  and  whether,  if  broken,  it  shall 
again  be  renewed. 

"The  jurisdiction  of  the  Senate  shall  also  extend  over  such  pro- 
cedures of  any  Ixxly  of  students,  relating  to  order  and  decorum, 
as  affect  the  whole  college,  and  over  whatever  other  business  the 
President  or  Faculty  may  submit  to  it ;  it  being  understood  that  in 
such  cases  the  action  of  the  Senate  shall  have  the  full  authority  of 
the  college. 

"Any  member  shall  have  the  right  to  introduce  business,  also  to 
call  for  any  vote  by  ballot  whenever   he  shall  desire  it."^ 

The  Facult3%  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Trustees,  remains 
the  general  law-making  branch  of  the  college  government.  In  the 
main  the  functions  of  the  Senate  are  judicial.  A  large  proportion 
of  cases  which  come  before  it  permit  the  application  of  principles 
and  rules  already  in  force.  A  question  frequently  adjudicated  is 
wdiether  a  particular  act  in  violation  of  order,  decorum  or  good 
morals,  should  terminate  the  relation  of  the  i)erj)etrator  to  the  col- 
lege. But  the  Senate  does  more  than  merely  interpret  law:  it 
deals  with  many  questions  which  relate  to  the  welfare  of  the 
college  in  a  general  way,  and  to  the  settlement  of  which,  existing 
rules  are  inapplicable.     Questions  which  concern  student  publica- 

»C<>lh'go  Catalogue,  Par.  on  Organization. 
<  Constitution  of  tho  Senate,  Art.  II.,  Sec.  4. 
3n)id.    Art.  IV. 


1888.]  PREPARATION  FOR  CITIZEXSHIP.  239 

tions,  intercollegiate  contests,  the  privileges  of  and  restrictions 
upon  organizations  which  engage  in  these,  the  Senate  decides 
according  to  its  own  best  judgment;  and  in  so  doing,  is  gradually 
building  up  a  system  of  college  local  common  law.  A  third  very 
important  function  of  the  Senate  is  to  serve  as  a  kind  of  perma- 
nent conference  committee  in  which  the  President  represents  the 
Faculty  and  the  Senators,  the  students.  By  means  of  these  confer- 
ences each  of  the  represented  bodies  becomes  acquainted  with  the 
views  and  feelings  of  the  other,  and  under  circumstances  which 
dispose  each  to  considerateness.  The  result  is  the  prevention  of 
those  frequent  and,  at  times,  grave  collisions  which  arise  from 
misundei-standings  between  faculty  and  students.  The  President 
can  veto  the  decisions  of  the  Senate  as  he  can  those  of  the  Fac- 
ulty ;  but  he  has  very  rarely  found  it  necessary  to  do  so.  After 
full  discussion,  the  President,  who  from  the  nature  of  his  office 
embodies  the  conservatism  of  the  college,  and  the  Senators,  who  in 
their  official  capacity  represent  its  radicalism,  have  come  to  an 
agreement  respecting  almost  every  question.  The  idea  of  a  con- 
tract as  the  basis  of  the  relation  between  student  and  college,  and 
participation  of  the  student  in  college  government,  are  leading 
features  of  what  some  have  called  the  "Amlierst  System."  The 
influence  of  this  system  begins  with  the  first  day  of  college  life 
and  increases  to  the  end  of  the  course.  Ite  first  aim  is  to  develop 
in  the  student  the  capacity  for  wise  self  direction ;  its  second,  is  to 
awaken  in  him  an  interest  in  the  college  and  a  sense  of  responsi- 
bility for  its  welfare.  The  system  combats  at  the  threshold  the 
tendency  once  prevalent  and  still  powerful,  to  put  class  feeling 
and  college  custom  in  the  place  of  the  judgment  and  conscience  of 
the  individual  student.  It  tries  to  make  him  feel,  with  respect  to 
the  administration  of  college  government,  that  he  is  not  so  much 
the  subject  of  the  faculty  as  their  colleague. 

Is  the  system  successful?  Yes,  but  like  other  systems  it  must 
be  used  a  while  before  it  can  work  with  perfect  smoothness. 
Under  this  system  college  public  opinion  has  greater  weight  than 
it  used  to  have.  It  is  probable  that  neither  faculty  nor  students 
realize  as  yet  the  full  consequences  of  this  fact.  In  order  that 
public  opinion  may  become  a  safe  guide  in  determining  college 
policy,  two  conditions  are  requisite;  first,  it  must  be  based  on 
regard  for  not  one,  nor  a  few,  but  all  important  interests  con- 
cerned; second,  the  estimate  of  the  relative  importance  of  these 


340  EDUCATIOX.  [December, 

interests  must  be  just.  From  a  standpoint  which  takes  into  view 
only  a  certain  set  of  interests,  required  attendance  at  church  and 
chapel  seems  indefensible ;  from  a  standpoint  with  a  broader  out- 
look,  the  question  assumes  an  aspect  which  would  lead  advocates 
of  the  voluntary  system  who  have  the  highest  good  of  the  college 
at  heart,  to  wish  for  more  light  before  assuming  the  responsibility 
of  a  revolutionarj'  change.  The  habit  of  looking  at  both  sides,  or 
rather  all  sides  of  a  question,  cannot  be  formed  in  a  day.  The 
encouraging  featui*e  of  the  situation  at  Amherst  is  the  evidence  of 
progress  in  this  direction.  In  general  the  difference  between  fac- 
ulty-views and  student-views  is  less  radical  than  it  used  to  be ;  the 
relation  between  faculty  and  studentw  is  more  frequently  that  of 
friendly  and  hearty  cooperation.  Under  the  influence  of  this 
change  certain  hateful  incidents  of  the  old  method  of  governing — 
its  conflicts,  diplomacy,  and  espionage,  are  being  forgotten.  The 
student  is  becoming  a  good  citizen  of  the  college  community,  and 
in  this  way,  is  preparing  to  become  a  good  citizen  of  the  state. 

At  Amherst  the  fraternities,  nine  in  number,  are  a  marked  fea- 
ture of  the  college.  The  proportion  of  '* Society  men"  is  consider- 
ably larger  than  twenty  years  ago  and  is  steadily  increasing.  In 
certain  respects  the  fraternities  are  colleges  within  the  college; 
they  are  bodies  of  colleagues  whose  corpoi-ate  aims  are  in  sympathy 
with  those  of  the  college  and  supplementary  to  them.  Their 
vitality  and  prosperity  indicate  that  they  satisfy  a  real  want.  In 
fact  what  they  offer  the  student  is  something  he  needs  and  cannot 
with  equal  ease  and  fulness  obtain  by  other  means.  To  prepara- 
tion for  citizenship  the  fraternities  contribute  in  several  ways. 
They  establish  a  close  and  permanent  relationship  between  alumni 
and  undergraduates,  through  which  the  juster  views  of  life  and  of 
college  opportunities  and  duties,  which  prevail  among  the  alumni, 
reach  and  influence  the  undergraduates.  By  means  of  their 
intercollegiate  relations  the  fraternities  develop  a  friendly  and 
magnanimous  spirit  towards  other  colleges.  Through  admitting 
delegates  from  each  of  the  four  classes  they  do  much  to  keep  class 
spirit  from  becoming  arrogant  and  belligerent.  As  literary  socie- 
ties they  encourage  the  serious  study  and  discussion  of  political 
topics.  But  of  all  their  services  to  preparation  for  citizensliip 
one  of  the  greatest  is  the  aid  they  give  in  maintaining  relations 
with  general  society.  The  tendency  of  college  life  towards  seclu- 
sion is  a  survival  in  the  field  of  education  of  the  once  dominant 


1888.]  PREPARATION  FOR  CITIZENSHIP,  241 

influence  of  monasticism.  This  tendency  explains  in  part  why 
the  educated  modern  is  less  frequently  a  man  of  affairs  than  was^ 
in  classic  times,  the  educated  Greek  or  Roman.  To  many  a  studi- 
ous man,  going  to  college  has  been  to  such  an  extent  a  going  out 
of  the  world,  that  only  with  difficulty  could  he  find  his  place  again. 
To  many  who  were  not  studioas,  partial  isolation  from  ordinary 
social  influences  during  the  four  years  of  College  life  has  proved 
seriously  demoralizing.  The  happiest  result  is  when  social  and  in- 
tellectual development  keep  even  step.  The  comradeship  which  the 
fraternities  have  always  fostered  is  now  widening  into  practical  citi- 
zenship. Through  his  chapter  house  the  relation  of  the  student 
to  the  town  of  Amherst  is  undergoing  a  radical  change ;  he  has  be- 
come a  householder,  a  neighbor,  and  a  host ;  as  a  taxpayer  he  has 
an  interest  in  the  management  of  town  affairs ;  his  stake  in  the 
community  is  much  more  like  that  of  other  citizens  than  it  used  to 
be ;  in  brief,  through  helping  the  student  to  maintain  responsible 
relations  with  general  society,  the  fraternities  make  it  difficult  for 
him  to  be  a  recluse,  a  Bohemian,  or  an  Ishmaelite. 

On  the  other  hand  it  must  be  conceded  that  "  Society  men  "  are 
sometimes  clannish ;  and  clannishness  is  narrow  and  narrowing — 
the  counterpart  in  college  of  sectionalism  in  the  state.  It  is,  how- 
ever, a  fair  question  whether  the  fault  does  not^  lie  in  the  men 
rather  than  the  fraternities  —  whether  in  fact  the  fraternities  do 
not  in  many  cases  really  broaden  the  associations  and  sympathies 
of  men  who  are  by  nature  clannish.  Observers  agree  that  the 
evil  was  greater  when  the  fraternities  were  fewer. 

Turning  now  to  the  curriculum  we  find  that  the  studies,  and 
exercises  which  deal  most  directly  with  political  subjects,  are 
oratory,  debates,  history,  political  economy,  international  law, 
moral  science,  and  discussions  with  the  President.  To  oratory 
are  assigned  four  exercises  each  week  during  the  second  and  third 
terms  of  sophomore  year,  and  one  each  week  during  the  first  term 
of  junior  year ;  to  debates,  one  exercise  each  week  during  the  last 
term  of  junior  year  and  all  of  senior  year.  Of  the  relation  of  these 
studies  to  preparation  for  citizenship  the  professor  in  charge  says: 
"As  the  oratorical  aim  is  not  to  impress  upon  the  student  any 
arbitrary  system  of  delivery,  but  to  develop  and  train  his  individ- 
ual powers,  a  necessary  condition  is  a  theme  of  interest  and  recog- 
nized importance  to  the  speaker  and  his  hearers.  Experience  has 
shown  that  this  condition  is  most  happily  found  in   questions 


242  ED  UCA  TIOX.  [December, 

relating  to  our  political  social,  and  economic  life.  The  more 
thoroughly  the  (juestions  are  studied  and  the  more  deeply  inter- 
ested the  student  becomes  in  their  preparation,  the  more  easily 
does  he,  as  a  speaker,  relieve  himself  from  restraints  and  reveal  the 
powei's  and  defects  that  demand  the  guidance  and  criticism  of  the 
instructor.  This  is  tlierefore  suHicient  ground,  aside  from  other 
important  reasons,  for  making  the  coui*se  a  stimulus  and  guide  to 
reading  and  thought  upon  subjects  readily  seen  to  affect  tlie  wel- 
fare of  our  country.  The  subjects  assigned  are  carefully  arranged 
80  as  to  make  the  course  progi-essive  and  systematic.  The  work 
early  interests  the  student  in  subjects  bearing  upon  the  duties  of 
citizensliip  and  in  many  instances  it  undoubtedly  directs  his 
private  reading  in  the  same  channels.  It  is  also  probable  that 
much  of  the  forensic  work  in  the  literary  meetings  of  tlie  societies 
is  largely  influenced  in  its  character  by  these  exercises  of  the  class- 
room. 

Tlie  questions  assigned  for  debate  and  discussion  relate  mainly 
to  political  liistory,  our  social  prol)lems  and  present  administra- 
tion. Typical  (juestions  as  debated  or  discussed  by  the  class  of 
'88  are :  — 

1.  Has  the  influence  of  Compromise  in  our  history  been  more 
harmful  tlian  beneficial? 

2.  Is  the  cure  of  our  social  evils  to  be  more  largely  moral  and 
religious  than  physical  and  economic? 

3.  Should  the  friends  of  temperance  favor  high  license? 

4.  Was  Thomas  Jefferson  a  better  president  than  Andrew 
Jackson  ? 

5.  Is  the  "Fisheries  Bill"  the  l>est  means  of  meeting  our  diffi- 
culties with  Canada? 

6.  What  is  the  true  regulative  principle  in  the  industrial 
world? 

7.  How  are  the  interests  of  the  laboring  classes  in  this  country 
to  be  best  advanced  ? 

8.  What  should  be  done  in  regard  to  the  accumulating  surplus 
in  the  United  States  Treasurv  ? 

9.  Which  of  the  great  political  parties  in  the  history  of  the 
United  States  has  had  tlie  most  influence  upon  its  institutions? 

10.  What  should  be  the  course  of  the  United  States  in  regard 
to  immigration  ?  ^ 

1  Quoted  from  statomcnt  of  Professor  Frink,  made  at  reqaost  of  the  writer. 


1888.]  PREP^lBAriOX  FOR  CITIZENSHIP.  243 

111  history  there  are  two  courses ;  one,  a  general  course,  wliich 
has  four  exercises  each  week  of  junior  year;  the  other,  a  course 
in  the  political  and  constitutional  history  of  the  United  States 
which  has  two  hours  each  week  of  the  first  senior  term  and  four 
hours  each  week  of  the  second.  In  the  study  of  general  history 
the  following  divisions  are  made:  (1)  A  review  of  Orienta.1,  Greek, 
and  Roman  history.  (2)  A  course  of  twelve  weeks  on  the  period 
from  the  Migrations  to  the  Kenaissance,  in  which  the  history  of 
England  and  the  movements  and  institutions  which  affected  west- 
ern Europe  as  a  whole  receive  most  attention.  (3)  A  course  of 
twelve  weeks  on  the  period  from  the  Reformation  to  the  French 
Revolution,  in  which  the  Reformation,  the  Catholic  Counter-Refor- 
mation, and  the  Revolutions  in  England  and  France  are  the  features 
most  studied.  (4)  A  course  of  eleven  weeks  on  American  col- 
onial history,  the  political  history  of  the  United  States,  and,  in 
outline,  the  history  of  Europe  since  the  French  Revolution. 

Throughout  these  courses  the  standpoint  is  that  of  world  his- 
tory. Only  those  fact*^  are  studied  which  have  a  traceable  relation 
to  general  progress.  The  history  of  a  nation  is  treated  as  a  chap- 
ter in  universal  liistory ;  the  importance  of  individuals,  peoples, 
movements,  and  institutions  is  measured  by  their  contributions  to 
civilization.  The  question  which  the  course  propounds  is :  through 
what  experiences  and  by  what  agencies  has  the  world  as  it  was  at 
the  dawn  of  history  become  the  very  different  world  of  to-day? 

This  course  is  a  preparation  for  citizenship,  because  every  man  is 
a  citizen  of  the  world  as  well  as  of  a  particular  country ;  and  the 
best  work  of  a  citizen  is  that  through  which  he  aids  his  country  to 
recognize  and  discharge  its  obligation  towards  the  world.  More- 
over, there  is  nothing  which  so  clears  the  judgment  respecting 
national  affairs  as  acquaintance  with  and  interest  in  the  affairs  of 
mankind. 

The  course  in  political  and  constitutional  history  begins  with 
the  inauguration  of  the  new  government  in  1789  and  comes  down 
to  the  close  of  Reconstruction.  In  the  spring  of  1888,  a  special 
course  of  twenty  lectures  on  ''The  Civil  War  and  Reconstruc- 
tion," was  given.  In  explaining  methods,  an  account  of  the  work 
of  the  first  term  will  serve.  The  period  covered  is  1789-1833. 
The  following  general  subjects  are  selected  for  investigation  by 
the  students :  foreign  relations ;  Indian  policy ;  banks  :  internal  im- 
provements ;    tariffs ;    national   sovereignty ;    state    sovereignty. 


■oiioiiik:  lift'.  Tin-  inme 
il  tlif  inont  (k-L-ply  iiiler- 
thfir  iirejiaratiiiii,  tlif  mtirt'  ciwily 
iiist'lf  friim  rustmints  ami  reveiil  the 


Stll.Ut-.l    i 


niliitiuj,'  tn  11111-  iK.litiral  su.-iul.  aii(\  c 
tlioiiiu^^lily  till'  (lUL'stioiis  il 
esled  tile  student  Ijciouk-s  in 
tliK's  lie,  lis  11  simaker,  relieve  lii 
Itowors  ami  ilefeits  tlmt  (lemaml  the  fjiiiilaiue  ami  iritieisni  nf  tliu 
iiiistnitrtor.  This  is  thfivfurc  suthcieiit  irrouiul.  aside  from  other 
iiiipnrtanl  ivasniis,  fur  makiii;;  the  i-fnirse  a  stiiiiiihis  ami  friiitle  to 
reading  mid  lhoiii;Iil  iipiin  siilijwls  n-adily  seen  to  affcel  i!ie  wel- 
fare (»f  our  eoiuitry.  The  snhji'i-t.s  assijjned arc  laivfuUy  ananK^d 
BO  iiti  to  make  the  voiii'se  jirnfjii'ssive  hihI  systematic.  Tlie  work 
early  intelvsts  tlie  student  in  sulijects  In'arinjj  n]ion  tlic  duties  of 
citi/eiisliip  and  in  many  instanees  it  nmlonhtedly  diivcts  his 
jMivalf  leadiuf,'  in  the  same  elianmds.  It  is  also  iirolxilde  that 
mui'li  of  the  forensii-  work  in  the  literary  ineelinps  of  tlio  sooiwtiea 
is  laimdy  intiuoiiced  in  its  oliaraLter  hv  these  exei-cises  of  thf  cLiss- 


Th(i  questions  assigned  for  deltale  and  discussion  ivlate  mainly 
to  iiuliiicnl  history,  our  soeinl  pi-olileiiis  and  present  ailininistra- 
tion.  Tyiiii'al  tjneslinns  us  deliated  or  discussed  by  the  class  of 
'8«are:  — 

1.  Has  the  influence  of  Comiiromise  in  our  history  been  more 
harmful  tlian  Iwnetiiuar' 

'2.  Is  the  cuie  of  our  social  evils  to  be  more  largely  moral  and 
religiiniM  than  pliysical  and  economic? 

3.  Should  the  friends  of  temperance  favor  high  lioeiue? 

4.  Was  Thomas  JeiTi'i'son   a   WMtcr   [iresidtint   titan   An 
Jackson  ? 

5.  Is  the  "Fisheries  Bill"  the  l)ent  meaiut  of  iui»otiii^  our  diffi- 
culties with  Canada? 

().  What  is  the  true  it-guhitivu  |iriiie4ple  lu  tb?  industrial 
world? 

7.  How  arcs  the  intere-<tt3  nf  th«  Ijtbiirtag  cluWfiS  m  Uiii'  cnnnti-y 
to  be  hutti  advanced  ? 

S.     What  shnold  he  done  in  rugard  Hft^iita  aoooj 
in  the  Uuiusd  StattR  TrcMiiry'/ 

9.     Wiiich  of  the  s 
United  Statert  ha»  had  t 

in.    Mniats 
In  imtnigratiiili  ?  * 


8.] 


PBEPAJfATIO.y  FOtl  CITIZEN  SHIP. 


In  history  tliere  are  two  coui-aes;  one.  a  general  course,  wliith 
has  four  exercises  each  week  of  junior  year;  the  other,  a  course 
in  the  [loUtical  and  constitutional  history  of  the  United  States 
which  has  two  houi-s  each  week  of  the  first  senior  terra  and  four 
hours  eacli  week  of  tlie  second.  In  the  study  of  general  history 
the  following  divisions  are  made :  (1)  A  review  of  Oriental,  Greek, 
and  Roman  history.  (2)  A  course  of  twelve  weeks  on  the  period 
fi-om  the  Migrations  to  the  Renaissance,  in  which  the  history  of 
England  and  the  movements  and  histitutions  whieh  affected  west^ 
em  Europe  as  a  whole  receive  most  attention.  (3)  A  course  of 
twelve  weeks  on  the  period  fr(mi  the  Reformation  to  the  French 
Revolution,  in  which  the  Ref(»rmation,  the  Catholic  Counter-Refor- 
mation, and  the  Revolutions  in  England  and  France  are  the  features 
most  studied.  (4)  A  coui-se  of  eleven  weeks  on  American  col- 
onial history,  the  political  history  of  the  United  States,  and,  in 
outline,  the  historj-  of  Europe  since  the  French  Revolution. 

Throughout  these  com-ses  the  standpoint  is  that  of  world  liis- 
tory.  Only  those  facts  are  studied  which  have  a  traceable  relation 
to  general  progress.  The  liistory  of  a  nation  is  treated  as  a  cha[>- 
ter  in  universal  history;  the  importance  of  individuals,  peoples, 
movements,  and  institutions  is  measured  by  their  contributions  to 
oivilization.  The  question  which  the  course  propounds  is:  through 
what  experiences  and  by  what  agencies  has  the  world  as  it  was  at 
the  dawn  of  history  liecomc  the  very  different  world  of  to-day? 

This  course  is  a  preparation  for  citizenship,  because  every  man  is 
B  citizen  of  the  world  as  well  as  of  a  particular  country ;  and  the 
best  work  of  a  citizen  is  that  tlirimgh  which  he  aids  his  country  to 
recognize  uud  diacharge  its  ohligatiou  towards  the  world.  More- 
over, tluT«  is  nutliiug  which  so  clears  the  judgment  respecting 
natiouul  affairs  as  acquaintance  with  and  interest  in  the  affairs  of 
mankind. 

Tlio  course  in  political  and  coustitutional  history  begins  with 
1  of  the  new  government  in  1789  and  comes  down 
[cconstruction.  In  the  spring  of  1888,  a  special 
\,  tcutniaa  on  "  T!ie  Civil  War  and  Reconstruc- 
iuing  methods,  an  account  of  the  work 
Tlif  period  covered  is  1789-1833. 
n  ;ird  selected  for  investigation  by 
;  Indian  policy ;  banks  :  internal  im- 
btul   suvereignty ;    state    sovereignty. 


244  EDUCATION,  [December, 

These  subjects  are  sub-divided ;  that  on  foreign  relations,  for 
example,  furnishes  topics  for  ten  students  ;  that  on  tariffs,  for 
three.  Examj)les  of  special  topics  are:  (1)  foreign  relations 
during  the  administration  of  Wasliington;  (2)  compare  the  foreign 
policy  of  Washington  with  that  of  Jefferson ;  (3)  foreign  policy  of 
the  Federalists  during  the  administrations  of  Jefferson  and  Madison ; 
(4)  history  of  the  first  bank  of  the  United  States;  (5)  history  of 
tariffs  down  to  1816,  including  an  analysis  of  Hamilton's  report  on 
manufactures  in  1791 ;  (G)  history  of  New  England  Sectionalism; 

(7)  the  political  work  and  influence  of  Hamilton ;  (8)  the  political 
work  and  influence  of  Gallatin.  Each  student,  as  far  as  possible, 
makes  use  of  original  sources;  in  studying  Hamilton,  for  example, 
he  reads  Hamilton's  own  words.  The  essays,  so  far  as  the  nature 
of  the  topic  permits,  conform  to  the  following  scheme :  (1)  narra- 
tive of  facts,  (2)  discussion  of  the  constitutional  questions  involved, 

(8)  influence  upon  political  development.  Each  essay  is  read 
before  a  section  of  the  class  and  in  the  discussion  which  follows 
every  member  takes  part.  About  one-fourth  of  the  lectui-es  of  the 
course  are  introductory  to  the  period ;  the  others  treat  of  party 
history. 

Political  economy  has  four  hours  each  week  of  senior  year,  and 
international  law  four  hours  during  the  last  term  of  that  year. 
"  The  first  term  is  devoted  to  the  study  of  economic  theory ;  the 
second,  to  the  social  problem  and  the  problem  of  transportation. 
In  the  study  of  the  social  problem  the  individualistic,  socialistic, 
and  social  reformatory  propositions  are  analyzed  and  criticised 
and  the  lines  indicated  along  wliich  the  solution  must  take  place. 
In  this  course  one  important  aim  is  to  determine  the  principles  and 
limits  of  state  action.  The  third  term  is  devoted  to  fiscal  science 
and  the  tariff.  In  the  former  the  main  topics  of  investigation  are : 
the  theory  of  public  fiscal  administration ;  the  principles  which 
should  guide  in  making  appropriations  for  public  expenditure ;  the 
subject  of  revenue  in  its  general  aspects ;  the  methods  of  raising 
revenue;  the  principles  and  the  different  forms  and  systems  of 
taxation ;  the  general  subject  of  public  credit ;  the  extent  to  which 
the  state  may  safely  employ  credit;  and  lastly  the  principles  which 
should  guide  in  the  administration,  contraction,  liquidation,  and 
conversion  of  the  public  debt.  In  the  course  on  the  tariff,  the 
theories  of  free  trade  and  protection  and  the  liistory  of  the  tariffs 
of  the  United  States,  are  studied.     The  aim  is  not  to  make  stu- 


1«88.]  PBEPARATIOX  FOR  CITIZENSHIP.  245 

dents  free  traders  or  protectionists,  but  to  secure  acquaintance 
with  the  subject  and  establish  the  habit  of  candid  thinking. 

The  method  of  instruction  is  as  follows:  the  subject  is  first 
outlined  by  means  of  lectures  and  then  discussed  in  the  class. 
By  means  of  references,  acquaintance  with  authorities  is  ob- 
tained. For  those  who  can  devote  more  time  to  the  subject 
a  seminary  is  held  for  the  free  discussion  of  practical  economic 
questions.  In  international  law  the  methods  are  the  same  as  those 
employed  in  political  economy.  ^ 

Moral  science  has  five  hours  each  week  during  the  second  term 
of  senior  year.  *'In  the  study  of  Ethics,  which  covers  the  whole 
sphere  of  moral  obligation,  special  attention  is  given  to  the  study 
of  citizenship.  It  is  felt  that  however  perfect  may  be  the  form  of 
government,  its  administration  and  its  laws,  these  alone  can  no 
more  make  a  good  citizen  than  sunshine  and  rain  and  a  rich  soil 
can  transform  a  pebble  into  an  oak ;  there  must  be  a  spirit  of  life 
from  within  before  environment  can  call  out  growth;  the  spirit  of 
life,  the  vital  force  of  citizenship,  is  virtue. 

The  method  of  conducting  the  study  is,  fii-st,  to  ground  the 
student  in  the  convictions  of  an  immutable  moralit)'  as  opposed  to 
prudence  and  expediency.  Then  having  found  the  source  of 
moral  obligation,  an  exhaustive  investigation  of  the  nature  of  the 
State  and  claims  of  positive  authority  is  attempted  in  order  that 
the  conscience  of  the  student  may  be  aroused  and  government  may 
be  seen  to  be  one  of  right  as  well  as  might.  Having  thiLs  laid  the 
foundations  of  civil  authority,  the  questions  respecting  the  forms 
which  are  legitimate  and  the  limitations  of  its  action,  are  discussed 
so  far  as  these  can  be  brought  witliin  a  philosophical  investiga- 
tion. 2 

Once  each  week  during  two  terms  the  Seniors  meet  the  Presi- 
dent for  the  discussion  of  questions  which  they  themselves  propose. 
A  large  percentage  of  these  questions  relate  to  social  and  political 
problems.  The  discussions  are  more  like  conferences  than  formal 
classroom  exercises.  Their  value  as  a  preparation  for  citizenship 
will  be  understood  by  all  who  know  the  college. 

Summarizing,  we  find  that  the  political  studies  at  Amherst  equal 
thirteen  and  a  half  full  terms  of  four  exercises  each  week.  Of 
these  three  and  a  quarter  are  in  the  department  of  public  speak- 

1  Quoted  fiom  Htatement  of  Dr.  Tuttle. 
>  Statement  of  Pi*ofes»or  Garman. 


246  EDUCATION,  [December, 

ing,  eight  and  a  half  in  the  department  of  history  and  political 
economy,  one  and  three  quartei-s  in  the  department  of  pliilosophy. 
Most  of  these  studies  belong  to  junior  and  senior  years;  were 
they  equally  distributed,  there  would  be  one  and  a  fraction  for 
each  term  of  the  course. 

To  what  extent  do  the  students  come  under  the  influence  of 
these  studies?  Debates,  moral  science  and  discussions  with  the 
President  are  required;  the  others  are  elective.  Tlie  present 
divisions  in  oratory  include  all  the  class  except  eight  members. 
All  of  '88,  except  three,  and  of  '89,  except  two,  elected  at  least  one 
section  of  the  general  course  in  history ;  and  of  these,  nearly  all 
elected  the  three  terms.  On  the  other  hand,  the  division  in 
political  and  constitutional  history  is  smaller  tlian  in  any  other  of 
the  studies  named;  in  the  class  of  '89  which  has  ninety-eight 
members,  it  numbei-s  forty-one.  About  half  the  last  class  elected 
political  economy  and  international  law ;  in  tlie  present  class,  the 
proportion  is  somewhat  greater. 

But  long  before  the  extended  introduction  of  political  studies^ 
a  college  course  was  justly  considered  a  valuable  preparation  for 
citizenship.  To  explain  this,  account  must  be  taken  of  factors, 
such  as  the  influence  of  teachers,  of  classical  study,  and  of  re- 
ligious instruction,  whose  bearing  on  politicjil  education  is  too 
often  overlooked.  Their  importance  in  this  respect  is  very  great. 
A  strong  teacher  who  is  himself  a  good  citizen,  invariably  devel- 
ops good  citizenship  in  his  pupils.  Many  of  the  selections  from 
Plato, —  the  Apology  and  (7n7<?,  for  example, — Thucydides,  Demos- 
thenes, Cicero,  and  Tacitus,  concern  the  citizen  even  more  than 
the  scholar.  Moreover,  the  study  of  the  classics,  through  acquaint- 
ing the  student  intimately  with  the  thoughts  and  acts  of  great 
men  and  great  peoples,  tends  to  free  him  from  the  tyranny  of 
petty  interests,  and  creates  in  him  a  liking  and  aptitude  for  public 
affairs.  The  political  service  of  religious  instruction  consists 
in  part  in  the  theory  of  the  state  which  it  teaches.  The  difference 
between  the  good  and  bad  citizen  begins  with  different  conceptions 
of  the  state ;  to  the  latter  it  is  an  association  for  the  f uitherance 
of  private  ends ;  to  the  former,  an  organism  in  which  the  function 
of  the  individual  is  to  work  for  the  welfare  of  the  whole.  Not 
until  a  man  has  learned  to  feel  as  well  as  ''tliink  organically'* 
can  he  be  a  good  citizen:  but  religion  and  rational  religious 
instruction  promote,  perhaps  more  than  all  other  influences  united, 
this  kind  of  feeling  and  thinking. 


1888.]  THE  TEACHINO  OF  MATHEMATICS.  247 


THE  TEACHING  OE  MATHEMATICS.^ 

IV. 

TEACHING  ALGEBRA  TO  BEGINNERS. — U. 
BY  JOHN  F.   CASET,  ENGLISH  HIGH  SCHOOL,  BOSTON. 

DR.  PEABODY  in  his  "  Reminiscences  of  Harvard,"  says  of  the 
late  Professor  Peirce,  "In  one  respect  I  was  Mr.  Peirce's 
superior,  solely  because  I  was  so  very  far  his  inferior.  I  am  certain 
that  I  was  the  better  instructor  of  the  two.  No  one  was  more  cor- 
dially ready  than  he  to  give  such  help  as  he  could,  but  his  intuition 
of  the  whole  ground  was  so  keen  and  comprehensive  that  he  could 
not  take  cognizance  of  the  slow  and  tentative  processes  of  mind  by 
which  an  ordinary  learner  was  compelled  to  make  his  step-by-step 
progress. 

"In  his  explanations  he  would  take  giant  strides,  and  his  fre- 
quent 'you  see '  indicated  what  he  saw  clearly,  but  that  of  which 
his  pupil  could  get  hardly  a  glimpse. 

"  I,  on  the  other  hand,  was  so  far  from  being  a  proficient  in  the 
more  advanced  parts  of  the  course,  that  I  studied  every  lesson  as 
patiently  and  thoroughly  as  any  of  my  pupils  could  have  done.  I, 
therefore,  knew  every  short  step  of  the  way  that  they  would  be 
obliged  to  take,  and  could  lead  them  in  the  very  footsteps  which  I 
had  just  trodden  myself." 

A  great  amount  of  energy  and  ammunition  is  wasted  in  firing 
over  the  heads  of  pupils, — a  course  which  mystifies  rather  than 
enlightens,  and  discourages  by  disclosing  apparently  unfathomable 
depths. 

In  solving  simple  equations  with  one  unknown  quantity,  at  least 
twenty-five  lessons  of  one  hour  each  can  be  profitably  employed. 
And  all  this  time,  not  one  word  should  be  said  about  addition, 
subtraction,  multiplication,  or  division  as  such,  or  any  instruction 
given  as  to  the  processes  by  which  these  four  fundamental  opera- 
tions are  performed.     If  the  pupil  has  an  equation  in  which  occurs 

^  Copjrright,  1888,  by  Eastern  Educational  Bureau. 


248  EDUCATION.  [December, 

the  expression  2a:  +  82:  =  20,  his  common  sense,  with  his  knowledge 
of  arithmetic,  will  enable  him  to  form  from  it  the  equation  bx  = 
20  and  from  that  x=  i  without  any  knowledge  of  the  principles 
of  algebraic  addition  or  division.  So,  also,  if  the  sign  minus 
occurs,  he  has  already  used  it  in  arithmetic,  and,  for  all  problems 
or  equations  that  he  will  meet  for  the  first  few  months,  it  has  the 
same  meaning  in  algebra  and  will  be  handled  as  readily,  except 
when  it  comes  before  a  fraction  having  a  numerator  of  more  than 
one  term.  In  this  case,  the  teacher  must  show  him  how  to  find 
out  what  to  do,  not  in  order  to  satisfy  any  technical  algebmic 
demands,  but  must  appeal  to  his  common  sense  and  his  knowledge 
of  arithmetic  to  lead  him  by  well-known  processes  to  form  an 
equation  less  complex.  He  can  also  be  readily  taught  to  clear 
from  fractions  any  simple  equation  that  he  ought  to  meet  in  the 
first  few  months,  without  knowing  that  there  is  such  a  process  as 
algebraic  multiplication. 

When  he  can  solve  these  equations  readily,  it  is  time  to  say 
something  about  addition,  subtraction,  etc.,  as  such.  He  has  al- 
ready been  adding  and  subtracting  when  he  united  terms  in  such 
expressions  as  Si-  +  2x  —  3x  =  60,  it  is  but  a  step  which  he  will 
readily  take,  to  unite  these  same  terms  when  placed  in  column,  and 
but  one  more  to  adding  any  polynomials. 

The  old  method  now  in  common  use,  of  teaching  first  the  gen- 
eral operations  of  algebra  at  considerable  length,  and  then  supply- 
ing as  an  application  of  them  concrete  problems,  is  open  to  many 
objections. 

In  the  first  place,  a  polynomial  looks  to  a  beginner  very  much 
like  Chinese  writing  and  pupils  might  be  taught  to  successfully 
perform  operations  on  either  with  equal  profit  as  to  mental  gym- 
nastics and  with  about  equal  profit  as  to  acquisition  of  useful 
information. 

The  pupil  may  learn  to  add  polynomials  correctly  in  a  few  days, 
but,  as  he  cannot  realize  what  a  polynomial  is  and  why  there 
should  be  such  an  expression  till  he  has  actually  formed  them  in 
making  equations,  his  addition  must  be  mechanical  and  more  or 
less  distasteful. 

On  this  point,  a  few  words  from  Herbert  Spencer:  "This  need 
for  perpetual  telling  is  the  result  of  our  stupidity  and  not  the 
child's.  We  drag  it  away  from  facts  in  which  it  is  interested  and 
which  it  is  actively  assimilating  of  itself ;  we  put  before  it  facts 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS.  249 

too  difficult  for  it  to  understand,  and  therefore  distasteful  to  it; 
finding  that  it  will  not  voluntarily  acquire  these  facts,  we  thrust 
them  into  its  mind  by  force  of  threats  and  punishment.  By  thus 
denying  it  the  knowledge  it  craves  and  cramming  it  with  knowl- 
edge it  cannot  digest,  we  produce  a  morbid  state  of  its  faculties 
and  a  consequent  distaste  for  knowledge  in  general." 

After  the  four  fundamental  operations  should  come  equations  of 
two  or  more  unknown  quantities,  avoiding,  for  the  present,  any 
complex  literal  equations  for  the  proper  solution  of  which  a  knowl- 
edge of  factoring  and  fractions  would  be  desirable. 

Not  till  he  has  been  studying  algebra  for  five  or  six  months 
should  factoring,  greatest  common  divisor,  least  common  multiple 
and  fractions  be  taken  up.  By  this  time  he  will  have  become 
familiar  with  algebraic  expressions,  will  know  how  and  why  they 
are  used  and  can  appreciate  the  advantages  of  factoring,  etc. 

Having  finished  fractions,  he  will  have  obtained  enough  knowl- 
edge of  the  fundamental  operations  of  algebra,  to  proceed  readily 
and  rapidly  to  the  consideration  of  radical  quantities,  affected 
quadratics,  etc.,  in  the  treatment  of  which  not  so  much  care  will 
be  necessary,  for  the  pupil  has  now  sufficient  algebraic  knowledge 
to  be  able  to  investigate  for  himself  and  follow  the  reasoning  of 
new  theories. 

One  other  point  deserves  special  mention:  that  new  subjects 
should  be  introduced  by  concrete  work  and  inductive  method  as 
far  as  possible.  In  affected  quadratics,  for  example,  begin  with  an 
easy  problem  which  will  introduce  an  affected  quadratic;  with 
books  closed,  build  on  our  algebraic  knowledge  already  obtained, 
draw  from  it  materials  for  solving  the  new  problem.  After  solv- 
ing several  similar  ones,  generalize  the  facte  obtained,  make  our 
own  theory  and  deduce  a  rule  for  the  solution  of  all  similar  exam- 
ples. Do  not  leave  the  subject  till  the  class  understands  it 
throughout,  theoretically  and  practically,  and  can  apply  the  prin- 
ciples to  the  solution  of  examples  in  the  form  of  affected  quadrat- 
ics, to  equations  with  exponente  or  coefficiente,  either  monomial  or 
polynomial,  numerical  or  literal,  positive  or  negative,  integral  or 
fractional. 

It  is  in  the  first  few  months  that  pupils  are  either  well  fitted  and 
well  disposed  to  proceed  with  algebraic  study,  or  are  spoiled  by 
too  great  speed,  or  by  demands  made  beyond  their  ability  or  com- 
prehension, or  are  confused  by  bad  methods  and  inexperienced 


240  EDUCATION.  [December, 

interests  must  be  just.  From  a  standpoint  wliich  takes  into  view- 
only  a  certain  set  of  interests,  required  attendance  at  church  and 
chapel  seems  indefensible ;  from  a  standpoint  with  a  broader  out- 
look, the  question  assumes  an  aspect  which  would  lead  advocates 
of  the  voluntary  system  who  have  the  highest  good  of  the  college 
at  heart,  to  wish  for  more  light  before  assuming  the  responsibility 
of  a  revolutionaiy  change.  The  habit  of  looking  at  both  sides,  or 
rather  all  sides  of  a  question,  cannot  be  formed  in  a  day.  The 
encouraging  feature  of  the  situation  at  Amherst  is  the  evidence  of 
progress  in  this  direction.  In  general  the  difference  between  fac- 
ulty-views and  student-views  is  less  radical  than  it  used  to  be ;  the 
relation  between  faculty  and  studentw  is  more  frequently  tliat  of 
friendly  and  hearty  cooperation.  Under  the  influence  of  this 
change  certain  hateful  incidents  of  the  old  method  of  governing — 
its  conflicts,  diplomacy,  and  espionage,  are  being  forgotten.  The 
student  is  becoming  a  good  citizen  of  the  college  community,  and 
in  this  way,  is  preparing  to  become  a  good  citizen  of  the  state. 

At  Amherst  the  fraternities,  nine  in  number,  are  a  marked  fea- 
ture of  the  college.  The  proportion  of  '' Society  men  "  is  consider- 
ably larger  than  twenty  years  ago  and  is  steadily  increasing.  In 
certain  respects  the  fraternities  are  colleges  within  the  college; 
they  are  bodies  of  colleagues  whose  corporate  aims  are  in  sympathy 
with  those  of  the  college  and  supplementary  to  them.  Their 
vitality  and  prosperity  indicate  that  they  satisfy  a  real  want.  In 
fact  what  they  offer  the  student  is  something  he  needs  and  cannot 
with  equal  ease  and  fulness  obtain  by  other  means.  To  prepara- 
tion for  citizenship  the  fraternities  contribute  in  several  ways. 
They  establish  a  close  and  permanent  relationship  between  alumni 
and  undergraduates,  through  which  the  juster  views  of  life  and  of 
college  opportunities  and  duties,  which  prevail  among  the  alumni, 
reach  and  influence  the  undergraduates.  By  means  of  their 
intercollegiate  relations  the  fraternities  develoj)  a  friendly  and 
magnanimous  spirit  towards  other  colleges.  Through  admitting 
delegates  from  each  of  the  four  classes  they  do  much  to  keep  class 
spirit  from  becoming  arrogant  and  belligerent.  As  literary  socie- 
ties they  encourage  the  serious  study  and  discussion  of  political 
topics.  But  of  all  their  services  to  preparation  for  citizenship 
one  of  the  greatest  is  the  aid  they  give  in  maintaining  relations 
with  general  society.  The  tendency  of  college  life  towards  seclu- 
sion is  a  survival  in  the  field  of  education  of  the  once  dominant 


1888.]  PREPARATION  FOR  CITIZENSHIP.  241 

influence  of  monasticism.  This  tendency  explains  in  part  why 
the  educated  modern  is  less  frequently  a  man  of  affairs  than  was» 
in  classic  times,  the  educated  Greek  or  Roman.  To  many  a  studi- 
ous man,  going  to  college  has  been  to  such  an  extent  a  going  out 
of  the  world,  that  only  with  difficulty  could  he  find  his  place  again. 
To  many  who  were  not  studious,  partial  isolation  from  ordinary 
social  influences  during  the  four  years  of  College  life  has  proved 
seriously  demoralizing.  The  happiest  result  is  when  social  and  in- 
tellectual development  keep  even  step.  The  comradeship  which  the 
fraternities  have  always  fostered  is  now  widening  into  practical  citi- 
zenship. Through  his  chapter  house  the  relation  of  the  student 
to  the  town  of  Amherst  is  undergoing  a  radical  change ;  he  has  be- 
come a  householder,  a  neighbor,  and  a  host ;  as  a  taxpayer  he  has 
an  interest  in  the  management  of  town  affairs ;  his  stake  in  the 
community  is  much  more  like  that  of  other  citizens  than  it  used  to 
be ;  in  brief,  thi-ough  helping  the  student  to  maintain  responsible 
relations  with  general  society,  the  fraternities  make  it  difficult  for 
him  to  be  a  recluse,  a  Bohemian,  or  an  Ishmaelite. 

On  the  other  hand  it  must  be  conceded  that  "  Society  men  "  are 
sometimes  clannish ;  and  clannishness  is  narrow  and  narrowing — 
the  counterpart  in  college  of  sectionalism  in  the  state.  It  is,  how- 
ever, a  fair  question  whether  the  fault  does  not^  lie  in  the  men 
rather  than  the  fraternities  —  whether  in  fact  the  fraternities  do 
not  in  many  cases  really  broaden  the  associations  and  sympathies 
of  men  who  are  by  nature  clannish.  Observers  agree  that  the 
evil  was  greater  when  the  fraternities  were  fewer. 

Turning  now  to  the  curriculum  we  find  that  the  studies,  and 
exercises  which  deal  most  directly  with  political  subjects,  are 
oratory,  debates,  history,  political  economy,  international  law, 
moral  science,  and  discussions  with  the  President.  To  oratory 
are  assigned  four  exercises  each  week  during  the  second  and  third 
terms  of  sophomore  year,  and  one  each  week  during  the  first  term 
of  junior  year ;  to  debates,  one  exercise  each  week  during  the  last 
term  of  junior  year  and  all  of  senior  year.  Of  the  relation  of  these 
studies  to  preparation  for  citizenship  the  professor  in  charge  says : 
"As  the  oratorical  aim  is  not  to  impress  upon  the  student  any 
arbitrary  system  of  delivery,  but  to  develop  and  train  his  individ- 
ual powers,  a  necessary  condition  is  a  theme  of  interest  and  recog- 
nized importance  to  the  speaker  and  his  hearers.  Experience  has 
shown  that  this  condition  is  most  happily  found  in   questions 


242  ED  VGA  TIOS,  [December, 

relating  to  our  political  social,  and  economic  life.  The  more 
thoroughly  the  (jiiestions  are  studied  and  the  more  deeply  inter- 
ested the  student  becomes  in  their  preparation,  the  more  eiisily 
does  he,  as  a  speaker,  relieve  himself  from  restraints  and  reveal  the 
powers  and  defects  that  demand  the  guidance  and  criticism  of  the 
instructor.  This  is  therefore  sufficient  ground,  aside  from  other 
important  reasons,  for  making  the  course  a  stimulus  and  guide  to 
reading  and  thought  upon  subjects  readily  seen  to  affect  the  wel- 
fare of  oiu'  country.  The  subjects  assigned  are  carefully  arranged 
so  as  to  make  the  course  progressive  and  systematic.  The  work 
early  interests  the  student  in  subjects  bearing  upon  the  duties  of 
citizenship  and  in  many  instances  it  undoubtedly  directs  liis 
private  reading  in  the  same  chamiels.  It  Ls  also  probable  that 
much  of  the  forensic  work  in  the  literary  meetings  of  the  societies 
is  largely  influenced  in  its  character  by  these  exercises  of  the  class- 
room. 

The  questions  assigned  for  debate  and  discussion  relate  mainly 
to  political  history,  our  social  problems  and  present  administra- 
tion. Typical  (juestions  as  debated  or  discussed  by  the  class  of 
'88  are :  — 

1.  Hiis  the  influence  of  Compromise  in  our  history  been  more 
harmful  than  l)eneficial? 

2.  Is  the  cure  of  our  social  evils  to  be  more  largely  moral  and 
religious  than  physical  and  economic? 

3.  Should  the  friends  of  temperance  favor  high  license? 

4.  Was  Thomas  Jefferson  a  better  president  than  Andrew 
Jackson  ? 

5.  Is  the  "Fisheries  Bill"  the  best  means  of  meeting  our  diffi- 
culties with  Canada? 

6.  What  is  the  true  regulative  principle  in  the  industrial 
world? 

7.  How  are  the  interests  of  the  laboring  classes  in  this  country 
to  be  best  advanced  ? 

8.  What  should  be  done  in  regard  to  the  accumulating  surplus 
in  the  United  States  Treasurv  ? 

9.  Which  of  the  great  i)olitical  parties  in  the  history  of  the 
United  States  has  had  the  most  influence  upon  it«  institutions? 

10.  What  should  be  the  course  of  the  United  States  in  regard 
to  immigration  ?  ^ 

1  Quoted  from  statomont  of  ProfeHsor  Frink,  made  at  request  of  the  writer. 


1888.]  PREPABATIOX  FOR  CITIZENSHIP.  243 

In  history  there  are  two  courses ;  one,  a  general  course,  which 
has  four  exercises  each  week  of  junior  year;  the  other,  a  course 
in  the  political  and  constitutional  history  of  the  United  States^ 
which  has  two  hours  each  w^eek  of  the  first  senior  term  and  four 
hours  each  week  of  the  second.  In  the  study  of  general  history 
the  following  divisions  are  made :  (1)  A  review  of  Oriental,  Greek, 
and  Roman  history.  (2)  A  course  of  twelve  weeks  on  tlie  period 
from  the  Migrations  to  the  Renaissance,  in  which  the  history  of 
England  and  the  movements  and  institutions  which  affected  west- 
ern Europe  as  a  whole  receive  most  attention.  (3)  A  course  of 
twelve  weeks  on  the  period  from  the  Reformation  to  the  French 
Revolution,  in  which  the  Reformation,  the  Catholic  Counter-Refor- 
mation, and  the  Revolutions  in  England  and  France  are  the  features 
most  studied.  (4)  A  course  of  eleven  weeks  on  American  col- 
onial history,  the  political  history  of  the  United  States,  and,  in 
outline,  the  history  of  Europe  since  the  French  Revolution. 

Throughout  these  courses  the  standpoint  is  that  of  world  his- 
tory. Only  those  facts  are  studied  which  have  a  traceable  relation 
to  general  progress.  The  liistory  of  a  nation  is  treated  as  a  chap- 
ter in  universal  liistory ;  the  importance  of  individuals,  peoples^ 
movements,  and  institutions  is  measured  by  their  contributions  to 
civilization.  The  question  which  the  course  propounds  is :  through 
what  experiences  and  by  what  agencies  has  the  world  as  it  was  at 
the  dawn  of  history  become  the  very  different  world  of  to-day? 

This  course  is  a  preparation  for  citizenship,  because  every  man  is 
a  citizen  of  the  world  as  well  as  of  a  particular  country ;  and  the 
best  work  of  a  citizen  is  that  through  which  he  aids  his  country  to 
recognize  and  discharge  its  obligation  towards  the  world.  More- 
over, there  is  nothing  which  so  clears  the  judgment  respecting 
national  affairs  as  acquaintance  with  and  interest  in  the  affairs  of 
mankind. 

The  coui-se  in  political  and  constitutional  liistory  begins  with 
the  inauguration  of  the  new  government  in  1789  and  comes  down 
to  the  close  of  Reconstruction.  In  the  spring  of  1888,  a  special 
course  of  twenty  lectures  on  ''The  Civil  War  and  Reconstruc- 
tion," was  given.  In  explaining  methods,  an  account  of  the  work 
of  the  fii*st  term  will  serve.  Tlie  period  covered  is  1789-1833. 
The  following  general  subjects  are  selected  for  investigation  by 
the  student.s :  foreign  relations ;  Indian  policy ;  banks  :  internal  im- 
provements ;    tariffs ;    national   sovereignty ;    state    sovereignty. 


844  EDUCATION.  [December, 

These  subjects  are  sabHlivided ;  that  on  foreign  relations,  for 
example,  furnishes  topics  for  ten  students ;  that  on  tariffs,  for 
three.  Examples  of  special  topics  are:  (1)  foreign  relations 
during  the  administration  of  Washington ;  (2)  compare  the  foreign 
policy  of  Washington  with  that  of  Jefferson ;  (3)  foreign  policy  of 
the  Federalists  during  the  administrations  of  Jefferson  and  Madison ; 
(4)  history  of  the  first  bank  of  the  United  States ;  (5)  history  of 
tariffs  down  to  1816,  including  an  analysis  of  Hamilton's  report  on 
manufactures  in  1791 ;  (6)  history  of  New  England  Sectionalism; 
(7)  the  political  work  and  influence  of  Hamilton ;  (8)  the  political 
work  and  influence  of  Gallatin.  Each  student,  as  far  as  possible, 
makes  use  of  original  sources;  in  stud}4ng  Hamilton,  for  example, 
he  reads  Hamilton's  own  words.  The  essays,  so  far  as  the  nature 
of  the  topic  permits,  conform  to  the  following  scheme :  (1)  narra- 
tive of  facts,  (2)  discussion  of  the  constitutional  questions  involved, 
(3)  influence  upon  iK)litical  development.  Each  essay  is  read 
before  a  section  of  the  class  and  in  the  discussion  whicli  follows 
every  member  takes  part.  About  one-fourth  of  the  lectures  of  the 
course  are  introductory  to  the  period ;  the  others  treat  of  party 
history. 

Political  economy  has  four  hours  each  week  of  senior  year,  and 
international  law  four  hours  during  the  last  term  of  tliat  year. 
"  The  first  term  is  devoted  to  the  study  of  economic  theory ;  the 
second,  to  the  social  problem  and  the  problem  of  transportation. 
In  the  study  of  the  social  problem  the  individualistic,  socialistic, 
and  social  reformatory  propositions  are  analyzed  and  criticised 
and  the  lines  indicated  along  which  the  solution  must  take  place. 
In  this  course  one  important  aim  is  to  determine  the  principles  and 
limits  of  state  action.  The  third  term  is  devoted  to  fiscal  science 
and  the  tariff.  In  the  former  the  main  topics  of  investigation  are : 
the  theory  of  public  fiscal  administration ;  the  principles  which 
should  guide  in  making  appropriations  for  public  expenditure ;  the 
subject  of  revenue  in  its  general  aspects ;  the  methods  of  raising 
revenue;  the  principles  and  the  different  forms  and  systems  of 
taxation ;  the  general  subject  of  public  credit ;  the  extent  to  which 
the  state  maj*^  safely  employ  credit;  and  lastly  the  principles  which 
should  guide  in  the  administration,  contraction,  liquidation,  and 
conversion  of  the  public  debt.  In  the  course  on  the  tariff,  the 
theories  of  free  trade  and  protection  and  the  history  of  the  tariffs 
of  the  United  States,  are  studied.     The  aim  is  not  to  make  stu- 


less.]  PBEPARATJOy  FOE  CITIZENSHIP.  245 

dents  free  traders  or  protectionists,  but  to  secure  acquaintance 
with  the  subject  and  establish  the  habit  of  candid  thinking. 

The  method  of  instruction  is  as  follows:  the  subject  is  first 
outlined  by  means  of  lectures  and  then  discussed  in  the  class. 
By  means  of  references,  acquaintance  with  authorities  is  ob- 
tained. For  those  who  can  devote  more  time  to  the  subject 
a  seminary  is  held  for  the  free  discussion  of  practical  economic 
questions.  In  internati(mal  law  the  methods  are  the  same  as  those 
employed  in  political  economy.  ^ 

Moral  science  has  five  hours  each  week  during  the  second  term 
of  senior  year.  *'In  the  study  of  Ethics,  which  covers  the  whole 
sphere  of  moral  obligation,  special  attention  is  given  to  the  study 
of  citizenship.  It  is  felt  that  however  perfect  may  be  the  form  of 
government,  its  administration  and  its  laws,  these  alone  can  no 
more  make  a  good  citizen  than  sunshine  and  rain  and  a  rich  soil 
can  transform  a  pebble  into  an  oak;  there  must  be  a  spirit  of  life 
from  within  before  environment  can  call  outgrowth;  the  spirit  of 
life,  the  vital  force  of  citizenship,  is  virtue. 

The  method  of  conducting  the  study  is,  first,  to  ground  the 
student  in  the  convictions  of  an  immutable  moralit)'^  as  opposed  to 
prudence  and  expediency.  Then  having  found  the  source  of 
moral  obligation,  an  exhaustive  investigation  of  the  nature  of  the 
State  and  claims  of  positive  authority  Ls  attempted  in  order  that 
the  conscience  of  the  student  may  be  aroused  and  government  may 
be  seen  to  be  one  of  right  as  well  as  might.  Having  thus  laid  the 
foundations  of  civil  authority,  the  questions  respecting  the  forms 
which  are  legitimate  and  the  limitations  of  its  action,  are  discussed 
so  far  as  these  can  be  brought  within  a  philosophical  investiga- 
tion. ^ 

Once  each  week  during  two  terms  the  Seniors  meet  the  Presi- 
dent for  the  discussion  of  questions  which  they  themselves  propose. 
A  large  percentage  of  these  questions  relate  to  social  and  political 
problems.  The  discussions  are  more  like  conferences  than  formal 
classroom  exercises.  Their  value  as  a  preparation  for  citizenship 
will  be  understood  by  all  who  know  the  college. 

Summarizing,  we  find  that  the  political  studies  at  Amherst  equal 
thirteen  and  a  half  full  terms  of  four  exercises  each  week.  Of 
these  three  and  a  quarter  are  in  the  department  of  public  speak- 

1  Quoted  fiom  statement  of  Dr.  Tuttle. 
*  Statement  of  Pix>fed9or  Garman. 


246  EDUCATION.  [December, 

ing,  eight  and  a  half  in  the  department  of  history  and  political 
economy,  one  and  three  (quarters  in  the  department  of  pliilosophy. 
Most  of  these  studies  belong  to  junior  and  senior  years;  were 
they  equally  distributed,  there  would  be  one  and  a  fraction  for 
each  terra  of  the  course. 

To  what  extent  do  the  students  come  under  the  influence  of 
these  studies?  Debates,  moral  science  and  discussions  with  the 
President  are  required;  the  others  are  elective.  The  present 
divisions  in  oratory  include  all  the  class  except  eight  members. 
All  of  '88,  excei)t  three,  and  of  '89,  except  two,  elected  at  leiist  one 
section  of  the  general  course  in  history ;  and  of  these,  nearly  all 
elected  the  three  torms.  On  the  other  hand,  the  division  in 
political  and  constitutional  history  is  smaller  than  in  any  other  of 
the  studies  named;  in  the  class  of  '89  which  has  ninety-eight 
members,  it  numbers  forty-one.  About  half  the  last  class  elected 
political  economy  and  international  law ;  in  the  present  class,  the 
proportion  is  somewhat  greater. 

But  long  before  the  extended  introduction  of  political  studies^ 
a  college  course  was  justly  considered  a  valuable  preparation  for 
citizenship.  To  explain  this,  account  must  be  taken  of  factors, 
such  as  the  influence  of  teachers,  of  classical  studv,  and  of  re- 
ligious  instruction,  whose  bearing  on  [political  education  is  too 
often  overlooked.  Their  importance  in  this  respect  is  very  great. 
A  strong  teacher  who  is  himself  a  good  citizen,  invariably  devel- 
ops good  citizenship  in  his  pupils.  Many  of  the  selections  from 
Plato, —  the  Apology  and  Crito^  for  example, —  Thucydides,  Demos- 
thenes, Cicero,  and  Tacitus,  concern  the  citizen  even  more  than 
the  scholar.  Moreover,  the  study  of  the  classics,  through  acquaint- 
ing the  student  intimately  with  the  thoughts  and  acts  of  great 
men  and  great  peoples,  tends  to  free  him  from  the  tyranny  of 
petty  interests,  and  creates  in  him  a  liking  and  aptitude  for  public 
affaii's.  The  political  service  of  religious  instruction  consists 
in  part  in  the  theory  of  the  stute  which  it  teaches.  The  difference 
between  the  good  and  bad  citizen  begins  with  different  conceptions 
of  the  state ;  to  the  latter  it  is  an  association  for  the  furtherance 
of  private  ends;  to  the  former,  an  organism  in  wliich  the  function 
of  the  individual  is  to  work  for  the  welfare  of  the  whole.  Not 
until  a  man  has  learned  to  feel  as  well  as  "think  organically'* 
can  he  be  a  good  citizen;  but  religion  and  rational  religious 
instruction  promote,  perhaps  more  than  all  other  influences  united^ 
this  kind  of  feeling  and  thinking. 


1888.]  THE  TEACHINO  OF  MATHEMATICS.  247 


THE  TEACHING  01^  MATHEMATICS.^ 

IV. 

TEACHING  ALGEBRA  TO  BEGINNERS. — U. 
Br  JOHN  F.   CASEir,  ENGLISH  HIGH  SCHOOL,  BOSTON. 

DR.  PEABODY  in  his  "  Reminiscences  of  Harvard,"  says  of  the 
late  Professor  Peirce,  "  In  one  respect  I  was  Mr.  Peirce's 
superior,  solely  because  I  was  so  very  far  his  inferior.  I  am  certaia 
that  I  was  the  better  instructor  of  the  two.  No  one  was  more  cor- 
dially ready  than  he  to  give  such  help  as  he  could,  but  his  intuition 
of  the  whole  ground  was  so  keen  and  comprehensive  that  he  couli 
not  take  cognizance  of  the  slow  and  tentative  processes  of  mind  by 
which  an  ordinary  learner  was  compelled  to  make  his  step-bynstep 
progress. 

"In  his  explanations  he  would  take  giant  strides,  and  his  fre- 
quent  'you  see '  indicated  what  he  saw  clearly,  but  that  of  whict 
his  pupil  could  get  hardly  a  glimpse. 

"  I,  on  the  other  hand,  was  so  far  from  being  a  proficient  in  the 
more  advanced  parts  of  the  course,  that  I  studied  every  lesson  as 
patiently  and  thoroughly  as  any  of  my  pupils  could  have  done.  I^ 
therefore,  knew  every  short  step  of  the  way  that  they  would  be 
obliged  to  take,  and  could  lead  them  in  the  very  footsteps  which  I 
had  just  trodden  myself." 

A  great  amount  of  energy  and  ammunition  is  wasted  in  firing 
over  the  heads  of  pupils, — a  course  which  mystifies  rather  than 
enlightens,  and  discourages  by  disclosing  apparently  unfathomable 
depths. 

In  solving  simple  equations  with  one  unknown  quantity^  at  least 
twenty-five  lessons  of  one  hour  each  can  be  profitably  employed. 
And  all  this  time,  not  one  word  should  be  said  about  addition, 
subtraction,  multiplication,  or  division  as  such,  or  any  instruction 
given  as  to  the  processes  by  which  these  four  fundamental  opera- 
tions are  performed.     If  the  pupil  has  an  equation  in  which  occurs 

^  Copyright,  1888,  by  Eastern  Eduoational  Bureau. 


348  EDUCATION.  [December, 

the  expression  2x-\-Zx-=  20,  his  common  sense,  with  his  knowledge 
of  arithmetic,  will  enable  him  to  form  from  it  the  equation  t>x  = 
20  and  from  that  a:  =  4  without  any  knowledge  of  the  principles 
of  algebraic  addition  or  division.  So,  also,  if  the  sign  minus 
occurs,  he  has  already  used  it  in  arithmetic,  and,  for  all  problems 
or  equations  that  he  will  meet  for  the  first  few  months,  it  has  the 
same  meaning  in  algebra  and  will  be  handled  as  readily,  except 
when  it  comes  before  a  fraction  having  a  numerator  of  more  than 
one  term.  In  this  case,  the  teacher  must  show  him  how  to  find 
out  what  to  do,  not  in  order  to  satisfy  any  technical  algebraic 
demands,  but  must  appeal  to  his  common  sense  and  his  knowledge 
of  arithmetic  to  lead  him  by  well-known  processes  to  form  an 
equation  less  complex.  He  can  also  be  readily  tauglit  to  clear 
from  fractions  any  simple  equation  that  he  ought  to  meet  in  the 
first  few  months,  without  knowing  that  there  is  such  a  process  as 
algebraic  multiplication. 

When  he  can  solve  these  equations  readily,  it  is  time  to  say 
something  about  addition,  subtraction,  etc.,  as  such.  He  has  al- 
ready been  adding  and  subtracting  when  he  united  terms  in  such 
expressions  as  bx-\-2x  —  82;  =  60,  it  is  but  a  step  which  he  will 
readily  take,  to  unite  these  same  terms  when  placed  in  column,  and 
but  one  more  to  adding  any  polynomials. 

The  old  method  now  in  common  use,  of  teaching  first  the  gen- 
eral operations  of  algebra  at  considerable  length,  and  then  supply- 
ing as  an  application  of  them  concrete  problems,  is  open  to  many 
objections. 

In  the  first  place,  a  polynomial  looks  to  a  beginner  very  much 
like  Chinese  writing  and  pupils  might  be  taught  to  successfully 
perform  operations  on  either  with  equal  profit  as  to  mental  gym- 
nastics and  with  about  equal  profit  as  to  acquisition  of  useful 
information. 

The  pupil  may  learn  to  add  polynomials  correctly  in  a  few  days, 
but,  as  he  cannot  realize  what  a  polynomial  is  and  why  there 
should  be  such  an  expression  till  he  has  actually  formed  them  in 
making  equations,  his  addition  must  be  mechanical  and  more  or 
less  distasteful. 

On  this  point,  a  few  words  from  Herbert  Spencer:  "This  need 
for  perpetual  telling  is  the  result  of  our  stupidity  and  not  the 
child's.  We  drag  it  away  from  facts  in  which  it  is  interested  and 
which  it  is  actively  assimilating  of  itself;  we  put  before  it  facts 


1888.J  THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS.  249 

too  difficult  for  it  to  understand,  and  therefore  distasteful  to  it; 
finding  that  it  will  not  voluntarily  acquire  these  facts,  we  thrust 
them  into  its  mind  by  force  of  threats  and  punishment.  By  thus 
denying  it  the  knowledge  it  craves  and  cramming  it  with  knowl- 
edge it  cannot  digest,  we  produce  a  morbid  state  of  its  faculties 
and  a  consequent  distaste  for  knowledge  in  general." 

After  the  four  fundamental  operations  should  come  equations  of 
two  or  more  unknown  quantities,  avoiding,  for  the  present,  any 
complex  literal  equations  for  the  proper  solution  of  which  a  knowl- 
edge of  factoring  and  fractions  would  be  desirable. 

Not  till  he  has  teen  studying  algebra  for  five  or  six  months 
should  factoring,  greatest  common  divisor,  least  common  multiple 
and  fractions  be  taken  up.  By  this  time  he  will  have  become 
familiar  with  algebraic  expressions,  will  know  how  and  why  they 
are  used  and  can  appreciate  the  advantages  of  factoring,  etc. 

Having  finished  fractions,  he  will  have  obtained  enough  knowl- 
edge of  the  fundamental  operations  of  algebra,  to  proceed  readily 
and  rapidly  to  the  consideration  of  radical  quantities,  affected 
quadratics,  etc.,  in  the  treatment  of  which  not  so  much  care  will 
be  necessary,  for  the  pupil  has  now  sufficient  algebraic  knowledge 
to  be  able  to  investigate  for  himself  and  follow  the  reasoning  of 
new  theories. 

One  other  point  deserves  special  mention:  that  new  subjects 
should  be  introduced  by  concrete  work  and  inductive  method  as 
far  as  possible.  In  affected  quadratics,  for  example,  begin  with  an 
easy  problem  which  will  introduce  an  affected  quadratic;  with 
books  closed,  build  on  our  algebraic  knowledge  already  obtained, 
draw  from  it  materials  for  solving  the  new  problem.  After  solv- 
ing several  similar  ones,  generalize  the  facts  obtained,  make  our 
own  theory  and  deduce  a  rule  for  the  solution  of  all  similar  exam- 
ples. Do  not  leave  the  subject  till  the  class  understands  it 
throughout,  theoretically  and  practically,  and  can  apply  the  prin- 
ciples to  the  solution  of  examples  in  the  form  of  affected  quadrat- 
ics, to  equations  with  exponents  or  coefficients,  either  monomial  or 
polynomial,  numerical  or  literal,  positive  or  negative,  integral  or 
fractional. 

It  is  in  the  first  few  months  that  pupils  are  either  well  fitted  and 
well  disposed  to  proceed  with  algebraic  study,  or  are  spoiled  by 
too  great  speed,  or  by  demands  made  beyond  their  ability  or  com- 
prehension, or  are  confused  by  bad  methods  and  inexperienced 


250  EDUCATIOX.  [December, 

teaching,  when  to  the  ordinary  difficulties  of  the  subject  are 
brought  minds  unwilling,  because  uninterested  and  convinced  of 
their  own  inability. 

While  more  than  one  author  has  made  some  attempt  to  break  up 
the  old  practice  of  beginning  algebra  with  the  definitions  and  the 
four  fundamental  principles  of  addition,  etc.,  no  work,  with  which 
I  am  familiar  has  been  so  successful  throughout  in  ananging  the 
topics  and  in  introducing  them  in  the  manner  most  easily  under- 
stood by  the  pupil  as  the  Franklin  Algebra. 

Whatever  textbook  may  be  used,  the  teacher,  besides  such  ex- 
amples as  he  may  invent  to  meet  the  subject  under  consideration, 
will  find  it  most  convenient  to  have  a  collection  of  problems  from 
other  authors  at  hand.  An  abundance  of  such  may  be  found  in 
Todhunter,  Hall  and  Knight,  Ficklin's  Problems,  Loomis'  Alge- 
braic Problems,  Capel's  Tips  in  Algebra,  and  an  excellent  collec- 
tion in  Wentworth  and  Hill's  Manual.  The  teacher  will  also  find 
of  great  service  for  beginnei's,  and  for  introducing  new  topics,  a 
little  work  published  for  the  use  of  the  Blind  Asylum  in  South 
Boston,  containing  easy  problems  intended  to  be  solved  mentally, 
entitled  Intellectual  Algebra,  written  by  David  B.  Tower  and 
published  by  Lee  and  Shepard. 

What  is  the  best  method  of  conducting  the  recitation  so  as  to 
ascertain  the  exact  knowledge  of  and  amount  of  work  done  by 
each  pupil  ?  Every  teacher  knows  that  the  number  of  solutions 
correctly  worked  out  on  a  pupil's  paper  offers  but  little  guide  to 
ascertaining  how  much  he  has  done  and  can  do  without  any 
assistance.  Work  done  in  the  presence  of  and  under  the  super- 
vision of  the  teacher  offers  an  accurate  test  of  a  pupil's  acquire- 
ments and  ability. 

Some  blackboard  work  is  desirable  at  every  recitation  to 
present  a  few  examples  to  be  explained  to  the  class  by  the  class 
and  to  be  criticised  by  pupils  and  instructor.  Every  member  of  a 
class  can  be  tested  at  every  recitation  in  a  very  few  minutes  by  the 
following  method.  The  instructor  distributes  to  the  class  a  pack 
of  cards  numbered  and  containing  work  similar  to  that  prepared 
for  the  lesson.  Each  pupil  thus  solves  a  different  example  and 
after  a  few  minutes  reports  the  number  of  his  card  and  the  answer 
obtained,  which  should  agree  with  the  answer  to  the  coiTcspond- 
ing  number  on  the  instructor's  list.  The  same  pack  will  serve  for 
many  days  by  giving  out  the  cards  in  a  different  order.     This  test 


1888.]  THE  TEACHING  OF  MATHEMATICS.  251 

takes  but  a  few  minutes,  is  comprehensive  and  convincing.  If  the 
pupil  understood  his  lesson,  he  can  readily  do  other  problems  sim- 
ilar to  those  learned. 

All  explanations  made  by  the  instructor  should  be  repeated  by 
the  pupils  one  after  another  many  times  and  penalties  should  be 
imposed  upon  those  pupils  who  do  not  ask  for  further  explanation 
and  yet  when  called  upon  are  themselves  unable  to  explain. 
Every  class  contains  pupils  who  will  at  times  apparently  give  the 
instructor  the  closest  attention,  and  yet  not  hear  a  word  he  says,  so 
intent  are  their  minds  on  some  more  interesting  topic.  Also  the 
explanations  may  be  mechanically  repeated  by  the  pupil,  if  they 
have  first  been  made  by  the  instructor.  It  is,  therefore,  desirable 
to  draw  from  the  class  by  leading  questions  and  suggestions  as 
much  as  possible  all  explanations  of  new  principles. 

Marking  pupils  for  their  daily  recitations  is  an  inconvenience  to 
the  teacher  and  as  it  requires  the  exercise  of  his  judgment  on 
every  recitation  and  some  clerical  work  to  keep  a  record  and 
summarize  it,  he  would  be  glad  to  dispense  with  it  on  his  own 
account,  regardless  of  the  effect  of  the  system  upon  his  pupils. 
And,  yet,  in  ordinary  schools,  so  far  as  I  can  ascertain,  better 
results  are  obtained  with  it  than  without  it. 

Pupils  wlio  are  fitting  themselves  for  examination  for  admission 
to  college,  and  some,  from  their  interest  in  the  study  or  from  a 
conscientious  desire  to  do  their  whole  duty,  do  not  require  any 
stimulus,  and  no  tutor  feels  the  need  of  either  marking  or  exam- 
ining his  private  pupils.  For  they  are  generally  students  working 
for  an  object  and,  being  few  in  number,  he  can  keep  track  of  them 
and  knows  pretty  accurately  their  standing.  But  the  ordinary 
high  school  pupil  studies  algebra  simply  because  it  is  a  part  of  the 
prescribed  course  of  study. 

The  ordinary  system  of  marking  furnishes  a  ready  and  accurate 
means  by  which  pupils  can  compare  themselves  with  each  other, 
and  affords  the  teacher  information  as  to  the  standing  of  the  differ- 
ent members  of  his  classes,  and  also  furnishes  an  easy  means  of 
informing  parents  about  the  progress  their  children  are  making. 
I  have  never  seen  in  operation  any  system  to  take  its  place  that 
seemed  to  me  free  from  serious  objections  both  as  to  results  ob- 
tained and  as  to  the  effect  on  the  pupils. 

If,  as  in  some  schools,  you  dispense  with  the  daily  marks  and 
rank  or  judge  of  the  pupil's  progress  only  by  monthly  or  occasional 


252  EDUCATIOX,  [December, 

examinations,  you  have  a  system  easier  for  the  teacher  but  unsatis- 
factory to  the  pupil.  For  the  pupils,  feeling  that  their  standing 
depends  upon  the  result  of  these  tests,  when  beginning  them  are 
brought  into  a  nervous  condition  very  unfavorable  to  mathemati- 
cal work  or,  indeed,  good  work  of  any  kind  and  especially  if  the 
time  be  limited  do  they,  as  a  rule,  feel  that  they  have  not  done 
themselves  justice. 

If  these  tests  are  frequently  made,  then  time  is  taken  in  exam- 
ining which  ought  to  be  given  to  teaching.  Again  many  pupils  do 
not  possess  the  faculty  of  rapidly  and  correctly  expressing  them- 
selves in  writing  and,  while  they  can  orally  make  a  perfect 
recitation,  are  unable  to  do  themselves  justice  in  written  work. 
It  seems  to  me,  therefore,  fairer  to  mark  the  daily  recitations  and 
to  incorporate  the  marks  thus  given  with  marks  given  for  examin- 
ations and  other  written  work. 

To  pass  creditably  examinations  for  admission  to  Harvard 
College  or  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology  a  period 
of  study  covering  at  least  two  years  is  necessary,  with  three  or 
four  recitations  a  week  during  the  first  year  and  two  or  three  rec- 
itations a  week  during  the  second  year. 

The  class  should  be  examined  two  or  three  times  a  year;  not 
oftener,  because  examinations  take  up  good  teaching  time.  The 
examination  should  be  made  out  by  some  competent  person  other 
than  the  instructor ;  it  should  be  written  and  sliould  take  place  in 
the  morning  and  should  have  ample  time  allowed  it,  not  less  than 
two  hours.  The  examinations  should  contain  from  six  to  ten 
questions  and,  in  justice  to  the  dull  pupils,  an  option  should  be 
given  on  some  questions,  either  to  do  them  or  others  less  difficult, 
for  doing  which  only  a  partial  credit  would  be  given. 

The  paper  should  not  be  made  by  the  instructor,  because  every 
one  teaches  somewhat  in  grooves,  bearing  down  especially  on 
points  interesting  to  himself,  and  liis  examination  would  natural- 
ly follow  his  teaching,  whereas  the  examination  ought  to  be 
broader,  and  the  topics  of  algebra  are  so  distinctly  marked  that  no 
injustice  can  be  done  the  teacher  or  the  class  by  a  fair  and  compe- 
tent examiner.  The  examination  also,  coming  from  outside,  tends 
not  only  to  disclose  failures  of  tlie  pupils  but  also  omissions  in  the 
teaching  and  tends  to  keep  the  teacher  intent  to  see  that  every 
point  is  finally  covered,  whatever  may  be  his  method  of  teaching  or 
order  of  subjects  taken  up. 


1888.]  THE  TEACHERS  PBEPAJRATIOy.  263 

The  study  of  algebra  develops  certain  powers  of  the  mind  better 
than  any  other  study.  The  pupil  who  has  mastered  this  subject 
must  have  obtained  patient  concentration  of  the  attention,  courage 
in  attacking  difficulties,  a  power  of  analysis  and  attention  to  de- 
tails, qualities  which  are  useful  elsewhere  as  well  as  at  school. 
And  it  is  a  subject  that  can  be  mastered  by  nearly  every  one  when 
it  is  properly  taught. 


r//B    TEACHERS  PREPARATION. 

BY  JOHN  E.  BRADLEY,  PH.D., 
SuperifdendtnJt  of  Schooltt  Minnecq>oHi,  Minn. 

ORGANIZATION  and  new  methods  have  brought  great  im- 
provement in  the  work  of  our  public  schools,  but  their 
efficiency  depends  upon  what  the  teacher  puts  into  them.  It  is  as 
true  today  as  it  was  thirty  years  ago,  "  As  is  the  teacher,  so  is  the 
school  I "  Indeed,  this  maxim  is  more  emphatically  true  today 
than  it  ever  was  before.  The  more  complex  the  system,  the  more 
important  the  office  of  the  teacher.  A  mere  routine  of  book  les- 
sons, hearing  recitations,  may  be  conducted  with  little  thought 
and  no  feeling.  But  if  the  teacher  is  to  do  more  than  turn  a  crank, 
if  he  is  to  infuse  heart,  vitality,  inspiration  into  a  system,  he  must 
possess  within  himself  the  necessary  resources.  The  office  of  the 
teacher  is  not  to  pour  into  an  empty  receptacle,  but  to  waken  dor- 
mant energies.  Reading,  language,  and  number  —  Latin,  litera- 
ture, and  physics  —  are  not  so  much  the  subjects  which  he  teaches, 
as  the  tools  with  which  he  works.  Only  mind  can  quicken  mind. 
Careful  grading  and  elaborate  systems  of  instruction,  instead  of 
taking  the  place  of  fresh  and  vigorous  teaching  render  it  the  more 
indispensable. 

One  of  the  first  conditions  of  success  in  teaching  is  a  genuine 
interest  in  one's  work.  This  is  the  foundation  upon  which  we 
build,  the  motive  which  animates  our  efforts.  Some  teachers  are 
at  a  disadvantage  in  tliis  particular.  The)''  hate  teaching.  They 
count  it  diudgery  and  dread  its  details.  With  such  patience  as 
they  can  command,  they  await  the  day  when  they  shall  be  rescued 
from  its  dire  necessity  by  their  father,  or  brother,  or  some  other 
man.     Their  work  usually  lapses  into  a  routine,  whose  dreary 


S54  EDUCATION.  [December, 

round  they  daily  run  with  meekness  and  resignation.  Poor  teach- 
ers are  not  all  alike  ;  but  there  is  a  surprising  similarity  in  their 
schools.  Nothing  is  so  monotonous  as  indifference.  Such  a  teach- 
er is  only  something  to  hang  a  method  on  I  She  has  no  prefer- 
ences. Like  the  wire  frames  of  the  milliner  and  dressmaker,  she 
wears  whatever  is  in  style.  She  will  teach  that  the  world  is 
round  or  flat,  according  as  the  School  Board  directs.  Before  she 
can  tell  whether  she  prefers  the  Word  or  the  Sentence  method, 
she  must  see  what  the  coui-se  of  study  prescribes.  Consciously  or 
unconsciously,  she  has  trained  herself  to  a  state  of  apathy.  She 
ought  to  know  the  joy  that  always  accompanies  the  best  work,  but 
she  does  not.  She  ought  to  know  that  the  mind  tends  to  become 
interested  and  act  with  spontaneous  force  upon  those  subjects  to 
which  it  willingly  devotes  its  energies.  Duties,  which  were  at 
first  distasteful,  may,  at  length,  by  their  faithful  perfonnance  be- 
come attractive.  Much  of  the  world's  best  work  is  done  by  men 
and  women  wliose  interest  is  only  acquired.  It  in  hard,  at  firsts  to 
be  compelled  to  earn  a  livelihood  in  an  occupation  for  which  one 
has  no  apparent  ajjtitude,  but  kind  Nature  soon  comes  to  the  res- 
cue and  supplies  an  interest,  and  often  an  enthusiasm  for  work 
which  is  done  with  fidelity  and  zeal.  But  the  element  of  feeling 
may,  at  first,  l)e  easily  turned  Jigainst  tlie  unwelcome  work.  It  is 
like  those  springs  upon  the  summits  of  the  water-sheds,  of  which 
teachers  tell  their  geography  classes,  tliat  a  few  strokes  of  the 
spade  might  turn  their  stream  in  the  opposite  direction,  and  cause 
them  to  flow  with  an  ever-gathering  force  down  some  other  and 
far  distant  valley.  If  one's  work  is  not  reinforced  by  a  willing 
spirit,  the  interest  which  Nature  contributes  is  soon  found  running 
down  the  dismal  slope  of  discontent,  disappointment,  and  fruitless 
repining. 

What  are  the  elements  which  constitute  tliis  attitude  of  mind? 
What  are  some  of  those  things  which  will  contribute  to  a  helpful 
interest  in  our  work  ? 

First  in  order  of  time,  if  not  of  imi)ortance,  is  a  due  apprecia- 
tion of  the  value  and  dignity  of  our  calling.  No  one  likes  to  ex- 
pend his  energies  upon  unworthy  objects.  It  is  an  inferior  mind 
which  lacks  amlntion. 

I  do  not  wish  to  indulge  in  empty  rhetoric  on  this  subject. 
Audiences  of  teachers  are  often  addressed  as  if  their  calling  sur- 
passed in  importance  that  of  the  statesman,  the  soldier,  and  the 


1888.]  THE  TEACHER'S  PREPABATION.  266 

preacher  all  combined.  We  are  told  that  our  future  prosperity  is 
secure  because  "  the  schoolmaster  is  abroad  in  the  land,"  and  so 
glaring  has  been  the  exaggeration  that  modest  men  and  women 
have  been  in  danger  of  going  to  the  opposite  extreme  and  taking 
an  unworthy  view  of  their  oifice.  They  are  conscious  that  the 
effusive  orator,  who  welcomes  the  Teachers'  Association  by  setting 
forth,  in  alternate  periods,  the  attractions  of  the  town,  and  the 
distinguished  character  of  his  audience,  may  not  be  wholly  sin- 
cere. They  are  therefore  in  danger  of  accepting  the  ignoble  view 
of  the  teacher's  oifice  wliich  has  been  embodied  into  classic  litera- 
ture by  Shakespeare,  Dickens,  and  Irving. 

But  we  cannot  afford  to  forget  that  it  is  our  work  to  train  the 
faculties  and  mould  the  character  of  the  young.  The  schools  of 
today  shape  the  civilization  of  tomorrow.  Blending  with  other 
influences,  the  work  of  the  teacher  forms  the  future  citizen.  It  is 
his  office  to  bring  the  intelligence,  the  taste,  the  imagination,  the 
capacity  for  obedience,,  the  love  of  truth  into  fullest  vitality.  He 
seeks  so  to  train  the  pupil  that  none  of  his  intellectual  or  moral 
resources  shall  be  wasted.  It  has  —  and  what  calling  has  not?  — 
its  hard  work,  its  exactions,  its  trials  and  discouragements.  What 
will  better  enable  the  teacher  to  bear  them  than  an  elevated  ideal 
of  his  profession  and  a  strong  faith  in  the  possibilities  which  lie 
concealed  in  the  nature  of  the  child  ? 

Again,  the  teacher  must  be  in  sympathy  with  children.  No 
spirit  of  fidelity,  no  painstaking  devotion,  can  make  up  for  the 
lack  of  this  quality.  A  subtle  magnetism  enables  the  teacher  who 
is  in  hearty  sympathy  with  her  pupils,  not  only  to  draw  them  to 
herself  in  loyal  affection,  but  also  to  attract  them  to  those  things 
in  which  she  is  interested.  They  delight  to  render  a  service  to 
such  a  teacher  and  find  it  easy  to  do  the  work  which  she  prescribes. 
Incited  by  this  motive  they  make  progress  and  improvement  which 
would  be  impossible  to  them  without  it.  Moreover,  the  teacher  is 
herself  stimulated  and  encouraged.  Work  cannot  long  remain 
distasteful  when  one  is  in  hearty  sympathy  with  its  object.  Du- 
ties otherwise  heavy  become  light.  There  is  no  cure,  no  preven- 
tive of  worn  and  irritated  nerves,  like  a  spirit  in  ready  sympathy 
with  childhood.  Such  a  teacher  sees  something  besides  the  hum- 
drum in  her  work.  Her  voice,  her  language,  her  wit,  are  to  her 
scholars  like  the  play  of  fountains  in  a  sultry  day.  She  knows 
how  to  give  them  a  laugh  when  they  need  it,  how  to  be  cheery, 


256  EDUCATIOX.  [December, 

how  to  make  the  atmosphere  harmonize  with  their  youthful  spir- 
its. If  an  artificial  gravity  of  demeanor  is  appropriate  to  any 
calling,  it  is  not  in  ours.  The  teacher  needs  buoyant  spirits  and 
buoyant  health. 

Another  condition  is  self-control.  A  person  must  have  his 
powers  under  command  if  others  are  to  have  the  full  benefit  of 
them.  This  is  true  in  all  the  relations  of  life  —  preeminently  true 
if  one  wishes  to  teach  as  well  as  govern  large  numbers!  But» 
unfortunately,  the  difficulty  of  self-mastery  usually  increases  with 
its  necessity.  It  is  not  easy  to  preside  ^vith  composure  amidst 
conflicting  interests  and  be  calm  when  one's  patience  has  been 
long  and  severely  tried.  But  it  is  in  just  these  circumstances  that 
this  virtue  is  most  essential.  Deficiency  in  self-command  will 
speedily  unsettle  the  very  foundations  of  school  discipline.  A 
single  lapse  in  temper  will  often  so  weaken  a  teacher's  self-respect 
as  to  make  a  manly  self-assertion  impossible  for  a  long  time  there- 
after; will  so  forfeit  the  confidence  of  pupils  as  to  exclude 
obedience  from  any  higher  motive  than  fear.  No  one  can  safely 
assume  the  office  of  teacher,  who  is  not  so  fortified  in  self-control 
as  to  be  able  to  meet  sudden  and  repeated  annoyances  with  clear- 
headed composure. 

The  second  prerequisite  to  success  in  teaching  is  an  adequate 
knowledge  of  child-nature  ;  its  powers,  its  needs,  and  its  conditions 
of  growth.  Teachers  cannot  all  become  deeply  versed  in  the 
metaphysics  of  pedagogic  science.  But  no  one  can  minister  to 
the  child's  needs  who  does  not  comprehend  them.  And  any  ade- 
quate comprehension  of  the  activities  of  a  child's  mind  must  be 
the  result  of  study  and  observation.  Considerable  instruction  in 
the  fundamentals  of  the  science  is  indispensable  to  a  favorable 
entrance  upon  the  work  of  teaching.  Some  persons  possess  great 
aptitude  to  perceive  and  interpret  the  wants  of  the  learner. 
Hence  has  arisen  the  saying  that  the  teacher,  like  the  poet,  is  born, 
not  made ;  but  fortunately  no  such  difficulty  is  involved  in  ac- 
quiring normal  principles  and  laws  as  to  render  success  in  teach- 
ing unattainable  by  most  of  those  who  will  make  the  necessary 
effort.  A  mere  knowledge  of  the  subjects  to  be  ttiught,  however, 
will  not  suffice.  Pride  of  int<illectual  attainments  is  only  a  hin- 
drance.  Such  teachers  are  like  musicians  who  are  familiar  with 
the  music  to  be  played,  but  ignorant  of  the  instrument  upon  which 
it  is  to  be  rendered.     I  once  knew  a  primary  teacher,  graduated 


1888.]  THE  TEACHES  JS  PBEPARATION.  257 

with  honor  from  one  of  our  best  colleges,  queenly  alike  in  pres- 
ence and  in  accomplishments,  who  was  utterly  unable  to  adapt 
her  work  to  the  children  under  her  care.  In  spite  of  any  aid  or 
guidance  which  she  could  receive,  inattention  and  disorder  reigned 
in  her  school ;  both  teacher  and  scholars  were  fretful  and  bewil- 
dered, and  she  resigned  in  defeat.  She  was  succeeded  by  a  lady 
of  far  less  mental  force  and  culture,  a  young  girl  of  fair  education 
and  ability,  but  whose  normal  training  and  study  of  children  had 
given  a  ready  insight  into  their  needs.  Her  advent  immediately 
changed  the  whole  aspect  of  affairs.  Interesting  occupation  was 
found  for  every  child.  Irritability  and  mischief  gave  place  to 
quiet  and  enjoyment.  Rapid  progress  in  school  work  followed, 
and  when,  at  the  end  of  the  year,  she  took  leave  of  her  pupils, 
they  were  filled  with  grief  and  overwhelmed  her  with  expressions 
of  their  attachment. 

Such  incidents  do  not  lessen  our  appreciation  of  a  broad  and 
liberal  culture  in  the  teacher.  But  they  do  illustrate  the  neces- 
sity of  understanding  not  only  the  knowledge  which  is  to  be  im- 
parted, but  also  the  minds  which  are  to  receive  it. 

But  it  is  time  to  turn  from  these  more  general  features  of  the 
teacher's  equipment  to  speak  of  his  daily  preparation.  Our  mental 
no  less  than  our  bodily  strength  needs  to  be  constantly  renewed. 
No  teacher's  instruction  can  be  fresh  and  vigorous  whose  prepara- 
tion is  not  recent  and  thorough.  The  moment  a  person  ceases  to 
be  a  systematic  student,  he  ceases  to  be  an  effective  teacher.  He 
cuts  the  bond  of  sympathy  which  binds  him  to  the  learner.  There 
are  those  who  listen  to  such  statements  with  incredulity.  They 
have  taught  five,  ten,  it  may  be  twenty  years,  and  they  know  their 
work  by  heart.  What  nonsense  to  suppose  that  they  need  to  study 
their  lessons.  They  are  not  going  to  spend  their  time  in  any  such 
way.     They  have  enough  of  school  in  school  hours. 

Most  of  us  have  seen  such  teachers ;  have  watched  how,  year  by 
year,  their  work  grew  thin,  like  the  successive  layers  of  a  certain 
vegetable,  until  it  became  so  weak  and  attenuated  that  it  would 
scarcely  hold  together.  We  have  seen  how  they  themselves  dwin- 
dled in  brain  power  and  worthy  purpose  till  they  became  the  jest 
of  their  former  and  the  antipathy  of  their  present  pupils. 

Few  teachers  are  more  familiar  with  the  work  of  their  grade 
than  Agassiz  was  with  his  fossils  and  fishes,  or  Doctor  Arnold  with 
his  history  and  beloved  classics.     What  was  their  view  of  this  mat- 


258  EDUCATION.  [December, 

ter  ?  See  Agassiz  dredging  Vineyard  Sound  each  day  for  some- 
thing new  to  show  his  classes.  Listen  to  Arnold  as  he  replies  to 
the  friend  who  asks  him  why  he  spends  so  much  time  in  studying 
familiar  subjects.  "  Because,"  he  says,  **  I  prefer  to  hare  my  pu- 
pils drink  from  a  running  stream,  rather  than  a  stagnant  pool.'* 
Charles  Lamb  mirthfully  relates  the  experiences  of  a  teacher  who 
by  dint  of  hard  study  always  kept  one  day  in  advance  of  his  class. 
But  even  this  {(/noramus  had  one  advantage,  in  the  freshness  of  his 
knowledge.  It  is  by  the  act  of  acquiring  knowledge  ourselves  that 
we  become  able  to  help  others  acquire  it.  Great  as  is  my  respect 
for  learning  and  thoroughness,  I  would  cheerfully  abate  something 
from  these  in  an  instructor,  could  I  be  assured  of  a  fresh  and  glow- 
ing interest  in  the  work  to  be  done.  The  moment  a  teacher's 
methods  become  fixed  and  inflexible,  they  lose  a  measure  of  their 
vitality.  When  they  cease  to  require  fresh  thought^  they  are  a 
machine  which  the  teacher  works.  No  longer  vivifying  forces, 
they  have  become  dead  formulas.  Our  experience,  valuable  in 
itself,  constantly  t<3nds  to  settle  into  rules  by  which  we  guide  our 
work.  The  new  method,  the  bright,  fresh  thought  embodies  itself 
into  a  law  of  action.  Like  a  plant  it  ripens,  goes  to  seed  and  dies- 
New  thought,  originality,  requires  effort,  routine  does  not.  And 
so  schools,  and  colleges,  and  pulpits  may  be  found,  all  over  the 
land,  in  which  teachers  have  outlived  their  usefulness.  They  are 
suffering  the  inevitable  penalty  of  letting  their  work  lapse  into  a 
routine.  There  is  no  sadder  picture  in  the  history  of  education 
than  that  of  Pestalozzi  in  his  old  age.  In  hLs  early  life  he  had 
given  a  fresh  impetus  to  thought  and  kindled  a  new  enthusiasm  in 
the  training  of  children.  But  later  in  years,  his  work  settled  into 
-empty  forms.  What  had  been  inspiring  and  full  of  life  in  his  dayB 
of  invention  became  at  length  a  mere  petrifaction.  Michel  Br^al 
who  visited  him  in  his  old  age  relates  of  liim  that  he  would  stand 
at  the  blackboard,  pointing  to  his  diagrams,  his  figures,  and  his 
names  of  the  qualities  of  objects,  while  the  children  mechanically 
repeated  his  favorite  watchwords  which  they  had  learned  by  heart. 
But  the  exercise  had  lost  its  value  because  it  had  ceased  to  require 
mental  activity.  His  thought  ran  round  and  round  in  its  well- 
worn  groove.  The  cliildren's  eyes  no  longer  sparkled  with  inter- 
-est.  What  had  once  been  full  of  meaning  had  become  dead  for- 
mulas. His  pet  system  of  instruction  was  already  only  the  length- 
•ening  shadow  of  a  greatness  tliat  was  past.     Thus  will  it  be  with 


1888.]  THE  TEACHERS  PREPABATION.  259» 

any  teacher  who  thinks  that  his  methods  are  so  good  as  to  require 
no  further  improvement. 

Teachers  should  each  day  prepare  themselves  upon  the  subject- 
matter  which  they  are  to  teach.  They  should  make  sure  of  a  fresh 
and  thorough  knowledge  of  all  its  details.  It  is  not  enough  to 
know  its  leading  facts,  or  to  have  a  general  outline  vaguely  in 
mind,  expecting  that  it  will  all  come  back  to  them  as  they  need  it. 
They  must  acquire  the  habit  of  finding  new  lessons,  new  meaning 
in  familiar  objects.  Each  year's  added  power  ought  to  enable 
them  to  see  more  in  a  subject  than  ever  before.  If  they  do  not- 
thus  gain  additional  insight,  discover  new  facts  and  principles- 
year  by  year,  the  alternative  will  inevitably  be  true ;  they  will  see 
less  and  less  in  each  subject,  will  become  superficial  and  lose 
power  to  stimulate  their  pupils. 

When  Garfield  was  president  of  Hiram  College,  a  young  teacher 
once  asked  him  how  to  hold  the  attention  of  his  classes.  His  reply 
was :  "  See  to  it  that  you  do  not  feed  your  pupils  on  cold  victuals. 
Take  the  lesson  into  your  mind  anew,  rethink  it  and  then  serve  it 
hot  and  steaming,  and  your  pupils  will  have  an  appetite  for  your 
instruction."  The  late  Doctor  Taylor  of  Andover,  was  not  in  all 
respects  a  model  teacher,  but  he  possessed  a  marvellous  ability  to 
keep  his  classes  interested  and  make  them  thorough.  He  mod- 
estly attributed  any  power  which  he  might  possess  to  his  love  of 
the  subjeots  that  he  taught,  which,  he  said  kept  him  "  always  dig- 
ging away  at  them."  What  shall  we  say  of  a  teacher  who  con- 
ducts the  recitation  with  textbook  in  hand  to  verify  the  pupil's 
ans Wei's,  and  to  see  what  comes  next  ?  Who  refers  from  time  to 
time  to  his  old  normal  school  notebook  to  recall  what  was  said 
there  on  that  subject  ?  Imagine  Doctor  Taylor  or  Emma  Willard 
thus  feeding  their  scholars,  not  merely  on  cold  victuals,  but  on  the 
veriest  dry  husks  of  knowledge. 

The  teacher's  daily  preparation  should  include,  in  the  second 
place,  the  selection  of  illustrations,  anecdotes,  pictures,  and  objects 
by  which  the  lesson  may  be  enforced.  Textbooks  seldom  give 
enough  illustrative  examples.  Much  of  our  school  work  employs 
no  textbook.  Whether  a  book  is  used  or  not,  a  teacher  should 
always  follow  Nature's  order  of  instruction.  Facts  must  precede 
explanations.  Individual  objects,  phenomena,  and  experiments 
come  first,  afterwards  with  many  a  correction  and  amendment,  we 
reach  the  broad,  comprehensive,  and  beautiful  law  which  governs 


260  EDUCATIOy.  [December, 

them.  "  The  mind,"  says  Herbert  Spencer,  "  like  all  things  that 
grow,  progresses  from  the  homogeneous  to  the  heterogeneous; 
and  a  training  system,  being  an  objective  counterpart  of  this  sub- 
jective process,  must  exhibit  a  like  progression.  We  must  proceed 
from  the  single  to  the  combined  in  mastering  each  branch  of 
knowledge ;  the  mind  must  be  introduced  to  principles  through 
the  medium  of  examples."  Here,  then,  is  a  most  important  part 
of  teachers'  preparation.  Casual  occurrences  witnessed  by  them- 
selves, or  by  the  children,  familiar  phenomena  of  nature  and  facts 
gained  from  reading,  should  all  be  brought  under  tribute  to  enable 
them  to  vivify  their  teaching.  They  who  thus  come  to  look  at 
things  through  their  pupils'  eyes  will  never  lack  attention. 

Thirdly,  the  teacher  should  prei)are  a  plan  of  each  lesson,  should 
determine  beforehand  how  to  proceed  from  step  to  step.  Unless 
there  be  a  distinct  conception  of  both  the  end  to  be  attained  and 
the  method  by  which  it  is  to  be  reached,  systematic  progress  is 
impossible.  A  good  plan  for  teaching  a  lesson  will  regard  it  as 
one  of  a  series,  designed  to  develop  certain  faculties  in  the  child, 
and  also  as  an  individual  lesson  designed  to  teach  a  specific  thing. 
The  method  needs  to  be  carefully  adapted  to  the  age  and  capacity 
of  the  class.  The  development,  the  illustration,  the  drill,  the 
mode  of  emphasizing  important  points,  all  need  to  be  determined. 
This  surely  requires  study,  and  i&tudy  too,  in  the  light  of  peda- 
gogic principles  and  laws.  The  lesson  must  be  connected  with 
previous  lessons;  it  must  start  from  sometliing  already  knotvrn, 
and  it  must  engage  attention  by  exciting  interest  at  the  outset. 
Professional  training  and  practice  will  give  a  teacher  facility  in 
the  preparation  of  lesson  plans,  but  will  never  render  such  plans 
unnecessary.  Fruitful  experience  will  rather  teach  one  the  dan- 
ger of  allowing  them  to  become  stereotyped  and  monotonoiis. 
Variety  of  method  is  as  essential  as  unity  of  purpose. 

Fourth,  the  teacher  needs  preparation  in  order  to  properly  as- 
sign work  from  day  to  day.  This  is  a  very  important,  but  oft- 
neglected  item  in  a  teacher's  duties.  Every  exercise  from  the 
busy-work  of  the  lowest  grades  to  the  original  investigations  of 
students  in  high  schools  and  colleges  needs  to  be  judiciously  di- 
rected. Aimless  work  discourages  pupils.  How  often  do  scholars 
complain  that  they  do  not  know  what  they  are  to  study,  or  how 
they  are  to  study  it.  Now  and  then  some  brave  little  fellow  tells 
how  he  has  studied  for  hours  on  something  wliich  it  turns  out  that 


1888.]  THE  TEACHERS  PREPABATION,  261 

he  was  not  expected  to  learn.  What  wonder  that  pupils  whose 
work  is  thus  vaguely  or  thoughtlessly  assigned  leave  school !  The 
question  is  often  asked  whether  it  is  possible  to  make  every  grade 
of  school  work  attractive.  When  the  kindergarten  and  object 
lessons  are  outgrown,  must  the  pleasure  and  interest  in  school 
work  cease?  Many  claim  that  it  must.  Bam  says:  "There 
comes  then  the  stern  conclusion,  that  the  uninteresting  must  be 
faced  at  last.  The  age  of  drudgery  must  commence  ;  we  begin 
the  discipline  of  life  by  inuring  the  child,  gradually,  to  severe  and 
repugnant  occupations."  Too  often,  alas  I  have  teachers  resigned 
themselves  to  the  same  conclusion.  We  protest  against  it.  Such 
an  admission  robs  both  teacher  and  pupil  of  all  enthusiasm,  all 
gladness  in  their  work.  In  opposition  to  this  depressing  philoso- 
phy, we  claim  that  the  normal  action  of  each  faculty  and  power, 
whether  of  mind  or  body,  was  designed  to  be,  and  i«,  a  source  of 
enjoyment.  Absolute  idleness  is  always  irksome.  The  sense  of 
triumph  in  a  boy  or  girl  who  has  accomplished  an  allotted  task, 
often  affords  the  keenest  happiness.  Let  the  schoolroom  be  made 
attractive  ;  let  it  be  pervaded  by  a  bright  and  sunny  spirit ;  let  the 
instruction  and  the  tasks  be  properly  adapted  to  the  capacity  of 
the  pupils  and  they  will  not  deem  the  work  "  drudgery,"  nor  the 
occupation  "  repugnant." 

In  the  assignment  of  lessons,  good  judgment  will  not  only  adapt 
the  amount  and  difficulty  of  the  work  to  the  ability  of  the  class, 
but  will  give  just  enough  explanation  of  difficult  points  to  enable 
pupils  to  master  them.  It  is  also  well  to  stimulate  their  habits  of 
observation  and  love  of  independent  work,  by  giving  different  ones 
something  to  look  up  and  report  to  the  class  —  never  forgetting 
to  drop  a  hint  as  to  where  the  desired  information  can  be  obtained. 

The  men  and  women  who  have  done  most  to  make  the  name  of 
teacher  honorable,  have  reflected  much  upon  the  laws  and  condi- 
tions of  mental  growth.  They  who  would  attain  the  highest 
excellence  in  this  profession  must  thoroughly  understand  the  pro- 
cesses through  which  they  would  conduct  their  pupils.  And  they 
must  know  the  pupils  individually  as  well  as  collectively ;  must 
know  their  wants  and  adapt  their  instruction  to  each.  And  that 
they  may  do  this  they  will  closely  observe  each  pupil's  traits  of 
character  and  habits  of  thought  and  expression.  They  will  seek 
to  know  something  of  their  home  surroundings  and  other  mould- 
ing influences.     They  will  become  acquainted  \vith  their  parents 


262  EDUCATIOX.  [December, 

when  practicable,  and  will  secure  their  cooperation  in  their  work. 
With  some  children  this  is  not  necessary  ;  but  if  pupils  are  dull,  or 
willful,  or  peculiar,  a  friendly  understanding  with  the  parents  is 
often  of  the  greatest  value.  Teachers  who  thus  make  friends  of 
the  people  of  their  district  will  not  only  enlarge  their  usefulness 
and  gain  a  firmer  hold  upon  their  pupils,  but  will  also  find  their 
own  life  enriched  and  stimulated. 

In  general  we  need  to  remember  that  the  qualities  of  mind  and 
character  which  are  desired  in  the  pupil  must  be  in  the  teacher. 
"  Men  do  not  gather  grapes  of  thorns,  nor  figs  of  thistles."  If  a 
teacher  lacks  integrity,  refinement,  earnestness,  or  courtesy,  he 
cannot  inspire  his  pupils  with  these  virtues.  An  unconscious  in- 
fluence emanates  from  him  which  tends  to  fix  the  standards  of 
excellence  in  their  minds.  Every  teacher  should  distinctly  under- 
stand that  the  prime  condition  of  successfully  inculcating  any  ex- 
cellence, whether  of  morals  or  manners,  of  habits  of  thought,  or 
habits  of  speech,  is  to  possess  it  one's  self  and  uniformly  practice 
it  in  the  schoolroom.  Especially  contagious  are  such  qualities  as 
cheerfulness,  earnestness,  and  courtesy,  virtues  of  fundamental 
importance  in  themselves  as  well  as  intimately  related  to  intellec- 
tual growth.  Neither  teacher  nor  pupil  can  work  at  the  best  ad- 
vantage in  a  school  where  any  fundamental  duty  is  disregarded. 


YESTERDAY  now  is  a  part  of  forever ; 
Bound  up  in  a  sheaf,  which  God  holds  tight. 
With  glad  days,  and  sad  days,  and  bad  days  which  never 
Shall  visit  us  more  with  their  bloom  and  their  blight. 
Their  fulness  of  sunshine  or  sorrowful  night. 

Let  them  go,  since  we  cannot  relieve  them. 

Cannot  undo  and  cannot  atone  ; 
God  in  his  mercy  receive,  forgive  them ! 

Only  the  new  days  are  our  own. 

Today  is  ours,  and  today  alone. 

—  Susan  Coolidge, 


1888.]        THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  LANOUAOES.  263 


TUB    TEACHING    OF    THE   CLASSICAL 

LANGUAGES,^ 

IV. 

"  ANCIPITI." 

Cesar's  De  Bello  Gallico, 

book    i.,    chapter  xxvi.,    line   i. 

BY  PROF.  W.  S.   SCARBOROUGH,  LL.  D.  "^ 

ITA  ANCIPITI   PRCELIO   DIU   ATQUE  ACRITER    PUGNATUM  EST. 

DOES  andpiti  in  this  passage  means  doubtful  or  douhle  f  On 
what  ground  is  one  signification  preferable  to  the  other? 
These  are  the  questions  that  suggest  themselves  to  one's  mind  as 
he  reads  this  twenty-sixth  chapter,  and  especially  the  part  quoted 
with  the  comments  on  it.  I  have  examined  several  editions  of 
Caesar  by  various  editors,  and  find  that  all  more  or  less  agree  that 
andpiti  should  be  rendered  double^  on  the  ground  that  the  battle 
was  fought  in  two  places,  at  the  top  and  at  the  foot  of  the  hill. 

To  be  more  specific,  I  quote  the  language  of  a  few  of  the  edit- 
ors mentioned:  — 

^^  Andpiti^  two-headed,  thus  facing  two  ways  at  once." — Allen 
and  Greenough. 

''^  Andpitiy  two-fold,  because  the  Romans  were  fighting  in  two 
fronts."  —  Kelsey. 

"  Andpiti  pradio^  the  battle  is  called  anceps^  double^  because  the 
Romans  were  contending  with  enemies,  both  in  front  and  in  the 
rear."  —  Ancb-ews. 

"  Andpiti  proelio^  in  a  double  battle  —  so-called,  because  fought 
on  different  fronts. " —  Harkness. 

"  Andpiti  prcelio  is  equivalent  to  dubio  marie  (according  to  Da- 
vies),  because  they  were  ignorant  to  which  side  the  victory  in- 
clined. Others  say  the  engagement  was  fought  in  two  places  — 
at  the  top  and  at  the  foot  of  the  hill." — Spencer. 

1  Copyright,  1888,  by  Eastern  Educational  Bureau. 


364  EDUCATIOy.  [December, 

"  Ancipiti  proelio^  in  doubtful  battle ;  i.  e.,  victory  inclining  to 
neither  side."  —  Bullions. 

*'  Ancipiti  proelio^  in  a  double  conflict."  —  Cliiise  and  Stuart. 

''  Ancipiti  proelio^  in  a  double  conflict."  —  Leighton,  in  his  ex- 
tract of  the  Helvetian  war  (Latin  Lessons). 

It  will  be  observed  that  Spencer  is  in  doubt ;  forms  no  opinion 
of  his  own,  but  simply  dismisses  the  subject  with  (in  substance) 
a  remark  — some  say  one  thing  and  some  another.  Bullions  states 
positively,  "  in  a  doubtful  Ixittle." 

Though  the  trend  of  the  argument  of  a  majority  of  these  and 
other  commentators  favors  the  rendering  of  ancipiti  as  double^  I 
am  of  the  opinion,  after  a  careful  reading  of  the  lines  and  the  con- 
text, that  ancipiti  should  be  translated  ilouhtful^  with  the  sense  of 
uncertain  or  critical.  To  adopt  any  other  meaning  seems  to  be 
straining  a  point  to  make  out  a  case.  The  position  of  the  troops, 
though  of  importance,  is  not  first  as  it  seems  to  me ;  it  is  the  out- 
come, the  result,  that  is  of  the  greatest  moment,  and  in  a  hard 
fought  battle  like  this  there  was  doubtless  great  anxiety  on  the 
part  of  the  Roman  commander-in-chief  as  to  which  way  victory 
was  inclining.  And,  too,  tliis  thought  seeuLs  to  l)e  brought  out  by 
the  context:  "Diutius  quum  nostrorum  impetus  sustinere,"  etc. 
When  they  could  not  withstand  the  attack  of  our  men  longer,  one 
party  retreated  to  the  mountains  and  the  other  to  their  l>aggage 
and  wagons,  for  during  this  entire  battle,  though  fought  from  the 
seventh  hour  till  evening,  no  one  was  able  to  see  the  retreating 
enemy.  They  fought  till  late  at  night,  even  to  the  baggage,  be- 
cause they  had  employed  these  (their  wagons)  for  ramparts  and 
from  vantage-ground  were  hurling  down  javelins  upon  our  men 
(the  Romans)  while  advancing,  and  some  were  discharging  jave- 
lins and  darts  from  below,  between  the  wagons  and  wheels,  and 
were  wounding  our  men.  After  a  long  fight,  our  men  captured 
the  baggage  and  camp.  A  daughter  and  son  of  Orgetorix  were 
captured.  From  this  battle  about  130,000  men  survived  whom  our 
men,  says  Caesar,  were  not  able  to  follow  because  of  the  wounded 
soldiers  and  the  necessity  of  burying  those  already  dead.  The 
fact  that  the  Romans  did  not  follow  up  this  victory  shows  that  it 
must  have  cost  them  dearly. 

The  sense  of  the  passage,  then,  I  should  think,  requires  that  we 
translate  anceps  in  such  way  as  to  express  the  uncertainty  of  the 
contest.     This  is  not  done  when  we  say  it  was  a  double  contest. 


1888.]        THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  LANGUAGES.  205 

We  learn  from  the  latter  part  of  the  preceding  chapter  that  the 
Roman  army  was  drawn  up  in  three  lines  (triplex  acies)  ;  the  first 
and  second  lines  formed  one  division  which  advanced  against  those 
who  had  been  defeated  and  were  compelled  to  retreat,  i.  e.  the 
Helvetians :  the  third  line  sustained  the  attack  of  those  advancing 
(venientes)  upon  them :  — 

"Romani  con  versa  signa  bipartito  intulerunt;  prima  ac  secunda 
acies  ut  victis  ac  submotis  resisteret ;  tertia,  ut  venientes  excip- 
eret." 

May  we  not  surmise  that  the  battle  between  the  contending  par- 
ties had  been  raging  for  some  time,  the  details  of  which  having 
been  admitted,  Caesar,  with  his  usual  vivacity  in  describing  an 
event,  dashes  into  the  subject  as  here  recorded :  Ita  andplti  proelio 
.  .  .  .  pugnatum  est^  thus  they  fought  long  and  valiently  — 
with  victory  inclining  neither  way.  Ita^  in  this  case,  would  refer 
not  to  the  position  of  any  of  the  contending  lines  (acies),  but 
rather  to  the  degree  or  intensity  with  which  the  battle  was  fought. 
In  the  seventy-sixth  chapter  of  Book  VII.,  a  similar  construction 
occurs :  — 

"Praesertim  ancipiti  proelio,  quum  ex  oppido  eruptione  pug- 
naretur,  foris  tantae  copiae  equitatus  peditatusque  cernerentur." 

According  to  some  authorities,  ancipiti  in  this  passage  is  ex- 
plained by  the  two  clauses  following :  ''  quum  ^.r,"  etc.,  ^*' foris  tan- 
tae^'^  and  consequently  with  the  meaning  of  double ;  a  double 
battle, 

Andrews,  in  his  Latin  lexicon,  says  that  anceps  in  general  has 
reference  to  an  object  whose  qualities  have  significance  in  two 
respects  —  double^  that  extends  on  two  opposite  sides ;  while  duplex 
refei*s  to  an  object  that  exists  in  separate  form,  twice.  *^Thu8," 
oontinues  he,  '^  aneeps  sententia  is  an  opinion  which  wavers^  fluctvr 
<ites  between  two  decisions^  while  duplex  sententia  is  a  twofold  opinion." 
After  giving  some  examples  illustrating  this  use,  he  adds,  that 
since  everything  which  oscillates  in  two  different  directions  has  no 
stability,  anceps  signifies  ivavering^  doubtful^  uncertmn^  unfixed^  un- 
decided^ and  further,  since  hesitation  in  the  issue  of  an  undertak- 
ing frequently  causes  danger,  anceps  also  signifies  dangerous,  per- 
ilous, critical.  There  are  examples  in  Livy,  Cicero,  Tacitus, 
Horace,  Nepos,  Ovid,  Sallust,  etc.,  illustrating  these  different 
meanings,  though,  as  it  seems  to  me,  etymologically  speaking, 
anceps  ought  to  convey  the  one  idea  of  doubtful  or  uncertain^  i.  e., 
as  in  No.  3  of  Andrews'  division. 


966  EDUCATIOy.  [December, 

Anceps  is  derived  from  an-eaput^  the  an  being  equivalent  to  the 
Greek  afKJyC,  and  with  caput  literally  meaning  "  having  a  head  on 
each  side,"  or  "  heads  all  around."  There  are  other  words  of  simi- 
lar derivation,  prceceps^  headlong ;  biceps^  two-headed,  triceps^  three- 
headed,  all  with  caput  as  the  radical,  and  prce^  6e«,  and  tris  as  pre- 
fixes. In  anceps  appears  the  root  cap  which  is  the  same  as  the 
Indo-European  root  kap^  signifying  grasp,  and  which  is  also  seen 
in  caputs  capitalist  capitolium^  capitulum^  capillus^  eapillaris^  and  in 
«c€^Xf7,  K€if>d\at,(yi^  aK^<f>a\o^  of  the  Greek.  The  root  "  cap  "  (kap) 
as  suggested  by  Professor  Halsey,^  "  is  probably  connected  with 
cap  "  in  capio.  As  we  find  it  in  caput  and  words  derived  from  it, 
the  meaning  seems  to  be  secondary  and  not  primary,  for  in  the 
primary  sense  of  to  hold,  to  grasp,  from  the  ablant  cap  (kap), 
come  anceps^  particeps^  princeps^  and  similar  words  with  genitive 
in  is  signifying  birdcatcher,  sharer,  chief,  etc.,  etc. 

Now,  if  having  "  heads  all  around "  means  anything  at  all,  it 
must  mean  instability^  uncertainty,  "  A  double-minded  man,"  says 
one  of  the  sacred  writers,^  "  is  unstable  in  all  his  ways."  In  other 
words,  the  man  who  halts  between  faith  and  unbelief  is  not  a  safe 
man,  he  is  not  to  be  relied  on ;  for  he  is  indecisive.  The  idea  I 
wish  to  emphasize  is  the  doubleness^  the  twofold ness^  and  hence,  the 
doubtfulness^  as  here  implied.  In  the  Vulgate  for  the  expression, 
a  double-minded  man^  we  have,  vir  animo  duplici ;  in  the  'H  Kat,vr) 
AiaOi^Kt]  (Greek  New  Testament),  avrjp  Sn/rtf;^o«?.  Doubtless  the 
vir  animo  duplici^  the  avr^p  hiy^vxp^  and  anceps  are  similar  in  thought 
and  may  mean  the  same  thing,  so  far  as  the  result  is  concerned. 

The  following  are  a  few  passages  in  which  anceps  seems  to  have 
the  meaning  of  double  according  to  the  authorities  consulted  and 
the  text  itself :  — 

"Milites  Romani  perculsi  tumultu  insolito  capere  alii,  alii  se 
abdere  pars  territos  confirmare  trepidare  omnibus  locis ;  vis  magna 
hostium,  ctclium  nocte  atque  nubibus  obscuratum  periculum  an- 
cepsr  —  Sail.  J.  38-5. 

Some,  however,  render  anceps  indiscernible,  thus,  danger  was 
indiscernible,  meaning,  I  suppose,  that  the  struggle  was  of  such  a 
nature  as  to  make  it  uncertain  where  the  greatest  danger  lay. 

"Talia   magniloquo   tumidus    memoraverat    ore,    ancipitemque 

1  Etymology  of  Latin  and  Greek. 
*  St.  Paul,  Epistle  to  James  (i :  8). 


1888.]        THE  TEACHING  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  LANGUAGES.  267 

manu  toUeiis  utraque  securiin  institerat  digitis,  primos  suspensiis 
in  artus."  —  O.  M.,  8-397. 

"  Hie  etsi  pari  proelio  discesserant,  tamen  eodem  loco  non  sunt 
ausi  manere :  quod  erat  periculum,  ne,  si  pars  navium  adversari- 
orum  Euboeam  superasset,  anciplti  premerentur  periculo."  —  Ne- 
pos.  Them.  33. 

"Bestiarum  autem  terrenae  sunt  aliae  partim  aquatiles  aliae 
quasi  aneipites  in  utraque  sede  viventes;  sunt  quaedam  etiam, 
quae  igne  nasci  putentur,  appareantque  in  ardentibus  fornaeibus 
saepe  volitantes."  —  Cic.  De  Natura  Deorura,  Bk.  I.,  37. 

"  At  vero  curia,  maesta  ac  trepida  ancipiti  metu  et  ab  cive  et  ab 
hoste,  Servilium  consulem,  cui  ingeniura  magis  populare  erat, 
orare,  ut  tantis  circumventam  terroribus  expediret  rem  publicam." 

—  Livy,  2,  24. 

"Sed  quod  erant  quidam  eique  multi,  qui  aut  in  re  publica 
propter  ancipitem,  quae  non  potest  esse  seiuncta,  faciendi  dicen- 
dique  sapientiam  florerent,  ut  Themistocles,  ut  Pericles,  ut,"  etc. 

—  Cic.  De  Oratore,  Bk.  III.,  16. 

"  In  qua  velim  sit  illud,  quod  saepe  posuisti,  ut  non  necesse  sit 
consumere  aetatem  atque  ut  possit  is  ilia  omnia  cernere,  qui  tan- 
tummodo  aspexerit ;  sed  etiamsi  est  aliquando  spissius  aut  si  ego 
sum  tardior,  profecto  numquam  conquiescam  neque  defatigabor 
ante,  quam  illorum  ancipitis  vias  rationesque  et  pro  omnibus  et 
contra  omnia  disputandi  percepero." — Cic.  De  Oratore,  Bk. 
III.,  36. 

Watson,  in  his  translation  of  the  orators,  renders  ancipiti  doubt- 
ful^ and  not  twofold^  as  in  the  sixteenth  chapter.     I  give  his  ran 
dering :  — 

"In  regard  to  which  (in  qua)  I  could  wish  that  that  were  true 
which  you  have  often  asserted,  that  it  is  not  necessary  to  consume 
our  lives  in  it,  but  that  he  may  see  everything  in  it  who  only  turns 
his  eyes  toward  it ;  but  even  if  the  view  be  somewhat  obscure, 
or  I  should  be  extraordinarily  dull,  I  shall  assuredly  never  rest,  or 
yield  to  fatigue,  until  I  understand  their  doubtful  (ancipitis)  ways 
and  arts  of  disputing  for  and  against  every  question." 

Again :  "  Tertium  dubitandi  genus  est,  cum  pugnare  videtur 
cum  honesto  id,  quod  videtur  esse  utile ;  cum  enini  utilitas  ad  se 
rapere,  honestas  contra  revocare  ad  se  videtur,  fit  ut  distrahatur 
in  deliberando  animus  adferatque  ancipitem  curam  cogitandi."  — 
Cic.  De  Officiis,  Bk.  I.,  3. 


968  EDUCATION.  [December, 

To  illustrate  further  another  thought,  that  anceps  may  hare  a 
derived  or  figurative  signification  which  seems  to  be  in  harmony 
with  its  etymology,  I  quote  from  Virgil  a  passage  in  the  ^Eneid 
where  this  word  occurs  with  the  peculiar  meaning  of  treacherous 
or  intricate.  It  is  found  in  Bk.  V.,  589.  Reference  is  made  to 
the  Labyrinth  with  its  numerous  cells,  winding  avenues,  so  ar- 
ranged as  to  lead  back  and  forth  in  a  maze,  thus  bewildering  those 
who  enter  it  and  preventing  their  finding  their  way  out  of  it : 

Ut  quondam  Creta  fertur  Labyrinthus  in  alta 
Parietibus  textum  caecis  iter,  ancipitemque 
Mille  viis  habuisse  dolum,  qua  signa  sequendi 
Falleret  indeprensus  et  irremeabilis  error. 

Another  illustration  is  found  in  the  same  book  where  the  poet 
represents  the  Trojan  matrons  excited  by  Iris  (tlirough  Juno)  as 
applying  the  torch  to  the  fleet  of  uEneas  as  it  lay  moored  along' 
the  Sicilian  coast  in  the  port  of  Drepanum :  — 

Ab  matres  primo  ancipites,  oculisque  malignis 
Ambiguae  spectare   rates  miserum  inter  amorem 
Praesentis  terrae  fatisque  vocantia  regna : 
Quum  dea  se  paribus  per  coelum  sustulit  alis, 
Ingentemque  f uga  secuit  sub  nubibus  arcum. 

—  ^Eneid  V.,  654,  etc. 

Doubtless  the  meaning  of  anceps  in  this  passage  is  the  same  as 
that  of  infestae^  hostile.  There  are  many  other  similar  examples 
to  be  found,  both  in  prose  and  poetry.  It  may  be  reasonably  con- 
cluded (from  what  has  been  said  that  anceps  has  no  fixed  meaning, 
but  so  far  as  one  signification  is  more  permanent  than  another) 
from  an  etymological  standpoint,  that  ancepn  m^ans  doubtful  in  the 
sense  of  critical  or  uncertain,  rather  than  double,  and  that  meaning 
is  by  far  more  in  keeping  with  the  context  of  the  lines  quoted 
from  the  twenty-sixth  chapter  of  Caesar's  Commentaries. 


Life's  more  than  breath  and  the  quick  round  of  blood : 
It  is  a  great  spirit  and  a  busy  heart. 
One  generous  feeling  —  one  great  thought  —  one  deed 
Of  good,  ere  night,  would  make  life  longer  seem 
Than  if  each  year  might  number  a  thousand  days. 

—  Bailey. 


1888.]  EDITORIAL.  289 


EDITORIAL. 

THE  late  meeting  of  the  New  England  Superintendents  of 
schools  in  Boston,  Nov.  9th,  was  devoted  to  the  general 
topic  of  the  examination  of  pupils  and  teachers.  The  latter  phase 
of  the  subject  was  thoroughly  treated  by  State  Superintendent 
Draper  of  New  York.  No  state  east  of  the  AUeghanies  has  made 
so  important  an  advance  in  this  direction  as  New  York  under  the 
lead  of  Judge  Draper, — by  all  odds  the  most  effective  of  the 
superintendents  of  education  in  the  Empire  State.  In  a  subse- 
quent number  of  Education  we  hope  to  give  a  complete  account 
of  this  important  movement,  as  described  by  Superintendent 
Draper.  At  present,  it  is  largely  a  voluntary  consent,  by  all  the 
county  commissioners  of  education,  including  the  whole  of  rural 
New  York,  and  a  few  of  the  cities,  to  establish  a  uniform  system 
of  examination  for  three  grades  of  public  school  teachers.  The 
examination  papers  and  rules  of  proceduie  are  prepared  at  the 
department  and  uniformity  is  secured  through  that  portion  of  the 
state  most  in  need  of  the  reform.  The  most  important  feature  is 
the  examination  for  the  lowest  class  of  teachers,  who  are  given  a 
certificate  for  a  short  time,  with  the  expectation  that  a  subsequent 
trial  will  improve  their  standing,  as  this  certificate  can  only  be 
once  renewed.  In  this  way  thousands  of  incompetent  persons, 
who  are  now  clogging  the  wheels  of  progress,  will  be  thrown  out 
and  the  ground  floor  of  the  profession  steadily  lifted  up.  It  is  to 
be  hoped  that,  in  due  time,  this  voluntary  arrangement  may  be 
made  the  fixed  policy  of  the  state  by  legislation.  There  is  already 
a  system  of  granting  state  certificates  in  New  York,  and  Superin- 
tendent Draper  is  hard  at  work  to  bring  all  the  states  to  an  agree- 
ment for  mutual  recognition  of  each  other's  endorsement  of  the 
superior  class  of  instructors. 

"TTTHETHER  our  New  England  States  are  prepared  for  the 
V  V  concentration  of  power  in  the  state  department  of  Edu- 
cation, which  a  system  like  that  already  adopted  in  some  of  the 
western  states,  and  in  process  of  establishment  in  New  York,  im- 
plies, may  be  questioned.  The  township  system  of  local  govern- 
ment, peculiar  to  our  six  northeastern  states,  is  at  the  bottom  of  so 


a70  EDUCATIOy.  [December, 

much  of  the  success  and  fame  of  New  England  in  the  past  and,  in 
itself,  such  an  admirable  training-school  of  citizensliip,  tliat  we 
cannot  blame  our  i>eople  for  their  jealousy  of  concentrated  power 
or  the  tenacity  with  which  they  hold  fast  to  the  idea  of  local  man- 
agement of  the  common  school.  One  imj)ortant  step  has  been 
taken  in  two  of  these  states  out  of  the  old  district  system,  which, 
once  a  necessity,  is  now  a  mischievous  olistruction  to  educational 
progress.  The  movement  for  town  and  district  super^'ision,  if 
successful,  will  tell  powerfully  on  the  examination  of  teachers. 
In  some  way,  the  outrage  of  wasting  the  people's  money  for  the 
support  of  incompetent  teachers,  elected  for  any  and  every  motive 
excepting  comj:)etency  to  teJich,  must  be  abated. 

No  question  in  public  education  is  now  half  so  imi)ortant  as  the 
elevation  of  the  teaching  force  in  every  grade  of  school.  Without 
this,  all  our  improvements  in  method,  organization,  and  extension, 
will  only  be  a  new  burden  to  the  cliildren  and  a  disapi)ointment 
to  the  zealous  disciples  of  educational  reform.  Not  what  new 
things  can  l)e  added  to  the  curriculum,  but  how  can  the  teachers 
be  fitted  to  handle  the  present  course  of  study,  is  the  fundamental 
question  of  the  hour. 

NOW  that  we  are  l)eyond  the  exigencies  of  i>olitical  jmrtisan- 
ship,  we  may  perhajw  indulge  the  hope  that  our  "scholars 
in  i)olitics"  will  give  some  attention  to  the  fact^  of  public  school 
life  <lown  South,  and  not  Ijefog  the  people  with  such  preposterous 
"buncomb"  as  during  the  past  few  montlis.  When  a  leading 
economist  of  New  Englan<l  seriously  contrasts  the  public  school 
affairs  in  Maine,  the  state  which  leads  the  Union  in  the  i>er  cent, 
of  average  attendance  of  children  between  six  and  fourteen,  with 
South  Carolina  and  Louisiana,  —  the  latter  at  the  nether  extrem- 
ity in  this  res{>ect;  or  when  another  accomplished  scholar 
flourishes  Georgia, — the  state  which,  in.  proportion  to  its  val- 
uation, does  least  of  all  for  public  education, — above  New 
England,  we  may  well  inquire  if  the  schoolmaster  is  "•abroad." 
And  when  grave  college  i)rof essoins  insist  that  a  reorganization  of 
the  whole  system  of  the  common  school,  to  in(»ludc  comi)ulsory 
manual  training,  can  alone  save  it  from  i)oi)ular  disfavor;  wliile 
another  would  reconstruct  American  pojmlar  education  on  the 
European  basis  of  class  instruction ;  to  say  nothing  of  the 
monthly  crop  of   alxsurd  suggesticms  ventilated    in    the    popular 


1888.]  EDITORIAL.  271 

magazines ;  we  may  well  ask,  whither  ha^  common  sense  and  com- 
mon fairness  of  judgment  departed?  In  this  strait  we  realize  the 
real  importance  of  the  average  School  Board,  composed  of  a  fair 
representation  of  the  mass  of  people  whose  children  are  the  sub- 
jects of  instruction.  They  and  the  majority  of  intelligent  teachers 
can  still  be  trusted  to  save  the  schools  from  their  fussy,  impracti- 
cal, and  half-hearted  friends. 

ONE  of  the  most  interesting  educational  relics  of  the  far-oflP 
days  of  the  Southern  Confederacy  is  a  pamphlet  containing 
an  address  to  the  trustees  of  Hollins  Institute  for  young  women 
in  Virginia,  by  Prof.  Ed.  S.  Jayues,  dated  August,  1864;  on  the 
establishment  of  a  normal  school  for  southern  women  in   this 
Institution.     The  confidence  with  which  the  speedy  success  of  the 
new  "Nation"  is  assumed  illustrates  the  absolute  faith  of  even  the 
educated  class  of  the  southern  people  in  the  ultimate  triumph  of 
their  enterprise.     But  this  admirable  letter,  apart  from  the  pecul- 
iar circumstances  of  its  authorship,  reads  now  like  a  chapter  of 
prophecy  in  the  great  educational  awakening  that  has  come  to  the 
reunited  south;  in  which  no  leadership  is  more  conspicuous  than 
that  of  Professor  Jaynes.     With  great  force  the  Professor,  in  his 
adtb-ess,  urges  the  absolute  necessity  of  Univei'sal  Education ;  the 
enlarged  sphere  of  woman  as  teacher  and  the  peremptory  need  of 
professional   training;    with   anticipation   of  the  evils  that  any 
period  of  civil  war  brings  upon  childhood  and  youth;  the  result 
of  the  suspended  education  of  one  generation  and  the  necessity  of 
some  opening  for  the  large  number  of  superior  women  imi)over- 
ised  by  the  wreck  of  civil  strife.     All  this  has  the  same  significance 
to-day  in  Virginia,  and  every  other  southern  state,  as  in  the  month 
of   its  writing,  twenty-four  yeai*s  ago.      The  professor  has  the 
pleasure  of  seeing  his  own  initiative,  one  of  the  first  in  the  south, 
so  far  along  towards  realization.     He  is,  himself,  one  of  the  lead- 
ing spirits  in  the  establishment  of  what  promises  to  become  the 
State  Normal  school  of  South  Carolina  at  Columbia.     We  believe 
every  southern  state,  now,  except  Delaware  and  Georgia,  has 
made  some  provision  for  the  state  support  of  normal  instruction. 
Maryland,  Missouri,  Texas,  Louisiana,  Mississippi,  Alabama,  Ten- 
nessee,  Florida,    West  Virginia  and   Virginia  have  established 
special  normal  schools  for  teachers  of  both  races ;  while  the  other 
states,  with  the  two  exceptions  named,  if  these  be  exceptions, 


272  EDUCATION.  [December, 

attempt  to  provide  for  this  want  by  a  Professorship  of  Pedagogy 
in  the  State  University.  Every  southern  state  has  naturalized  the 
Summer  Institute.  The  latest  important  movements  are  the 
endorsement  of  the  Winthrop  Training  School  at  Columbia, 
South  Carolina,  by  a  state  subsidy  of  thirty-four  free  scholar- 
ships;—  the  establishment  of  a  state  normal  school  for  boys  at  the 
old  William  and  Mary  College  in  Williamsburg,  Va. ;  and  the 
planting  of  a  new  Chautauqua  Assembly  with  large  promise  of 
success  in  the  suburbs  of  Atlanta,  Ga. 

THE  chronic  ecclesiastical  misapprehension  of  character-train- 
ing in  schools  is  not  an  exclusively  sectarian  infirmity,  but 
breaks  out  continually  among  the  clergy  of  every  religious  sect 
and  the  leaders  of  every  anti-religious  organization.  It  is  the 
notion  that  character-training  in  schools  depends  chiefly  on 
preaching,  religious  services,  catechising,  and  the  whole  machinery 
of  ecclesiastical  propagandism.  So  far  as  indoctrination  in  reli- 
gious or  atheistic  sectarianism  is  concerned,  this  notion  is  probably 
true.  But,  in  the  character-training  that  gives  to  American 
civilization  a  generation  of  righteous  young  men  and  women  with 
the  moral  equipment  of  good  citizenship,  this  ecclesiastical  fancy 
is  notably  untrue.  Children  in  school,  as  everywhere,  including 
college  students,  are  cliiefly  trained  to  right  feeling,  willing,  think- 
ing and  acting  by  the  organization,  discipline,  environments  and 
moral  atmosphere  of  the  school  itself,  in  connection  with  the 
character,  the  '*walk  and  conversation,"  of  the  teacher. 

ONE  feature  in  the  school  work  of  the  late  Mr.  E.  C.  Camgan 
has  not  received  at  home  the  consideration  it  deserves. 
While  more  active,  in  some  directions,  than  any  young  man  in 
Boston  and  Massachusetts,  he  was  foremost  in  a  broad  sympathy 
with  and  a  constant  effort  for  the  enlargement  of  educational  life 
through  the  southern  states.  His  zeal  for  National  aid  was  a  con- 
stant rebuke  to  the  local  provincialism  that  would  withhold  from 
the  six  millions  of  southern  children  and  youth  that  assistance  by 
which  the  Northwest  has  l>eeome  what  it  is,  and  insist  on  applying 
abstract  right  theories  in  the  wrong  place.  In  the  death  of  Mr. 
Carrigan  our  southern  school-men  will  deplore  the  loss  of  one  of 
their  most  enlightened,  energetic,  and  unwearied  supporters  and 
friends. 


1888.]  MISCELLANY  275 


OLD  SOUTH  LECTURES  FOR  YOUNG  PEOPLE. 

THE  course  of  Old  South  Lectures  for  the  summer  of  1888  had  the 
general  title  of  ''  THE  STORY  OF  THE  CENTURIES."  These 
Lectures  are  devoted  primarily  to  American  history.  But  this  object  ia 
liberally  construed,  and  a  constant  aim  is  to  impress  upon  the  young 
people  the  relations  of  our  own  history  to  English  and  general  European 
history,  and  our  indebtedness  to  the  long  past.  Next  year  will  be  the 
centennial  both  of  the  founding  of  our  own  national  government  and  of 
the  beginning  of  the  French  Revolution. 

In  connection  with  the  lectures,  the  young  people  were  requested  to 
^yi  in  mind  certain  dates,  observing  that  in  most  instances  the  date  comes> 
about  a  decade  before  the  close  of  the  century.  An  effort  has  been 
made  in  the  Leaflets  for  the  year  to  make  dates,  which  are  so  often  dull 
and  useless  to  young  people,  interesting,  significant,  and  useful. 

The  Old  South  Lectures  in  American  History  for  November  and  Decem- 
ber, by  Mr.  John  Fiske,  on  Scenes  and  Characters  in  American  History. 
Thomas  Hutchinson,  last  Royal  Governor  of  Massachusetts ;  Charles> 
Lee,  the  Soldier  of  Fortune ;  Andrew  Jackson,  Frontiersman  and  Sol- 
dier; Andrew  Jackson  and  American  Democracy  Sixty  Years  Ago; 
**  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler  Too'';  Daniel  Webster  and  the  Sentiment  of 
Union. 

The  Old  South  Leaflets  for  the  year,  corresponding  with  the  several 
lectures,  are  as  follows:  1.  ''The  Early  History  of  Oxford,"  from 
Green's  History  of  the  English  People,  2.  ''  Richard  Coeur  de  Lion 
and  the  Third  Crusade,"  from  the  Chronicle  of  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf. 

3.  "The  Universal  Empire,"  passages  from  Dante's  De  Monarchia. 

4.  "The  Sermon  on  the  Mount,"  WyclifTs  translation.  5.  "Coper- 
nicus and  the  Ancient  Astronomers,"  from  Humboldt's  Cosmos.  6.  "  The 
Defeat  of  the  Spanish  Armada,"  from  Camden's  Annals.  7.  "  The  Bill 
of  Rights,"  1689.  8.  "  The  Eve  of  the  French  Revolution,"  from  Car- 
lyle.  These  selections  are  accompanied  by  very  full  historical  and  biblio- 
graphical notes  by  Mr.  Edwin  D.  Mead,  and  it  is  hoped  that  the  seriea 
will  prove  of  much  service  to  students  and  teachers  engaged  in  the  gen- 
eral survey  of  modern  history.  The  leaflets  are  sold  for  five  cents  a 
copy,  or  three  dollars  per  hundred  ;  the  series  of  eight,  neatly  bound  in 
flexible  cloth  cover,  fortv  cents.  Address  Directors  of  Old  South  Studies, 
Old  South  Meeting  House,  Boston.  Schools  and  the  trade  supplied  by 
D.  C.  Heath  &  Co.,  Boston,  New  York,  and  Chicago. 


574  EDUCATION.  [December, 

The  subjects  proposed  for  the  Old  South  essays,  the  present  year,  are 
the  following:  I.  ^*  England^s  Part  in  the  Crusades,  and  the  influence 
of  the  Crusades  upon  the  development  of  English  Liberty."  II.  '*  The 
Political  Thought  of  Sir  Henry  Vane.  Consider  Vane's  relations  to 
Cromwell  and  his  influence  upon  America."  The  competition  for  the 
prizes  is  open  to  all  who  have  graduated  from  the  Boston  High  Schools 
in  1887  and  1888.  A  prize  of  forty  dollars  is  awarded  for  the  best  essay 
on  each  of  the  subjects  proposed,  and  twenty-five  dollars  for  the  second 
l)est,  four  prizes  in  all. 


*'  LIBRARIES  AS  BELATED  TO  THE  EDUCATIONAL 

WORK  OF  THE  STATE r 

THIS  is  the  title  of  an  article  in  **  Library  Notes,"  for  June,  1888, 
being  **  Notes  of  an  Address  by  Melvil  Dewey,  before  the  Convo- 
cation of  the  University  of  the  State  of  New  York,  July  1 1 ,  1888."  The 
•whole  article  is  a  very  suggestive  one,  which  will  amply  repay  a  reading 
b}'  any  thoughtful  teacher.  He  gives  a  ver\'  shaip  description  of  the 
'*  old  "  and  the  '•  new  "  library,  as  follows :  — 

"  The  old  library  was  passive,  asleep,  a  reservoir  or  cistern,  getting  in  but 
not  giving  out,  an  arsenal  in  time  of  peace;  the  librarian  a  sentinel  before  the 
doors,  a  jailor  to  guard  against  the  escape  of  the  unfortunates  under  his  care. 
The  new  library  is  active,  an  aggressive,  educating  force  in  the  community,  a 
living  fountain  of  good  influences,  an  army  In  the  field  with  all  guns  limbered; 
and  the  librarian  occupies  a  field  of  active  usefulness  second  to  none.^' 

Read  what  Doctor  Dewey  says  of :  — 

"  OUR  TWO-SIDED  TRIANGLE. 

*^  Beading  is  a  mighty  engine,  beside  which  steam  and  electricity  sink  into  in- 

«ignlficance.    Four  words  of  five  are  written :  '  it  will  do  Infinite ' :     It 

remains  for  us  to  add  *  good '  or  *  ill.'  What  can  we  do?  Good  advice  and  ex- 
ample, encouragement  of  the  best,  addresses,  all  these  help,  but  no  one  ques- 
tions that  the  main  work  is  possible  only  through  the  organization  and  econo- 
my of  free  public  libraries.  Many  have  practically  accepted  this  fact  without 
clearly  seeing  the  steps  that  have  led  to  it.  It  is  our  high  privilege  to  live 
when  the  public  is  beginning  to  see  more  than  the  desirability,  the  absolute 
necessity,  of  this  modern,  missionary,  library  work.  With  the  founding  of 
New  England  it  was  recognized,  though  opposed  to  the  traditions  of  great 
powers  In  church  and  state,  that  the  church  alone,  however  great  its  pre- 
•eminence,  could  not  do  all  that  was  necessary  for  the  safety  and  uplifting  of 
the  people.  So  side  by  side  they  built  meeting-house  and  school-house.  The 
plan  has  had  a  long  and  thorough  trial.  None  of  us  are  likely  to  question  the 
wisdom  of  bringing  the  school  into  this  prominence,  but  thoughtful  men  are 
today,  more  than  ever  before,  pointing  out  that  a  great  something  is  wanting 
and  that  church  and  school  together  have  not  succeeded  in  doing  all  that  was 


1888.]  MISCELLANY.  275 

hoped  or  all  that  is  necessary  for  the  common  safety  and  the  common  good* 
The  school  starts  the  education  in  childhood ;  we  have  come  to  a  point  where 
in  some  way  we  must  carry  it  on.  The  simplest  figure  cannot  be  bounded  by 
less  than  three  lines;  the  lightest  table  cannot  be  firmly  supported  by  less  than 
a  tripod.  No  more  can  the  triangle  of  groat  educational  work  now  well  begun 
be  complete  without  the  church  as  a  basis,  the  school  as  one  side,  the  library 
the  other.  The  pulpit,  the  press,  and  wide-awake  educators  everywhere  are 
accepting  this  doctrine.  There  is  a  general  awakening  all  along  the  line.  The 
nation  is  just  providing  in  the  congressional  library  a  magnificent  home  for  our 
greatest  collection  of  books;  the  states  are  passing  new  and  more  liberal  laws 
to  encourage  the  founding  and  proper  support  of  free  libraries ;  individuals  are- 
giving  means  for  establishing  these  great  educational  forces,  as  never  before." 

Every  one  will  read  the  following  with  interest :  — 

^^  As  with  the  free  school,  so  again,  New  England  leads  in  free  libraries,  but 
her  example  is  being  followed  with  constantly  increasing  rapidity. 

THE  LIMITATIONS  OF  THE  SCHOOLS. 

^*  Our  fathers  had  to  revise  their  ideas  and  introduce  the  free  schools  as  ai> 
essential  factor.  The  time  has  come  when  we  must  revise  our  conceptions  of 
education  or  refuse  to  recognize  very  significant  facts. 

^^  Education  is  a  mutter  of  a  life  time.  We  provide  in  the  schools  for  the  first, 
ten  or  fifteen  years  and  are  only  come  to  the  threshold  of  seeing  our  duty  to 
the  rest  of  life.  We  begin  to  see  that  the  utmost  that  we  can  hope  for  the 
masses  is  schooling  till  they  can  take  the  author's  meaning  from  the  printed 
page.  I  do  not  mean  merely  to  pronounce  the  words  or  pass  the  tests  for  illit- 
eracy, but  to  understand.  Observation  has  convinced  me  that  the  reason  why 
so  many  people  are  not  habitual  readers  is,  in  most  cases,  that  they  have  never 
really  learned  to  read;  and,  startling  as  this  may  seem,  tests  will  show  that 
many  a  man  who  would  resent  the  charge  of  illiteracy  is  wholly  unable  to  re- 
produce the  author*s  thoughts  by  looking  at  the  printed  page.  And  even  with 
this  tremendous  modifier  of  the  real  number  of  readers  we  lose  ground.  I  am 
no  pessimist.  I  have  no  sympathy  with  croakers.  I  am  proud  to  the  last  de- 
gree of  the  great  work  that  is  being  done.  But  we  cannot  shut  our  eyes  to  the 
census.  In  1870  fifteen  per  cent,  of  illiterates  seemed  an  ugly  item,  but  it  had 
grown  to  seventeen  per  cent,  in  1880,  in  spite  of  all  our  millions  and  all  our 
boasts.  Of  the  children  of  school  age  in  this  great  state,  how  pitifully  few  get- 
beyond  the  grammar  school?  And  of  those  who  become  academic  pupils  how 
many  enter  college?  And  to  the  saving  remnant  that  graduates  from  college, 
how  much  of  the  knowledge  of  after  life  came  from  schools,  and  how  much 
from  reading?  We  must  face  the  facts.  We  must  struggle  to  teach  our  masses 
to  read  in  our  schools.  Then  they  must  become  bread  winners;  and  if  we  carry 
on  their  education  we  must  do  it  by  providing  free  libraries  which  shall  serve 
as  high  schools  and  colleges  for  the  people.  Our  schools,  at  best,  will  only 
furnish  the  tools  (how  rudimentary  those  tools  for  most  people  now) ;  but  in 
the  ideal  libraries,  towards  which  we  are  looking  today,  will  be  found  the  ma- 
terials which,  with  these  tools,  may  be  worked  up  into  good  citizenship  and 
higher  living.  The  schools  give  the  cliisel ;  the  libraries  the  marble ;  there  can 
be  no  statues  without  both.  As  this  fact  becomes  more  generally  recognized 
the  time  draws  nearer  when  the  traveler  will  no  longer  ask,  have  you  a  library^ 
but  where  is  the  library,  assuming  its  existence  as  much  as  he  now  assumes  that 
there  must  be  a  church,  and  school,  and  post-office.^ 


»> 


276  EDUCATION,  [December, 


FOREIGN  NOTES, 

People's  Palace,  East  London.  —  The  first  annual  report  of  the 
operations  of  tlic  '*  People's  Palace  "  at  the  East -end  of  London,  reads 
like  an  eastern  tale  Something  over  a  million  and  a  half  of  people  have 
visited  the  institution  during  this  time,  and  the  numbers  who  have  been 
turned  away  for  want  of  room  would  swell  tlie  total  considerably.  The 
institution  provides  both  instruction  and  recreation.  The  facilities  for 
the  former  consist  of  technical,  art,  and  science  schools,  general  classes, 
and  free  library.  The  latter  is  providc»d  by  shows,  concerts,  and  fBtes 
of  various  kinds.  The  swimming  bath  and  the  gymnasium  partake  of 
both  characters.  The  large  new  technical  schools,  opened  October  5th, 
are  the  gitl  of  the  Drapers*  Company.  These  schools  have  accommo- 
dations and  equipments  for  five  thousand  evening  students,  and  the  indi- 
cations ore  that  every  place  will  be  filled.  Although  the  enterprise  has 
been  wonderfully'  successful,  much  yet  remains  to  be  done  to  place  it 
upon  a  sound  basis.  The  site  is  only  partially  paid  for,  while  at  least 
£25,000  will  be  required  to  replace  certain  temporary  buildings  with  per- 
manent structures. 

Hospftal  for  Owens  College. — The  governing  bo<ly  of  Owens  Col- 
lege, Manchester,  has  received  from  the  residuary  legatees  of  Sir  Jose[^h 
Whitworth,  the  offer  of  a  site  for  a  general  hospital,  thirty-five  thousand 
pounds  towards  the  erection  and  equipment  of  the  same,  and  an  annual 
income  of  one  thousand  pounds.  The  hospital  is  needed  for  practical 
instruction  in  medicine  and  surgery 

English  vs.  German  Pharmacists.  —  In  his  address  at  the  opening  of 
the  forty-seventh  session  of  the  School  of  Pharmacy',  London,  Sir  Henry 
Roscoe  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  German  pharmacists  greatly 
excelled  the  English  in  the  discovery  and  preparation  of  simples.  He 
attributes  this  to  the  more  ample  opportunity  afiforded  the  German  stu- 
dent for  the  pursuit  of  chemistrj''  in  its  higher  stages,  and  in  its  applica- 
tion to  pharmacy. 

Free  Schools  in  Prussia.  —  One  of  the  last  acts  signed  by  the  late 
emperor  of  Germany  was  that  making  the  schools  of  Prussia  free  in 
fact  as  they  had  long  been  in  law.  The  act  went  into  operation,  Octo- 
ber 1st. 

Centennial  Celebration  of  the  University  of  Bologna.  —  Inter- 
est in  the  remarkable  history  of  the  University  of  Bologna  has  been 
revived  by  the  recent  centennial  celebration.     The  *'  Revue  InternatioQ- 


1888.]  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM  AT  WASHINGTON.  277 

ale  De  L'Enseigneraent"  publishes  an  exhaustive  article  upon  the  sub- 
ject, from  which  the  following  particulars  are  drawn  :  With  the  excep- 
tion of  the  University  of  Paris,  that  of  Bologna  is  the  oldest  in  Europe ; 
its  origin  is  lost  in  tradition ;  the  statutes  of  the  corporation  were  men- 
tioned for  the  first  time  in  1224  in  a  letter  of  Pope  Honorius  III. ;  but  it 
was  not  until  1253  that  the}*  received  the  approval  of  the  Pope,  bj  which 
it  will  be  seen  that  the  corporation  has  not  yet  completed  its  seventh 
century. 

The  school  of  liberal  arts  and  the  law  school,  however,  date  from  much 
earlier  periods,  and  it  is  with  reference  to  the  latter  that  the  recent  cele- 
bration was  characterized  as  the  eighth  centennial.  The  day  chosen  for 
the  festival,  viz.,  June  12th,  commemorated  the  evacuation  of  Bologna 
by  the  Austrians.  In  memory  of  this  event,  the  city  had  decided  to  in- 
augurate a  statue  of  Victor  Emanuel,  and  it  was  determined  to  join  with 
this  the  celebration  of  the  Universit}'.  Two  days  were  occupied  with 
the  ceremonies,  the  most  interesting  part  of  which  took  place  on  the  12th, 
when  the  foreign  delegates  presented  their  addresses  to  the  rector  in  the 
presence  of  the  royal  family.  The  delegates  wore  their  official  robes  and 
carried  various  insignia,  presenting  altogether  a  brilliant  and  impressive 
spectacle. 

Tradition  recalls  a  time  when  Bologna  numbered  ten  thousand  students. 
At  present  it  ranks  third  among  Italian  universities  in  this  respect,  hav- 
ing 1,338  students  as  against  2,102  at  Turin,  and  4,083  at  Naples.  The 
teaching  force  numbers  128  professors.  Tiie  annual  expenses  have 
reached  the  sum  of  $137,416,  of  which  the  state  contributes  a  small  por- 
tion, and  the  city  and  province  of  Bologna  the  larger  portion. 

A.    T.    8. 


THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM  AT  WASHINGTON. 

BY  A.  TOLMAN  SMITH. 

IN  his  opening  address  before  the  Anthropological  section  of  the  Brit- 
ish Association,  Lieutenant-General  Pitt- Rivers  said :  ^^  A  national 
museum,  created  and  maintained  at  the  public  expense,  should  be  availa- 
ble for  public  instruction,  and  not  solely  a  place  of  reference  for  savants ; " 
and  again,  '^  The  one  great  feature  which  it  is  desirable  to  emphasize  in 
connection  with  the  exhibition  of  archaeological  and  ethnological  speci- 
mens is  evolution." 

These  two  ideas  are  so  fully  embodied  in  the  National  Museum  at 
Washington  that  it  is  difficult  to  resist  the  impression  that  the  words 
quoted  were  uttered  with  this  in  mind.  The  supposition  appears  the 
more  probable  from  the  fact  that  referring  to  the  series  of  annual  exhibi- 


278  ED  UCA  TlOy.  [December, 

tions  for  which  London  has  become  famous,  the  speaker  said  farther : 
'*  Throughout  the  whole  series  of  these  annual  temi)orary  collections,  only 
one,  viz.,  the  American  department  of  the  Fisheries  Exhibition,  was  ar- 
ranged upon  scientific  principles,  and  that  was  arranged  upon  the  plan 
adopted  by  the  National  Museum  at  Washington."  By  adherence  to  the 
same  principles,  the  Museum,  as  it  stands  today,  illustrates  more  effect- 
ively than  any  other  collection  in  the  world,  *'  the  continuity  and  his- 
torical sequence  of  the  arts  of  life." 

We  ma}'  consider,  for  example,  the  case  of  musical  instruments  in 
which  are  brought  together  some  of  the  crudest  and  some  of  the  most 
complicated  pieces  of  mechanism  ever  devised  b}'  man.  Under  ordinary 
arrangements  their  number  and  variety  would  be  confusing,  and  the  im- 
pression made  by  any  particular  piece  would  be  quickly  effaced  by  its 
neighbor ;  here,  however,  each  ap{)ears  as  a  link  in  an  historical  chain, 
and  the  mind,  animated  by  the  association,  seizes  and  retains  the  image 
of  the  object  in  inseparable  union  with  its  ethnological  relations. 

The  rude  instrument  upon  which  an  African  minstrel  has  celebrated, 
perchance,  the  triumphs  of  a  savage  conqueror,  has  little  charm  for  a 
cultivated  ear,  but  as  evidences  of  the  universality  of  the  musical  instinct, 
and  the  part  which  man's  environment  plays  in  its  expression,  the  wood- 
en keys,  the  row  of  gourds  beneath,  and  the  hammer  that  sets  them  into 
vibration,  assume  a  fascinating  interest. 

A  higher  type  of  the  same  instrument  is  seen  in  a  specimen  obtained 
fi-om  an  Indian  tribe.  This  has  keys  of  resonant  wood  and  a  graduated 
series  of  long  gourds.  Near  the  base  of  each  gourd  is  a  small  hole  sup- 
plied with  a  stopper.  The  purpose  is  evident,  the  gourds  being  filled 
with  water  it  can  be  run  off  at  the  holes  until  the  desired  tones  are  se- 
cured. On  one  occasion  since  its  arrival  in  the  Museum,  this  hydraulic 
organ  has  actually  been  put  into  working  order  and  a  few  airs  evoked. 
The  Indian  instrument,  its  rude  prototype,  and  primitive  forms  of  the 
wind  organ  are  steps  in  a  continuous  progression,  as 

"  Ever  by  symbols  and  slow  degrees 
Art  childlike  creeps  to  the  dear  Lord's  knees.-' 

The  relations  of  the  several  objects  in  a  collection  could  not,  of  course, 
be  readily  discerned  by  the  ordinary  visitor  without  explanations.  These 
are  measurably  supplied  b}'  the  descriptive  labels  attached  to  each  speci- 
men. As  fast  as  the  resources  of  the  Museum  permit,  additional  helps 
will  be  provided  in  the  form  of  printed  statements  setting  forth  the  sali- 
ent characteristics  of  each  collection.  None  of  these  helps,  it  is  true, 
can  take  the  place  of  the  living  teacher,  and  he  who  is  fortunate  enough 
to  view  a  single  section  under  the  guidance  of  the  curator  of  the  Museum, 


1888.]  THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM  AT  WASHINGTON.  279 

Prof.  G.  Brown  Goode,  will  experience  an  intellectual  treat  never  to  be 
forgotten. 

To  the  scholarly  mind  nothing  in  the  Museum  surpasses  in  interest  the 
study  collection  of  Assyrian  and  Babylonian  antiquities  whichis  the  joint 
work  of  the  Museum  and  Johns  Hopkins  University. 

The  great  difficulty  in  the  way  of  beginning  the  collection  was  the 
dearth  of  material.  A  happy  thought  has  overcome  this  difficulty.  Al- 
most every  oriental  traveller  brings  home  a  seal  or  two  with  now  and 
then  a  rarer  fragment.  Measures  were  taken  to  secure  copies  of  these 
objects  or  the  loan  of  them  for  copying  from  every  part  of  the  country. 
The  idea  took  well  and  the  work  of  collection  is  rapidly  progressing.  The 
study  of  the  inscriptions  and  figures  has  been  facilitated  by^  a  device 
which  I  believe  is  original  with  the  Museum.  A  professor  from  Johns 
Hopkins,  nosing  about  the  collections  one  day,  observed  the  methods  em- 
ployed by  Prof.  Otis  Mason  for  the  display  of  Indian  writings  and  carv- 
ings, and  was  immediately  struck  with  its  adaptation  to  the  oriental  rel- 
ics. There  are  undoubtedly  secrets  in  the  process  by  which  the  final 
result  is  affected,  but  it  appears  simple  enough  to  the  casual  observer.. 
A  plastic  plate  is  prepared  upon  which  the  cylinder  is  rolled,  leaving  an 
intaglio  impression  of  its  surfaces.  From  this  a  relief  is  obtained,  and 
the  three  pieces  together,  viz.,  the  duplicate  of  the  seal,  the  intaglio,  and 
the  cameo  plates  mi\ke  up  a  complete  and  unique  reproduction  of  the 
original.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  authorities  of  the  Berlin  Museum 
have  asked  for  precise  information  as  to  the  mode  of  treatment  here 
described. 

The  importance  of  this  collection  can  only  be  fully  appreciated  by 
those  who  know  what  is  being  done  in  the  line  of  Assyrian  research  in 
our  universities  and  theological  schools.  A  brief  statement  of  the  facts 
will  be  found  in  the  address  of  Dr.  Paul  Haupt,  of  Johns  Hopkins,  de- 
livered on  twelfth  Commemoration  Day,  and  published  in  Vol.  VII.,  No. 
64,  of  the  University  circulars. 

Doctor  Haupt,  who  perhaps  leads  the  work  in  this  country,  has  super- 
vision of  the  arrangement  and  cataloguing  of  the  Assyrian  collection  of 
the  National  Museum. 


i 


9B0 


EDUCATlOy. 


[December, 


BIBLIOGRAPHT  OF   CURRENT  PERIODICAL   LIT- 
ER A  TURE    UPON  ED  UCA  TION. 


The  following  bibliogniphy  of  current  perio<Hcal  literature  includes  articles  upon 
•dneation  and  other  subjects  calculated  to  interest  teachers.  Only  articles  from  peri- 
odicals not  nominally  oducutional  are  mentioned.  Articles  of  special  importance  to 
teachers  will,  as  a  rule,  be  mentioned  in  notes. 


After  Us  — What?  J.  R.  Kondrick. 
Fbrum^  November. 

Apologia  pro  Fide  Noj^ira.  Freder- 
ic Harrison.  Fortiwjhtly  Jievirw^  No- 
vember. 

A  defence  of  the  religion  of  Posi- 
tivii^m. 

Arnold,  Matthew.  Augustine  Bir- 
rell.    Srribni'r*8y  November. 

Arnold,  Matthew,  As  an  English 
Writer.  T.  W.  Hunt.  Xew  Princeton 
HevieWy  November. 

Arnold,  Matthew.  Quarterly  Re- 
^eic,  October. 

Arnold,  Matthew,  llie  Poetry  of. 
Edinburfjh  Review ^  October. 

At  Last:  Six  Days  in  the  Life  of 
an  Ex-Teacher.  Second  Day. —The 
Teacher  is  Taught.  John  llabberton. 
Lippinc.otVSy  November. 

Barbarism,  The  Renaissance  of. 
George  R.  Stetson.  Xnc  Princeton 
Beviewy  November. 

Browningism,  Esoteric.  Andrew 
Lang.    Forum^  November. 

Calirulating  Boys,  Some  Strange 
Fears  of.  R.  A.  Proctor.  Knowledge^ 
November. 

Calvary.  Where  was  "the  Place 
called  Calvary"?  Charles  S.  Robin- 
son.    Century^  November. 

Canada  and  the  United  States, 
Qoldwin  Smith.    Forum^  November. 

Catholic  University,  A  Chat  about 
the.  John  J.  Keane.  Catholic  Worlds 
November. 

Catholicism  and  Public  Schools. 
Gail  Hamilton.  North  American  Re- 
view^ November. 

Catholics  in  Seientiiic  Matters,  The 
Liberty  of.  John  Gmeiner.  Catholic 
Worldy  November. 

Charity,  The  Organization  of.  Mrs. 
J.  Shaw  Lowell.  Chautauqitan^  No- 
vember. 

Children  as  Suicides.  Agnes  Rep- 
pller.     Catholic  Worlds  November. 

Readable  and  suggestive. 


Churchill,  A  Foreign  Estimate  of 
Jjord  Randolph,  \ational  Review^  No- 
vember. 

Clergy.  **The  Quarterly  Review" 
and  the  Culture  of  our  Clergy.  G.  B. 
Lancaster  Woodburne.  Dublin  Re- 
nVir,  Oc'tober. 

A  defence  of  the  education  of  the 
Catholic  clergy. 

(.'ole  and  his  Work.  W.  J.  StillmaD. 
Century^  November. 

College  Work,  Economy  in.  John 
Trowbridge.    Atlantic^  November. 

Common  School  Conflict,  The.  M. 
J.  Savage.  Unity  l^tJpit  Sermons^ 
November  Ifi. 

Country  Help  for  City  Charities. 
Miss  /ilpha  I).  Smith.  Lend  a  Hand. 
November. 

Credir  Exchanges  We  Use,  The. 
Henry  C  Adams.  Chautauquan^  No- 
vember. 

Criminal^.  Creating  Criminals. 
Charles  Dudley  Warner.  Forum^  No- 
vember. 

A  forcible  argument  for  an  indeter- 
minate sentence.  **The  time  will 
come,  I  have  no  doubt,'*  says  the  au- 
thor, '*  when  the  world  will  look  back 
with  astonishment  to  the  period  when 
it  was  thought  either  just  or  economi- 
cal to  let  criminals  prey  upon  society, 
and  when  it  was  not  thought  the  high- 
est act  of  mercy  to  make,  if  necessary, 
a  life-long  eflfort  for  their  reforma- 
tion.'' 

Culture,  Creed,  and  Christianity. 
Ernest  H.  Crosby.  Andover  Review^ 
November. 

Culture,  Possibilities  of.  James 
Donaldson.     Foruniy  November. 

Darwin.  W.  Preyer.  Deutsche  Rund- 
schaUy  November. 

Drummond,  Professor,  and  Athletic 
Christianity  in  our  American  Colleges. 
T.  Gold  Frost.  Andover  Review^  No- 
vember. 


1888.] 


BIBLIOGRAPHY, 


281 


An  interesting  account  of  Professor 
Druminond's  valuable  work  in  Ameri- 
ca last  year. 

Education  Commission,  Report  of 
the.  Canon  Gregory.  Contemporary 
Beview,  November. 

Education,  New  Principles  in.  Chas. 
G.  Leland.  New  Princeton  Beview^ 
November. 

Valuable.  The  writer  urges  **  the 
practit^ability  of  teaching  or  forming 
memory  and  quickness  of  perception.*' 

Education  of  th»*  Masses,  The. 
James  P.  Munroe.  New  Princeton  Be- 
view^  November. 

Economic  Uses  of  the  Telegraph  and 
the  Telephone.  Edward  Everett  Hale. 
Chautauquan^  November. 

Egypt,  Our  Task  in.  Fortnightly 
Bevipw^  November. 

Contains  a  brief  account  of  educa- 
tion in  Egypt. 

Elementary  School  Teaching  as  a 
Profession.  Edith  Simcox.  Woman^s 
Worlds  November. 

Engineer,  The  Education  of  an. 
Robert  Louis  Stevenson.  Scribner^s^ 
November. 

England.  Is  the  Power  of  England 
Declining?  A.  Vambery.  Forum, 
November. 

Ethics,  The  Reaction  of,  upon  Eco- 
nomics. James  Morris  VVhiton.  Yale 
Beview^  November. 

Ethik,  Zur  Reform  der.  Th.  Achel- 
is.     Unsere  Zeit^  November. 

Examination,  The  Sacrifice  of  Edu- 
cation to  Examination.  1.  A  Signed 
Protest.  2.  By  Prof.  Max  Muller. 
3.  By  Professor  Freeman.  4.  By 
Prof.  Frederic  Harrison.  Nineteenth 
Century^  November. 

This  protest  against  the  present  sys- 
tem of  Competitive  Examinations  in 
England  is  signed  by  a  large  number 
of  prominent  educators.  The  writers 
mentioned  above  are  emphatic  in  con- 
demning the  evils  of  the  examinations. 
Professor  Harrison  says:  ** Exami- 
nation has  grown  and  hardened  into 
the  master  of  Education.'' 

Examinations,  Effect  of  Competi- 
tive. A.  C.  Ranyard.  Knowledge^ 
November. 

Factory  Life,  Studies  of:  Black- 
Listing  at  Fall  River.  Lillie  B.  Chace 
Wyman.    Atlantic^  November. 

Fortunes.  Les  grandes,  en  Angle- 
terre.  —  IIL  M.  C.  de  Varigny.  Be- 
vue  des  Deux  Mondes,  November. 

French  Traits.— Manners.  W.  C. 
Brownell.    Scribner's^  November. 

Gebrauche  und  Aberglauben  beim 


Essen,  Ueber.    Carl  Haberland.    ZeU- 
schrift  fur  Vdlkerpsychologie^  Heft  4. 

Gravelotte  to  Sedan,  From.  GreD. 
Philip  H.  Sheridan.  Scribner's,  No- 
vember. 

Gravelotte  Witnessed  and  Revisited. 
Murat  Halstead.     Century^  November. 

Guilds  of  the  City  of  London,  The. 
Norman  Moore.     Century^  November. 

Handicraft,  The  Revival  of.  Will- 
iam Morris.  Fortnightly  Beview^  No- 
vember. 

Harvard  University,  The  Fast  Set 
at.  Aleck  Quest.  North  American  Be- 
view^  November. 

Ueroclitus,  A  Further  Study  of.  G. 
T.  W.  Patrick.  American  Journal  of 
Psychology,  August. 

An  interesting  and  valuable  contri- 
bution to  the  literature  of  Greek  phil- 
osopliy. 

Hexengeschichten,  Zwei.  W. 
Schwartz.  Zeitschrift  fur  Volkerpsy- 
chologie^  Heft  4. 

Hexenglaube,  Der,  und  seine  Nach- 
folger.  Leon  Wespy.  Unsere  Zeit^ 
November. 

Home,  Evolution  of  the.  J.  Max 
Hank.    Andover  Beview^  November. 

Idealism  and  Christianity.  Henry 
Graham.  Methodist  Beview^  Novem- 
ber. 

Independence,  The  Eve  of.  John 
Fiske.    Atlantic^  November. 

Intellectual  Life  of  America,  The. 
Charles  Eliot  Norton.  New  Princeton 
BevieWy  November. 

Invalidism  as  a  Fine  Art.  A.  B. 
Ward.    Harper's^  November. 

Ishmael,  The  Tribe  of.  Oscar  C. 
McCulloch.    Lend  a  Handy  November. 

*'  A  study  in  social  degradation." 

Italy.  The  makers  of  New  Italy. 
Wil  liam  Roscoe  Thayer.  Atlantic^  No- 
vember. 

Job,  The  Interpretation  of  the  Book 
of.  John  F.  Genung.  Andover  B^ 
vieWy  November. 

Kant  a  Is  Mystiker.  Carl  du  Prel. 
SphynZy  September  and  October. 

Kunstgewerbes,  Das  Arbeitsgeblet 
des.  Julius  Les  sing.  Deutsche  Bund^ 
schaUy  November. 

Landless,  The  Last  Resort  of  the. 
H.  J.  Desmond.     Forum^  November. 

Langage,  L'  Evolution  phonetique 
du.  B.  Bourdon.  Bevue  Philosoph' 
ique^  October. 

Language-Culture :  A  Symposium. 
Daniel  Steele,  et  al.  M^hodist  Be- 
viewy  November. 

Lincoln.  J.  G.  Nicolay,  John  Hay. 
Century^  November. 


382 


EDUCATION. 


[Decern  ber. 


Marriage,  Ideal.  Mona  Calrd.  West- 
minster  Jievietp,  November. 

Medk'iner,  Der  Biidiingsifi^ang  der. 
J.  H.  Baai«.      Unspre  Znt^  Novemher. 

Memory,  Talk*  on.  I.  Wilbert  W. 
White.     Chautauquan^  NovemJK*r. 

Mental  Science.  Notes  on  lIy|)not- 
Iwn.  Abnormal  Hense-Peroeptions. 
Science^  November  9. 

Morale,  La  crUe  de  la,  et  la  crUe  du 
droit  penal.  G.  Tarde.  Revue  Fhilu- 
sophique^  October. 

A  review  of  recent  literature  relating 
to  crime. 

Music  in  Early  Scotland.  J.  Cutb- 
bert  Hadden.  Scott  ink  liecietc,  Octo- 
ber. 

Mu9ik.  Berlin  und  die  deut^che 
MuAik.  R.  V.  Lilicncron.  Deutsche 
Bundschau^  November. 

MythBof  the  **Dark"  Age.<»,  Tho. 
Charles  G.  Herbermann.  Catholic 
Quarterly  Review^  Oi'tober. 

Naturalization  ]^aws  and  their  En- 
forcement. C.  C.  Bonney.  Yale  Re- 
vievj^  November. 

Nonsense  an  a  Fine  Art.  Quarterly 
Review^  October. 

Novel.  The  Religious  Novel.  Ran- 
dall T.  Davltison.  Contemporary  Re- 
view^ November. 

Novel.  The  Romantic  and  the  Realis- 
tic Novel.  Hjiilmar  lljorth  Boyeseu. 
Chautauquan^  November. 

Our  Little  Enemies.  John  A. 
Mooney.     Catholic  World,  November. 

A  popular  account  of  recent  inves- 
tigations in  bacteriology. 

Oratorv  of  the  House  of  (^ommons. 
The.  C.W.  Rad(?lim-Cooke.  Nation- 
al Review^  November. 

Our  Better  Halves.  Lester  F.  Ward. 
Forum^  November. 

An  attem|)t  to  show  from  a  bio- 
logical standpoint  that,  in  the  econo- 
my of  organic  nature  the  female  sex 
is  the  primary  element.  '*Tru<» 
science  teaches  that  the  elevation  of 
woman  is  the  only  sure  road  to  the 
evolution  of  man."' 

Painters.  Boston  Painters  and 
Paintings.  William  Howe  Downes. 
Atlantic^  November. 

Philosophic.  Introduction  a  la  sci- 
ence philosophique.  III.  La  science 
et  la  croyance  en  pbilosophie.  Paul 
Janet.     Revue  Philosophique.  October. 

Plague  and  Pestilence.  R.  A.  Proc- 
tor.    Knnipledge^  Novenib«»r. 

This  article,  reprinted  from  the  New 
York  Tribune^  was  the  last  written  by 
Professor  Proctor. 

Pontes  Contemporains  de  la  France. 


Sully-Prudhomrae.    Bibliotheque  Uni- 
verselle^  October. 

Political  Exiles  and  Common  Con- 
victs at  T<Mnsk.  George  Kennan. 
Century^  November. 

Poor.  The  I^ondon  Poor.  Arthur 
F.  Marshall.  Catholic  Quarterly  Re- 
view,  OctolH»r. 

Prior,  Matthew.  Austin  Dobson. 
New  Princeton  Review,  November. 

Psychische  Infection,  Ueber.  Rob- 
ert Wallenlwrg.  Archis  fur  Psychia- 
trie,  Bd.  XX.,  IL  L 

To  thi*«  article  is  appended  a  valua- 
ble bibliography  of  literature  upon 
psvchic  contagion. 

Psychologie.  I^*i  pretendue  evolu- 
tion du  sens  des  couleurs.  G.  Pou- 
chet.     Rerue  Scientijique^  Hi  October. 

Psychologie  Politique,  Essais  de: 
Gambetta.  Marquis  De  Castellane. 
NouFelle  Rerue,  Noveml)er. 

Puritan  Ideal,  The  G«*nesis  of  the. 
A.  M.  Fairbairii.  Contemporary  i?c- 
view,  November. 

Railroad  Men,  The  Everyday  Life 
of.  B.  B.  Adams,  Jr.  Scribner^s^'So- 
vember. 

Ramabai  Movement,  l^e.  John  C. 
Sundberg.     Ocerland,  November. 

Red  Man,  I'he  Rights  of  the.  Our 
Day,  Novenibi'r. 

Gives  the  platform  adopted  by  the 
M(»honk  Conference. 

Religion  in  Fiction, 'l^e  Sarcasm  of. 
T.  T.   Monger.     Century,  November. 

An  '*Open  Letter.'' 

Religions  Instruction  in  Schools, 
I>aws  concerning.  Ge